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[转载]什么是幸福(原文转贴+我的翻译作品)

(2011-02-20 12:10:58)
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原文五千多字,看得我有些累,不过还是很喜欢阅读这样深刻的思考。在过去的3天中,利用了一些闲余时间,搞定了这篇文章的英文版,写了三千多字,其间用了很多文字处理的技巧,可以说语言还是尽可能做到了简洁。关于本篇用到的翻译方式和技巧问题在此就不特意展开讨论了。感谢老李的原作品,让我除了语言外,还小小触摸了一下物理和心理学。吐舌
 
 

 

什么是幸福

What Is Happiness

 

这个世界对人来说实在是太残酷了一点,我们知道的太多,以至于神都救不了我们了。

The world is indeed a bit too brutal to humans; we are just too knowledgeable for the remedy from a god even.

 

 

生命在地球孕育了40亿年。我很好奇到底是什么让各种有机物的组合生生不息。这一切到底有没有目的,或者说有没有意义?但我马上意识到,相对于40亿年的生物进化史,我们花费了数百万年才积攒起来的文明实在是太微不足道了。

Life has been conceived on the earth for 4 billion years and I am deeply curious what on earth contributes to the thriving of the combination of various organisms. Is all this somewhat oriented, or say, does it make sense? But it soon occurs to me that our millions of years of civilization is too petty compared with the 4-billion-year-old biological revolution history.

什么才是关键?

What is the key?

存在。

Survival.

或者说,结果。

 Or say, consequence.

此时此刻,你所见的一切结构都是现存的。让我们以现在为起点,随着时间轴回溯而去,直抵生命的原点。在那个荒凉的世界,存在着2种相反的作用——聚合和分化。闪电,温度,压力,水,这些简单的外部条件铸造了最早的有机物,并将有机物进一步重组,形成各种具有奇异功能的化学结构。但这一切都是随机的,而且只能制造一些简单的结构。而在另外一方面,分解也在不断地进行,破坏各种刚形成的结构,不论是简单的还是复杂的。这本来都是平衡的。直到某一天,随机过程产生了一种空前的结构——具有自我修补和复制能力的结构。我并不知道这种结构一开始到底是什么形式,也不知道他们曾经有多少种。但是我们知道他们必然存在过,并繁衍至今,他们就是生命。当你从生命的开端在一步一步再走回来,你可以看到,生命的历程其实是以一环又一环的存在相联系的。每一步的前进都是以之前的存在物为基础。也许你有些不耐烦了:“这不就是优胜劣汰么”。或许是。但是我们所说的进化论早已深刻的打上了人的烙印,我们认为生物是为了生存才竞争,但是自然选择其实并没有任何目的性的。生命的存在是一种结果而非目的。用更形象的话说,就像是一列人排队,一个人向前一步走和除他所有人向后一步走的关系。也许你认为这没有什么区别。但在后来的生物发展,对于生物个体,确实演生出一个目的。不是为了生存,而是另一种机制。

All structures that you see at present exist already. Let’s start from the present and backtrack the time line to the origin of lives. There existed two counter-effects in that desolated world-polymerization and differentiation. Lightning, temperature, pressure and water, as elements of the simple external conditions, constructed the earliest organisms and after restructuring of which, helped form various chemical structures of fantastic functions. Nevertheless, all those processes were random and only capable at simple structures. And on the other hand, differentiation kept going on, destroying the newly formed structures, including both simple and complex. It used to be well-balanced, until one day in the random process an unprecedented structure was generated, the one capable of self-repairing and self-replicating. I have no knowledge about the earliest forms or the number of them, but they are undoubtedly known to exist, flourishing still today, and are referred to as life. As you come step by step from the start of life, you’ll see that the process of life is actually connected with the interlinked tiers of existence, and each advance is based on its previous existences. You might be losing patience: “Isn’t it the winning of the superior over the inferior?” Probably. Nonetheless, our Theory of Evolution has already been marked profoundly with humans. We deem that creatures compete only for survival, but the natural selection itself is totally purposeless. The existence of life is a consequence rather than a purpose. More vividly, it’s just like the relationship between a man stepping forward in a line and all others stepping backward. Maybe it makes little difference to you, but later in the biological development, to the individual creatures, a purpose was indeed produced. Still, it is not for survival, but for another mechanism.

