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(2009-09-11 23:40:07)


1. Stuart architecture--English Baroque

The Civil War 1642—49 proved to be the last time in British history that houses had to survive a siege. Corfe Castle was destroyed following an attack by Oliver Cromwell's army, but Compton Wynyates survived a similar event. After this date houses were built purely for living, and design and appearance were for ever more important than defence.

Just prior to the Civil War, Inigo Jones, who is regarded as the first significant British architect, came to prominence. He was responsible for importing the Palladian manner of architecture to Britain from Italy; the Queen's House at Greenwich is perhaps his best surviving work.

Following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the Great Fire of London in 1666 an opportunity was missed in London to create a new metropolitan city, featuring modern architectural styles. Although one of the best known British architects, Sir Christopher Wren, was employed to design and rebuild many of the ruined ancient churches of London, his master plan for rebuilding London as a whole was rejected. It was in this period that he designed the building that he is perhaps best known for, St Paul's Cathedral.

In the early 18th century baroque architecture, a style exemplified by heavy embellishment and mass, popular in Europe, was introduced, the first baroque house in England was Chatsworth House by William Talman in the 1690. However, it is Sir John Vanbrugh who is remembered as the English master of baroque, his design for Castle Howard of 1699 is that of the first truly baroque house in England, dominated by it cylindrical domed drum tower it would not be in out of place in Dresden or Würzburg.

St Paul's Cathedral is the Anglican cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. The present building dates from the 17th century and is generally reckoned to be London's fifth St Paul's Cathedral, although the number is higher if every major medi reconstruction is counted as a new cathedral. The cathedral sits on the highest point of the City of London, which originated as a Roman trading post situated on the River Thames. The cathedral is one of London's most visited sights.


In the arts, the Baroque (pronounced /bəˈroʊk/, bə-rohk) was a Western cultural period, starting roughly at the beginning of the 17th century in Rome, Italy.

In Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro), 'painterly' color effects, and the bold play of volume and void. In interiors, Baroque movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture.

前内战, Inigo琼斯,谁被视为第一重要的英国建筑师,来突出。他负责进口的帕拉蒂奥式的建筑方式,以英国,意大利,英国女王的家在格林威治或许是他最好的存活工作。
18世纪初巴洛克建筑,风格体现在重型润色和质量,在欧洲流行,介绍了第一家在英国巴洛克是查家威廉Talman在1690年。但是,约翰爵士Vanbrugh谁是记住英语硕士巴洛克,他的设计针对Castle Howard的1699年是第一个真正的巴洛克风格的房子在英国,主要是它圆柱形巨蛋鼓楼它不会在不合适在德累斯顿或维尔茨堡。

在艺术,巴洛克(读/ bəroʊk / , bə - ROHK )是西方文化时期开始,大约在开始于17世纪在意大利罗马举行。


The dome of St. Paul's cathedral designed by Sir Christopher Wren







Greenwich Hospital: Sir Christopher Wren, 1694


Seaton Delaval Hall: Sir John Vanbrugh, 1718.




2. Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of HanoverGeorge I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United Kingdom, and George IV of the United Kingdom—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830.


The most common building materials used are brick or stone. Commonly used colors were red, tan, or white. However, modern day Georgian style homes use a variety of colors.


Identifying Features (1700 - c.1780):

  • A simple 1-2 story box, 2 rooms deep, using strict symmetry arrangements
  • Panel front door centered, topped with rectangular windows (in door or as a transom) and capped with an elaborate crown/entablature supported by decorative pilasters
  • Cornice embellished with decorative moldings, usually dentilwork
  • Multi-pane windows are never paired, and fenestrations are arranged symmetrically (whether vertical or horizontal), usually 5 across

Other features of Georgian style houses can include - roof to ground-level:

  • Roof: 40% are Side-gabled; 25% Gambrel; 25% Hipped
  • Chimneys on both sides of the home
  • A portico in the middle of the roof with a window in the middle is more common with post-Georgian styles, e.g. "Adam"
  • Small 6-paned sash windows and/or dormer windows in the upper floors, primarily used for servant's quarters
  • Larger windows with 9 or 12 panes on the main floors




识别特征( 1700 - c.1780 ) :
•多窗格窗口从未配对,并开窗术排列对称(无论纵向或横向的) ,通常5跨越
•屋面: 40 %的侧面门式; 25 %踝关节; 25 %臀


A Georgian house in Salisbury




a former guildhall in Dunfermline, Scotland built around 1807 and 1811

Hammond-Harwood House Main Facade



Cornelius Low House built in 1741 in Piscataway, New Jersey








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