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朱棣文 哈佛大学毕业典礼演讲 2009 [之二]

(2009-09-23 12:15:35)
标签:

毕业典礼演讲

哈佛大学

华裔

诺贝尔奖

物理学家

朱棣文

教育

分类: 翻译杂谈

这是目前英文相对最完整、中文相对翻译得最准确的版本。学用Chu的话,I'm not a millionaire, but at least I'm a nerd in some aspects.

英文来自哈佛大学网站,尽管与演讲录音略有出入,某些地方要比国内流行版本准确些,而有些地方却更加不准确。中国的月亮不圆,外国的月亮未必无缺。之后,我又听了录音和视频,进行了校对。学用Chu的话,Don't believe in textbooks and materials, you should prove them by yourself.

中文是我在网文的基础上校对并修改的。学用Chu的话,I'm following the footsteps of the best of others. 网文误译太多,以讹传讹,竟然没有人细察,有些老师还推荐给学生,误人子弟。

现予以分享,欢迎转贴,但要注明出处。学用Chu的话,For years I was smart, now I recommend pleasant. Sharing is wonderful.


上接之一


A Scientific Discovery and a New Dilemma

科学发现和新困境

I began teaching with the idea of giving back, but I received more than I gave. This brings me to the final movement of this speech. It begins with a story about an extraordinary scientific discovery and the new dilemma that it poses. It’s a call to arms and about making a difference.

怀着回报的想法,我开始了教学生涯,但是我得到的要比我给予的多很多。这就引出了此次演讲的最后一个乐章。首先我要讲一个故事,关于一个非凡的科学发现,以及由此带来的新的困境。它吹响了战斗的号角,并将产生影响。

In the last several decades, our climate has been changing. Climate change is not new: the Earth went through six ice ages in the past 600,000 years. However, recent measurements show that the climate has begun to change rapidly. The size of the North polar ice cap in the month of September is only half the size it was a mere fifty years ago. The sea level which has been rising since direct measurements began in 1870, but that rate is now five times faster than it was at the beginning of recorded measurements.

过去几十年中,气候一直在发生变化。气候变化并不是新事物:在过去的60万年中地球经历了6次冰河期。但是,现在的测量表明气候变化加速了。9月份的北极冰盖只有50年前的一半大小。从1870年人们开始直接测量起,海平面就一直在上升,但现在的上升速度是初期有记录的测量数据的5倍。

Here’s the remarkable scientific discovery. For the first time in human history, science is now making predictions of how our actions will affect the world 50 and 100 years from now. These changes are due to an increase in carbon dioxide put into the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The Earth has warmed up by roughly 0.8 degrees Celsius since the beginning of the Revolution. There is already approximately a 1 degree rise built into the system, even if we stop all greenhouse gas emissions today. Why? It would be decades to warm up the deep oceans before the temperature reaches a new equilibrium.

这就是那个非凡的科学发现。科学现在能够预测出人类的行为对50100年后的世界有何影响,这在人类历史上是第一次。这些气候变化归因于从工业革命开始以来人类排放到大气中的二氧化碳的不断增加。从工业革命开始以来,地球的平均气温上升了约0.8摄氏度。即使我们今天停止所有温室气体的排放,上升的大约1 度气温也已经深深地嵌入到生态体系之中了。什么原因?促使深海温度上升将需要几十年,直到温度达到新的均衡。

If the world continues on a business-as-usual path, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that there is a 50-50 chance the temperature will exceed five degrees by the end of this century. This increase may not sound like much, but let me remind you that during the last ice age, the world was only 6 degrees colder. During this time, most of Canada and the United States down to Ohio and Pennsylvania were covered year round by a glacier. A world five degrees warmer will be very different. The change will be so rapid many species, including humans, will have a hard time adapting. I’ve been told, for example, that in a much warmer world, insects were bigger. I wonder if this thing buzzing around is a precursor to that.

联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)预测,如果世界照此下去,本世纪末将有50%的可能气温上升至少5度。这听起来好像不多,但是让我来提醒你,上一次的冰河期,地球的气温也仅仅只下降了6度。那时,几乎整个加拿大一直到美国的俄亥俄与宾西法尼亚都终年被冰川覆盖。气温上升5度的地球将变得与现在非常的不同。由于变化太快,包括人类在内的许多生物都将很难适应。比如,有人告诉我,在更温暖的环境中,昆虫的个头将变大。我怀疑现在身旁嗡嗡叫的这只就是它的前兆。

We also face the specter of non-linear “tipping points” that may cause much more severe changes. An example of a tipping point is the thawing of the permafrost. The permafrost contains immense amounts of frozen organic matter that have been accumulating for millennia. If the soil melts, microbes will spring to life and cause this debris to rot. The difference in biological activity below freezing and above freezing is something we are all familiar with. Frozen food remains edible for a very long time in the freezer, but once thawed, it spoils quickly. How much methane and carbon dioxide might be released from the rotting permafrost? If even a small fraction of the carbon is released, it would be greater than all the greenhouse gases we have released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Once started, a runaway effect could occur.