满足感。

Sense of Satisfaction

不论你理不理解刚才我说的话,生命是客观的自然筛选的结果,而不是生命主观的自身发展的结果。但请记住最后那句就可以,满足感的出现,才赋予了生物真正的个体目的性。

Whether or not what I said is understood-life is a consequence of impersonal natural selection rather than of voluntary self-development, the last will do: It is the existence of sense of satisfaction that imparts to lives real individual purposes.

应该说,满足感有点像我们现在的价值观。它以愉悦感和焦虑为手段,控制我们的行为。就像一个国家的权力机关一样,用统一的标准约束所有的条件反射。只不过在这里,它既不用钱,也不用权力,不是荣誉和声望,而是一种化学物质——多巴胺。需要说明的是,不论愉悦还是焦虑,其实是一种手段的2种形式,它们类似于天平的2端,一个升,另一个就降。而至少在人类文明诞生前,这种机制是相当成功的。因为当时存在是生命的唯一判据。满足感只要应付,吃,睡,交配,躲避天敌,自然灾害等简单任务就够了。但当人类从自然的枷锁中挣脱出来,不再单纯的为生存和繁衍担忧的时候,这种机制又带给我们什么呢?

Supposedly, the sense of satisfaction is somewhat like our value today. It keeps our behavior under control by means of joy and worry. It is just like a state authority, who binds all conditional reflections with uniform standards. Yet herein, it dispenses with money, power, or glory and reputation, but a chemical substance-dopamine. To be accounted for, joy or worry, whatever, is basically two forms of one approach, acting like the two pans of a scale, in which the rising of one inevitably brings down the other. And that mechanism remained a tremendous success at least before the beginning of human civilization, in that survival then was the sole criterion of life. The sense of satisfaction could be easily arrived at by accomplishing such simple tasks as eating, sleeping, mating, and sheltering from the natural enemy and natural disasters. But what has that mechanism brought when humans broke out of the fetters of nature and were no longer vexed purely by survival and reproduction?

毒品

Drugs

如果你真的要愉悦感。这是我所能想到最好的,最没有副作用的方式。只有毒品能够完全的保证人们不受惩罚机制的困扰,彻底的沉浸在极乐当中。当然理想的状况是你有能力一直吸食毒品。不要考虑你生存的长短,反正你的每一分钟都是快乐的。相信很多人都看过那个试验,在脑中埋下电极的老鼠,只要按动跳板就可以刺激它的大脑分泌快乐物质。于是,这个在我们看来极其可怜的生物就在那个跳板上快乐的死去了。

If joy is what you really want, this is the best and least harmful way I can ever think of. It is nothing but drugs that can keep people thoroughly in the ecstatic indulgence, with at the same time the impunity from the punishment mechanism. Of course the ideal condition is that you are able to keep taking drugs all the time. Disregarding the length of your life, you anyway find every minute joyous. This is the experiment presumably seen by many, that a mouse had an electrode implanted in the brain and a simple press of the springboard could help stimulate secretion of happy substances in its brain. Then, the creature, most pathetic in our eyes, died on that board with joy.

好吧我知道这个结论一定不让人快乐。这也让我困惑。很显然,就从人类的自然表现来说,幸福是一种快感。但是快感就是幸福么?真有人认为毒品带来的快感是幸福么?也许对于吸毒的人是这样,但对于“健全”的人呢?幸福是一种主观感受,但是我们需要一种客观的描述。我们遗漏了一些东西。

Well, I understand that conclusion must be displeasing. And it confuses me as well. Apparently in terms of the natural reaction of humans, happiness is a sense of joy. But is joy necessarily happiness? Should there by anybody who considers drug-propelled joy as happiness? It might be so to drug addicts, but what to ‘healthy’ ones? Happiness is a subject feeling, but we need some objective description. These are what we miss.

