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曼大交流展示1

(2009-09-11 23:40:07)
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杂谈

1. Stuart architecture--English Baroque

The Civil War 1642—49 proved to be the last time in British history that houses had to survive a siege. Corfe Castle was destroyed following an attack by Oliver Cromwell's army, but Compton Wynyates survived a similar event. After this date houses were built purely for living, and design and appearance were for ever more important than defence.

Just prior to the Civil War, Inigo Jones, who is regarded as the first significant British architect, came to prominence. He was responsible for importing the Palladian manner of architecture to Britain from Italy; the Queen's House at Greenwich is perhaps his best surviving work.

Following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the Great Fire of London in 1666 an opportunity was missed in London to create a new metropolitan city, featuring modern architectural styles. Although one of the best known British architects, Sir Christopher Wren, was employed to design and rebuild many of the ruined ancient churches of London, his master plan for rebuilding London as a whole was rejected. It was in this period that he designed the building that he is perhaps best known for, St Paul's Cathedral.

In the early 18th century baroque architecture, a style exemplified by heavy embellishment and mass, popular in Europe, was introduced, the first baroque house in England was Chatsworth House by William Talman in the 1690. However, it is Sir John Vanbrugh who is remembered as the English master of baroque, his design for Castle Howard of 1699 is that of the first truly baroque house in England, dominated by it cylindrical domed drum tower it would not be in out of place in Dresden or Würzburg.

St Paul's Cathedral is the Anglican cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. The present building dates from the 17th century and is generally reckoned to be London's fifth St Paul's Cathedral, although the number is higher if every major medi reconstruction is counted as a new cathedral. The cathedral sits on the highest point of the City of London, which originated as a Roman trading post situated on the River Thames. The cathedral is one of London's most visited sights.

 

In the arts, the Baroque (pronounced /bəˈroʊk/, bə-rohk) was a Western cultural period, starting roughly at the beginning of the 17th century in Rome, Italy.

In Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro), 'painterly' color effects, and the bold play of volume and void. In interiors, Baroque movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture.

1642年至1649年美国南北战争证明是上一次是在英国历史上的房屋生存的包围。库菲城堡被摧毁后的攻击奥利弗克伦威尔的军队,但康普顿Wynyates下来类似的活动。在此日期后的房屋建筑纯粹是为了生活,并设计和外观进行了比以往任何时候都更重要的防线。
前内战, Inigo琼斯,谁被视为第一重要的英国建筑师,来突出。他负责进口的帕拉蒂奥式的建筑方式,以英国,意大利,英国女王的家在格林威治或许是他最好的存活工作。
恢复后的君主制在1660年和大伦敦大火灾以及1666年有机会被错过了在伦敦创建一个新的大都市,具有现代建筑风格。虽然其中最知名的英国建筑师,爵士雷恩,采用设计和重建遭到毁坏的许多古老的教堂,伦敦,他的总计划的重建伦敦作为一个整体被驳回。正是在此期间,他设计的建筑,他是最出名的可能是,圣保罗大教堂。
18世纪初巴洛克建筑,风格体现在重型润色和质量,在欧洲流行,介绍了第一家在英国巴洛克是查家威廉Talman在1690年。但是,约翰爵士Vanbrugh谁是记住英语硕士巴洛克,他的设计针对Castle Howard的1699年是第一个真正的巴洛克风格的房子在英国,主要是它圆柱形巨蛋鼓楼它不会在不合适在德累斯顿或维尔茨堡。
圣保罗大教堂是英国圣公会教堂Ludgate山,在伦敦金融城,与所在地的主教伦敦。目前的建设可追溯到17世纪,并普遍认为是伦敦的第五圣保罗大教堂,虽然这个数字,如果每一个主要的中世纪重建算作一个新的教堂。大教堂坐落在最高点,伦敦金融城,它最初是作为一本罗马交易后位于泰晤士河。大教堂是伦敦最著名的景点参观。

在艺术,巴洛克(读/ bəroʊk / , bə - ROHK )是西方文化时期开始,大约在开始于17世纪在意大利罗马举行。
在巴洛克建筑,新的重点放在了大胆集结,柱廊,圆顶,轻型和色调(明暗),绘画,色彩效果,并发挥了大胆的数量和无效的。在内部,巴洛克运动周围,并通过巨大的楼梯无效通知说,没有在以前的并行结构。

 

The dome of St. Paul's cathedral designed by Sir Christopher Wren

 

 

 

 

 

 

Greenwich Hospital: Sir Christopher Wren, 1694

 

Seaton Delaval Hall: Sir John Vanbrugh, 1718.

 

 

 

2. Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of HanoverGeorge I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United Kingdom, and George IV of the United Kingdom—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830.

 

The most common building materials used are brick or stone. Commonly used colors were red, tan, or white. However, modern day Georgian style homes use a variety of colors.

 

Identifying Features (1700 - c.1780):

  • A simple 1-2 story box, 2 rooms deep, using strict symmetry arrangements
  • Panel front door centered, topped with rectangular windows (in door or as a transom) and capped with an elaborate crown/entablature supported by decorative pilasters
  • Cornice embellished with decorative moldings, usually dentilwork
  • Multi-pane windows are never paired, and fenestrations are arranged symmetrically (whether vertical or horizontal), usually 5 across

Other features of Georgian style houses can include - roof to ground-level:

  • Roof: 40% are Side-gabled; 25% Gambrel; 25% Hipped
  • Chimneys on both sides of the home
  • A portico in the middle of the roof with a window in the middle is more common with post-Georgian styles, e.g. "Adam"
  • Small 6-paned sash windows and/or dormer windows in the upper floors, primarily used for servant's quarters
  • Larger windows with 9 or 12 panes on the main floors

 

格鲁吉亚架构的名称在多数讲英语的国家的一套建筑风格目前的1720年和1840年之间。这是同名的前四个英国君主的众议院汉诺威,乔治一世大不列颠,乔治二世的大不列颠,乔治三世的英国,乔治四世和联合王国是谁在不断继承统治从1714年8月到1830年6月。

最常见的建筑材料用砖或石头。常用的颜色有红,谭,或白色。然而,现代风格的家园格鲁吉亚使用各种颜色。

识别特征( 1700 - c.1780 ) :
•一个简单的1-2故事中,深2间,利用严格的对称安排
•小组前门为本,超出矩形窗口(在门或横梁)和阻力与精心冠/口支持装饰pilasters
•采用了Cornice公司装饰造型,通常dentilwork
•多窗格窗口从未配对,并开窗术排列对称(无论纵向或横向的) ,通常5跨越
其他功能格鲁吉亚洋房可以包括-屋顶到地面级别:
•屋面: 40 %的侧面门式; 25 %踝关节; 25 %臀
•烟囱两边的主页
•一个门廊中屋顶的一个窗口,中间是较常见的后格鲁吉亚的风格,例如“亚当”
•小6窗户玻璃窗框和/或天窗窗户楼上,主要用于仆人的宿舍
•更大的舷窗9或12小版张的主要支撑

 

A Georgian house in Salisbury

 

 

 

a former guildhall in Dunfermline, Scotland built around 1807 and 1811

Hammond-Harwood House Main Facade

 

 

Cornelius Low House built in 1741 in Piscataway, New Jersey

 

 

 

 

 

 

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