我们还会面临另一个妖魔-导致更严重变化的非线性的“临界点”。一个例子就是永久冻土层的融化。永久冻土层中包含着巨量的、积存了成千上万年的、冻僵的有机物。如果冻土融化,微生物就将大量繁殖,使得冻土层中的这些残存快速腐烂。生物学活性在冰点以上和以下的不同表现,我们都很熟悉。冷库中冷冻食品保存很长时间后依然可以食用。但是,一旦解冻,很快就腐烂了。一个腐烂的永久冻土层将释放出多少甲烷和二氧化碳?即使只有一部分的碳被释放出来,可能也比我们从工业革命开始释放出来的所有温室气体还要多。临界点一旦达到,局面将不可收拾。

The climate problem is the unintended consequence of our success. We depend on fossil energy to keep our homes warm in the winter, cool in the summer, and lit at night; we use it to travel across town and across continents. Energy is a fundamental reason for the prosperity we enjoy, and we will not surrender this prosperity. The United States has 3 percent of the world population, and yet we consume 25 percent of the energy. By contrast, there are 1.6 billion people who don’t have access to electricity. Hundreds of millions of people still cook with twigs or dung. The life we enjoy may not be within easy reach of many in the developing world, but it is within sight, and they want what we have.

人类取得了成功,却带来了未预见到的气候问题。我们依赖化石能源,以便可以冬天取暖、夏天制冷和夜间照明,也用它来进行乡间旅游和洲际旅行。能源是我们所享受的繁荣的基础,并且这个繁荣是我们不可能放弃的。美国人口占全世界的3%,但是我们消耗了25%的能源。与此形成对照,全世界还有16亿人没有用上电,数亿人依靠燃烧树枝和动物粪便来煮饭。发展中国家的许多人过不上我们所享受的生活,但是他们看在眼里,并且也想拥有我们拥有的一切。

Here is the dilemma. How much are we willing to invest, as a world society, to mitigate the consequences of climate change that will not be realized for at least 100 years? Deeply rooted in all cultures, is the notion of generational responsibility. Parents work hard so their children will have a better life. Climate change will affect the entire world, but our natural focus is on the welfare of our immediate families. Can we, as a world society, meet our responsibility to future generations?

这是一个两难选择。世界是个大家庭,我们愿意付出多少来减轻100多年才会导致其产生的气候变化所带来的后果?代际责任深深植根于所有文化之中。前人栽树,后人乘凉。气候变化影响的是整个世界,但是我们的天性使得我们只关心个人家庭的福利。我们能不能把全世界看作一个整体,为我们的子孙承担起责任?

While I am worried, I am hopeful we will solve this problem. I became the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in part because I wanted to enlist some of the best scientific minds to help battle against climate change. I was there only four and a half years, the shortest serving director in the 78 year history of the Lab, but when I left, a number of very exciting energy institutes at the Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley had been established.

虽然我忧心忡忡,但还是对解决这个问题充满希望。我同意出任劳伦斯·伯克利国家实验室主任,部分原因是我想招募一些世界上最好的科学家来研究应对气候变化。我在那里干了4年半,是这个实验室78年的历史中任期最短的主任,但是当我离任时,在伯克利实验室和伯克利分校,一批能源研究机构已经建立起来,非常让人激动。

I am extremely privileged to be part of the Obama administration. If there ever was a time to help steer America and the world towards a path of sustainable energy, now is the time. The message the President is delivering is not one of doom and gloom, but of optimism and opportunity. I share this optimism. The task ahead is daunting, but we can and will succeed.

能够成为奥巴马施政团队的一员,我感到极其荣幸。要是说有时机可以帮助美国和全世界转而走上可持续能源的道路,那就是现在。跟我一样,总统对目前困境的看法并不是消极或沮丧的,而是充满乐观与希望的。未来任重而道远,但是我们能够并且将会成功。

We know some of the answers already. There are immediate and significant savings in energy efficiency and conservation. Energy efficiency is not just low-hanging fruit; it is fruit lying on the ground. For example, we have the potential to make buildings 80 percent more efficient with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 15 years. Buildings consume 40 percent of the energy we use, and a transition to energy efficient buildings will cut our carbon emissions by one third.

我们已经解决了一些问题,通过有效利用和能源保护,我们可以立竿见影地、效果显著地节约能源。能源的高效利用不是还挂在枝头的生水果,而是已经成熟的果子。比如,我们有办法将楼宇的能源利用率提高80%,增加的投资在15年内就可以通过自身的节约而收回。楼宇的能源消耗占能源使用量的40%,转换成节能楼宇将使二氧化碳的释放减少三分之一。

We are revving up the remarkable American innovation machine that will be the basis of a new American prosperity. We will invent much improved methods to harness the sun, the wind, nuclear power, and capture and sequester the carbon dioxide emitted from our power plants. Advanced bio-fuels and the electrification of personal vehicles make us less dependent on foreign oil.

我们正在加速巨大的美国创新机器,它可是美国新繁荣的基础。我们将大量改进方法以利用太阳能、风能、核能,以及用于捕获和隔离电厂废气中的二氧化碳。先进的生物燃料和私家车的电气化将使得我们不再过分依赖外国的石油。

In the coming decades, we will almost certainly face higher oil prices and be in a carbon-constrained economy. We have the opportunity to lead in development of a new, industrial revolution. The great hockey player, Wayne Gretzky, when asked how he positioned himself on the ice, he replied “I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it’s been.” America should do the same.