价值观

Value

满足感虽然可以凌驾在自然选择之上,但是另一种制约物却随着人类的文明发展产生了出来。它一样是自然选择的产物,但存在于安定的生活环境。它以高度发达的智能为基础,脱离了纯粹保证生存的快乐法则。这就是对快乐的选择。所谓的价值观。

High may sense of satisfaction be above natural selection, another constraint has been given birth to with the development of human civilization. It, too, is a product of natural selection, yet exists in a stable living environment. It is founded on highly developed intellect and has skirted the happy principle of sheer survival. It is a selection for happiness, the so-called value.

按照弗洛伊德的观点,人分3性。本我负责生命最基本的原始欲求;超我是人类社会生活的产物,它是契约意识的内化;而自我则是在这2者之间寻求平衡,即最大的满足感。对于大多数人(曾经有自行车运动员把肌肉疲劳训练成快感的条件,痛苦和快感在某些时候是可以并存的),抛开吃穿住行等基本的本我需求,我们有了更多与生存没有直接关系的价值取向来塑造超我的满足标准。甚至可以为了这些新的标准放弃我们的生存——也就是自我牺牲。超我的关键是责任和契约。我们是集体生活的产物。我们认识到,如果我们不达成共识,集团作战,我们什么也得不到。于是我们有了契约。我们牺牲了个人的某些目的,担负起职责,为了一些共同的利益,走到了一起。但请永远记住我们始终都是为了一个目标而存在——我们自己的满足感的最大化。价值观只是对快乐的一种再选择,并没有推翻快乐原则本身。对于不同的人,满足的条件是不同的。对于一些人,有钱就能满足,而对于另一些人,对他人的慷慨才是满足。某些对你而言毫无意义的行为,对于另一个人来说可能是一种大大的满足。所以,事情的最终目标一定是如何满足自己。

According to Freud, man consists of three sections. Id takes charge of the most fundamental and primitive desires of life. Super-ego is the product of human social activities, the internalization of sense of contract. And ego seeks balance between the two, namely the biggest sense of satisfaction. To most of us (there were bicycle racers who trained muscular fatigue into the element of joy, and thus pain and joy may sometime co-exist), besides such basic id demands as food, clothes, shelter and transport, we have more value orientations that are in no direct links with survival to make for super-ego standards. Sometimes survival may even be forsaken for these new standards, which makes it self-sacrifice. The keys to super-ego are responsibilities and contracts. We are products of collective activities. It is our understanding that unless we reach agreement and fight together, we shall have nothing. Then we have contracts. We sacrifice some personal purposes, take up the responsibility and congregate for some common interests. But please always keep in mind that all along, we are ourselves for one single goal-to maximize sense of satisfaction of our own. Value is only a re-selection for happiness, and does not overturn the happy principle itself. There are different approaches to the sense of satisfaction to different people. To some, money does, while to others, it is generosity that solves. Some meaningless behavior as you see may give great satisfaction to another. Therefore, the ultimate goal has to be how we ourselves are satisfied.

幸福是个人价值观所要求的满足。它的主要依据是超我,而非本我。所以现在我们可以大胆的扔掉毒品这个烫山芋,将超我的价值观的体现得到的幸福和本我的欲求的满足而得到的愉悦感分割开来。但是个人的价值观又是如何形成的呢?

Happiness is a sense of satisfaction that is required by personal value, and it is mainly based on super-ego rather than id. Therefore we may be safe now to drop drug like a hot potato and separate the happiness at the achieved super-ego value and the joy at the satisfaction of id desires. But how does personal value take shape?

