加载中…
个人资料
锦瑟
锦瑟
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:104,790
  • 关注人气:25
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
正文 字体大小:

大学英语自学教程下册课文翻译第13课

(2009-01-18 02:25:21)
标签:

自考英语

教育

分类: 自学考试信息
                       Unit Thirteen    Work, Labor, and Play

                                  工作,劳作和娱乐  

  So far as I know, Miss Hannah Arendt was the first person to define the essential difference between work and labor. To be happy, a man must feel, firstly, free and, secondly, important. He cannot be really happy if he is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing, or if what he enjoys doing is ignored by society as of no value or importance. In a society where slavery in the strict sense has been abolished, the sign that what a man does is of social value is that he is paid money to do it, but a laborer today can rightly be called a wage slave. A man is a laborer if the job society offers him is of no interest to himself but he is compelled to take it by the necessity of earning a living and supporting his family
  就我所知,汉纳·阿伦特小姐是第一个说明了工作与劳作之间基本差异的人。一个人要想快乐,必须首先感觉自己是自由的,其次是感到自己是重要的。如果社会强迫他去做自己不乐意做的事;或者社会无视他自己喜欢做的事,将其当作没有价值或无关紧要的,他就不可能真正快乐。在一个严格意义上讲已经废除奴隶制的社会里,一个人所做的事具有社会价值的标志就是他为此得到了报酬,但实际上我们可以把今天的劳作者称为薪水奴隶。如果一个人对社会给予的工作毫无兴趣,只是为了生计和养家糊口而被迫接受这份工作,那他就是一名劳作者。
  The antithesis to labor is play. When we play a game, we enjoy what we are doing, otherwise we should not play it, but it is a purely private activity; society could not care less whether we play it or not.
  Between labor and play stands work. A man is a worker if he is personally interested in the job which society pays him to do; what from the point of view of society is necessary labor is from his own point of view voluntary play.Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work depends, not on the job itself, but on the tastes of the individual who undertakes it. The difference does not, for example, coincide with the difference between a manual and a mental job; a gardener or a cobbler may be a worker, a bank clerk a laborer. Which a man is can be seen from his attitude toward leisure. To a worker, leisure means simply the hours he needs to relax and rest in order to work efficiently- He is therefore more likely to take too little leisure than too much; workers die of coronaries and forget their wives' birthdays. To the laborer, on the other hand, leisure means freedom from compulsion, so that it is natural for him to imagine that the fewer hours he has to spend laboring, and the more hours he is free to play, the better.
  与劳作对应的是娱乐。我们玩游戏时,会感到快乐,否则我们就不会去玩,但这完全是个人的活动,社会对你玩或不玩是不会在意的。
  介于劳作和娱乐之间的是工作。如果一个人对社会给予他报酬而从事的工作发自内心地感兴趣的话,他就是一名工作者;从社会观点来看是必要的劳动,从他个人观点来看则成了自愿娱乐。一件工作被归类为劳作还是工作,不取决于工作本身,而取决于从事这项工作的人的兴趣。比如,它们两者的区别并不等同于体力劳动与脑力劳动之间的区别。园丁或补鞋匠可能是工作者,而银行职员则可能是劳作者。一个人是劳作者还是工作者,可以从他对闲暇的态度看出。对工作者来说,闲暇只是他用来放松和休息以便能有效地工作所需要的时间。因此他尽可能少闲着;工作者会死于冠心病,会忘了妻子的生日。另一方面,对劳动者来说,闲暇意味着从强迫劳动中摆脱出来的自由,因此很自然地他会想像自己被迫劳动的时间越短,自由娱乐的时间越长就越好。
  What percentage of the population in a modern technological society are, like myself, in the fortunate position of being workers?At a guess 1 would say sixteen per cent, and 1 do not think that figure is likely to get bigger in the future.
  在现代技术社会吧,有百分之几的人能像我一样处在工作者的幸运位置上呢?凭猜测,我会说大概是16%,而且我认为在将来这个数字也不可能增加。
  Technology and the division of labor have done two things; by eliminating in many fields the need for special strength or skill, they have made a very large number of paid occupations which formerly were enjoyable work into boring labor, and by increasing productivity they have reduced the number of necessary laboring hours.It is already possible to imagine a society in which the majority of the population, that is to say, its laborers, will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy.When one recalls how aristocracies in the past actually behaved, the prospect is not cheerful. Indeed, the problem of dealing with boredom may be even more difficult for such a future mass society than it was for aristocracies. The latter, for example, ritualized their time; there was a season to shoot grouse, a season to spend in town, etc. The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which it will be in the economic interest of certain people to change as often as possible.Again, the masses cannot go in for hunting, for very soon there would be no animals left to hunt. For other aristocratic amusements like gambling, dueling, and warfare, it may be only too easy to find equivalents in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence. Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression into their work, be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist. The role of aggression in mental work is aptly expressed by the phrase “getting one’s teeth into a problem.”
  技术和劳动分工完成了两件事:通过在很多领域消除了对特殊能力或技能的需求,把大量以前令人愉快的有偿工作变成了枯燥无味的劳作;通过提高生产力减少了必要的劳动时间。现在人们已经可能去想像这样一个社会:其大部分人口,即劳作者,将会享有与以前贵族阶层几乎同样多的闲暇时间。可当我们回忆起过去贵族们实际上是如何消磨时光时,前景就不是令人兴奋的了。确实,与当时的贵族相比,为这样一个未来的大众社会解决如何打发闲暇的问题要困难的多。例如,贵族们有程式化的消遣安排:这季节去射猎松鸡,那季节在城里寻欢作乐等等。老百姓更可能用时尚取代千篇一律的程式,而尽可能地经常改变时尚是符合某些人的经济利益的。另外,老百姓也不能都有打猎的爱好,因为这样的话很快就会没有动物可供射猎了。对其他的贵族娱乐如赌博、决斗和打仗,要找一些与其对等的消遣方式实在是很容易的、如危险驾驶、吸毒和无意义的暴力行为。工作者很少有暴力行为,因为他们会把自己的进取精神都投人到工作中去,不管是像铁匠那样的体力工作还是像科学家或艺术家那样的脑力工作,都是如此。“死死咬住某个问题”这个习语很贴切地表示出了进取精神在脑力工作中的作用。

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有