在未来的几十年中,几乎可以肯定我们会面对更高的油价和二氧化碳减排经济。美国有机会领跑这一场新的工业革命。当伟大的冰球选手Wayne Gretzky被问到他如何在占位时,他回答说:“我滑向球要去的位置,而不是它现在的位置。”美国也应该这样做。

The Obama Administration is laying a new foundation for a prosperous and sustainable energy future, but we don’t have all of the answers. That’s where you come in. I am asking you, the Harvard graduates, to join us. As our future intellectual leaders, take the time to learn more about what’s at stake, and then act on that knowledge. As future scientists and engineers, I ask you to give us better technology solutions. As future economists and political scientists, I ask you to create better policy options. As future business leaders, I ask you make sustainability an integral part of your business.

奥巴马政府正在为未来的繁荣和可持续能源打下新的基础。但是,我们无法解决所有的问题。这正是需要你们的地方。我请求在座各位哈佛毕业生加入到我们的行列。作为我们未来的智力领袖,请花时间了解更多目前的危险局势,然后采取相应的行动。作为未来的科学家和工程师,我要求你们给出更好的技术解决方案。作为未来的经济学家和政治科学家,我要求你们创造出更好的政策选择。作为未来的商界领袖,我要求你们将可持续发展作为你们业务中不可分割的一部分。

Finally, as humanists, I ask you speak to our common humanity. One of the cruelest ironies about climate change is that the ones who will be hurt the most are the most innocent: the world's poorest and those yet to be born.

最后,作为人道主义者,我要求你们要为共同的人性而呼吁。气候变化带来的最残酷的讽刺之一,就是最受伤害的人恰恰就是最无辜的人:那些世界上最穷的人们和那些即将出生的人。

The coda to this last movement is borrowed from two humanists. The first quote is from Martin Luther King when he spoke on ending the war in Vietnam in 1967, but his message seems so fitting for today’s climate crisis:

这个最后乐章的结尾是借用两个人道主义者的话。第一段来自马丁·路德·金,是1967年他对越南战争结束的评论,但是看上去非常适合用来评论今天的气候危机。

“This call for worldwide fellowship that lifts neighborly concern beyond one's tribe, race, class, and nation is in reality a call for an all-embracing and unconditional love for all mankind. This oft misunderstood, this oft misinterpreted concept, so readily dismissed by the Nietzsches of the world as a weak and cowardly force, has now become an absolute necessity for the survival of man ….We are now faced with the fact, my friends, that tomorrow is today. We are confronted with the fierce urgency of now. In this unfolding conundrum of life and history, there is such a thing as being too late.”

 “这是在呼吁全世界的人们,不分种族、民族、阶级、国家,要有包罗一切、无条件的对全人类的爱。这是一个常常让人弄不懂、常常被错误理解的概念,所以,被尼采之流当作一种软弱和胆怯的力量而毫不犹豫地加以驳斥,现在却是人类生存的必需。……朋友们,我们面对的事实是明天是今天的延续。目前,我们形势危急。面对展示在我们面前的这个生活和历史难题,有一样东西叫做悔之晚矣。”

The final message is from William Faulkner. On December 10, 1950, his Nobel Prize banquet speech was about the role of humanists in a world facing potential nuclear holocaust.

第二段引语来自威廉·福克纳。19501210月,他在诺贝尔奖获奖晚宴上发表演说,谈到了在一个处于核武器大屠杀阴影之下的世界上,人道主义者应该扮演什么样的角色。

“I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is immortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance. The poet’s, the writer’s, duty is to write about these things. It is his privilege to help man endure by lifting his heart, by reminding him of the courage and honor and hope and pride and compassion and pity and sacrifice which has been the glory of his past.”

 “我相信人类不会默默忍受,他仍将取得胜利。人类不朽,不是因为在万物当中唯有他拥有永不休止的语言,而是因为他有灵魂,一种同情、牺牲和忍耐的精神。诗人、作家的责任就是描写这种精神。通过升华心灵,通过回忆过去曾经为之自豪的勇气、荣耀、希望、自尊、同情、怜悯和牺牲,从而帮助人们坚持下去,这是他的殊荣。”

Graduates, you have an extraordinary role to play in future. As you pursue your private passions, I hope you will also develop a passion and a voice to help the world in ways both large and small. Nothing will give you greater satisfaction.

各位毕业生,未来你们将扮演举足轻重的角色。当你们追求个人的梦想时,我希望也要奉献出你们的激情,发出你们的声音,来帮助这个世界,不论这个帮助是大一点,还是小一点。没有什么会比这给你们带来更大的满足。

Please accept my warmest congratulations. May you prosper, may you help preserve and save our planet for your children, and all future children of the world.

请接受我最热烈的祝贺。祝愿你们成功,也希望你们为了自己的孩子,以及未来所有的孩子,保护和拯救我们这个星球。


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