环境。

Environment

环境会在一个人最初的几十年塑造一个人的心智,年龄越小越明显。有人说基因。基因是什么?基因其实就像煤炭。类似煤炭是数百万年前的树木的沉积,基因也是一种沉积。在人类发展的数百万年中,所有对于特定环境的反应的沉积。而在接下来的数十年,我们开始有意识的选择环境对我们影响,选择接受或者不接受,或者接受多少。而判断的标准就是我们小时候的环境给我们的经验。这些经历被埋在我们思想的最低层,并且几乎不可能被动摇。原因是你几乎想不起他们来,想不起他们到底是什么,又由何而来,你只能被他们存在而影响。也许有一天,你能把他们突然记起,和你现在的经验放到一起来平等的讨论。但你真的能做到这样的平等么?当不同的价值观冲突的时候,你选择谁?凭什么选择?我们确实抛弃过很多我们当初的观点,因为他们直接与我们的现实冲突,他们浮到了表面,而且造成了不快。所以我们还是抛弃了他们。但是如果没有造成不快,或者我们并没有意识到那些存在呢?比如我们小时候遇到的一些可怕的事情,我们的心理机制会强迫自我忘记它们,不让它们浮现在我们的思维表层。但是我们的本我是不会遗忘它们的。它们被压抑在潜意识里。一旦我们的自控薄弱,便会跑出来,用我们意识不到的方式,影响我们的行为。关于这个理论,弗洛伊德说得很明白。当我们思想成型后,我们面临的许多冲突就是过去环境和现实环境所建构的思维方式之间的冲突。代沟,保守,怀旧,迂腐顽固,基本都源于此。我并不是说,过去一定会赢。谁赢要看谁对现在的自我带来更大的满足,但要是两者带来的都差不多,那显然先来的优势会更大一些。

The environment shapes one’s mentality in his primary decades, and the effect augments to younger ages. Some may refer to genes. What are genes? Much like coal, the deposit of trees millions of years ago, genes are a kind of deposit too, that of all reactions to particular circumstances over the millions of years history of human development. And in the next decades, we start with our conscious the selection on environmental impacts, as to whether to accept or not, or to what amount to accept. The judgment criterion is meanwhile the experience taught by our childhood environment. Those experiences are buried at the bottom of our mentality and almost invulnerable, because you can hardly think of them, of what on earth they are, or of why they come to you, so that you can’t but receive the influence by their existence. Maybe one day you’ll incidentally capture them for equal discussion with your current experience. But will you really be able to make it equal? Which one will you opt for when disparate values clash? And on what will your option be? We do have deserted many views we had before because they are in sharp contrary with the reality. They have risen up to the surface and caused displeasure, for which reason we have finally deserted them. But what if they have caused no displeasure or their existence is not even realized? For example, our psychic mechanism will compel ego to forget something horrible in our childhood so that they do not emerge at the surface layer of our thinking, but our id will never forget them. They are oppressed in our sub-conscious, and will arise when our self-control is deficient, exerting its influence on our behavior in some unexpected manner. That theory has already been well clarified by Freud. After the formation of our mentality, many of our conflicts are between the two different ways of thinking, one forged by the past environment and the other by the present. Generation gap, conservation, reminiscence, pedantry and stubbornness all basically derive from that. It is not that the past should always prevail, but depends on which one brings greater satisfaction to the present ego, and if there is little greater satisfaction, obviously the earlier settler shall be advantageous.

话说至此,我的思想却陷入了停顿。因为我根本不知道该怎么来讨论环境!

So far have I gone, yet my thinking is halted at an impasse: I totally have no idea as what to discuss about the environment!

环境饱含太多的相互作用。复杂到令人崩溃。显然如果你想从统御全局的角度来考察环境和环境中的人的话,就有点像是薛定谔的猫。你站在黑箱子外面考虑里面猫的死活,猫对你来说,是一种不死不活的状态。但如果你是猫呢?我这里只是一个比方,我不打算在这里讨论这个神奇的观察者的游戏,因为那纯粹是另外一个物理的话题了。如果我们站在猫的角度上,我们便摆脱了活死猫的困境,尽管箱子外面对于我们是另一种不死不活。我们暂且把环境归结为一种不可控的存在。而彻底的用个人的意识来考察这么一个问题:我们该如何控制摆脱环境的复杂与不可知,来持续的制造我们的满足感。

The environment contains too many interactions, which is an overwhelming complexity. Obviously, if you tend to take a comprehensive view over the environment and people therein, it’s somewhat being like Schrödinger's Cat. If you are thinking of the fate of the cat inside from outside the black box, it is neither dead nor alive to you. But what if you were that cat? This is just an example and I am not going to talk about the amazing game of the observer here, for it will just be another physics topic. If we take the stance of the cat, we will break out of the conundrum of the living dead cat-though what is outside the box is another state of in-between living and death to us. We for the time being conclude the environment as an uncontrollable existence and employ a pure individual consciousness in observing such a question: How can we take charge or get rid of environmental complexities and unknowns for our continual arrival at the sense of satisfaction?

信仰

Belief

环境的不可控极大的影响了我们对于快感的追求。因为我们不确定要怎么做,做了会有什么结果,我们的无知让我们焦虑。这就像一场没有把握的考试。没有范围,没有要点,没有题型,甚至你连什么时候考也不知道,你知道的只是你需要一个好成绩。这时候能让你狂喜的,一定是一本“红宝书”。我们需要一个高高在上的“全能”,让他解决我们不能解决的问题,把我们本应该担负的重担交给他。

The vast uncontrollability of the environment has a great influence on our pursuit of joy. Because we are unsure about either the approach or the result, we are vexed by our ignorance. It is just like an exam that you are not able to ensure yourself, with no knowledge of its range, key points, question types or even the date. The only thing that you know is that you are in need of a good mark. Then what may enable you to be overjoyed must be the ‘Red Treasure Book’ (The Red Treasure Book, so it is called in China, refers to an examination-oriented book of GRE vocabulary, which is a must-have for almost all Chinese students going for GRE. Then the use of this term is extended to mean something that helps go through, usually with a playful tone.-Noted by the Translator.) We need an ‘omnipotent’ high up in the sky, to whom we can leave what we are unable to settle, the burden it is we that are once supposed to take.

想象一下,如果在数百年前,你对这个世界是什么感觉?当然也许你根本没有闲情去意识这个世界。太多生存的压力。但是一旦你停下来仰望星空,你便会震惊这个世界的神秘。看着火焰腾腾窜起,小时候的你,真的不好奇,不畏惧么?每个小孩子都会怕黑和孤独,每个民族都是从黑暗和孤单中走出来的,他们在阴影中塑造了各种神灵鬼魅,并向他们膜拜祭奠,所有的民族都崇拜光,太阳神总是在各个文明中占有不可或缺的重要地位,而另一个神灵则是月亮。

To imagine, if it were hundreds of years ago, what would you feel about this world? For sure, you might have had no pleasant mood to meditate about this world. Too much survival pressure. But once you stopped to look up in the firmament of stars, you’d gasp at the mystery of the world. Would not the leaping flame touch you, the little one, with curiosity and awe? Every child fears darkness and solitude and such has every nation passed, in whose shade all kinds of deities, spirits and ghosts are fabricated for them to pay homage to. All nations adore light; hence the sun god always plays an indispensably crucial part in all civilizations, with the other deity being the moon.

当光创造上帝的时候,我们是这样说的:

Here we went when light gave birth to god:

上帝说要有光,便有了光。

And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

黑暗让我们害怕——因为我们盲目了。光让我们看清楚东西——我们有知。但是光线变强,我们一样会看不见东西——另一种盲目。这就是对我们的历史最好的描述。你可以说无知是一种罪,一种恐惧,一种无所适从,一种不快,一种不满足。所以我们要求理智的光芒,我们学习,我们认知,我们理解并改造世界,改造环境同时也改造我们自己。但是就凭理智,我们就能够满足么?再强的光线也有它的尽头。我们照的越亮,我们所看到的黑暗范围也越来越广。即便在我们能看清的范围内,事情也没有这么美好。美好的显身了,丑恶的也显身了。本我和超我的冲突变得显而易见,超我有了知识的武器便开始挑战本我本来隐秘在黑暗下的权威。很多事情我们明白该怎么做,但是我们不愿做,因为我们根本不相信。这无疑是另一个噩梦。除非光亮到刺眼,把黑的也看成白的,那就不用斗了。于是信仰诞生了,一种盲目对付另一种盲目。当不同的价值观在我们的内心对抗,当自我无法继续平衡本我和超我的纷争,当总有一种强烈的焦虑侵蚀我们的心灵的时候,自我突然找到了一种强大的平衡力——信仰。信仰的第一个载体是各种神话,接下来则是宗教。即便现在,宗教的影响力依然非常强大。而即便是无神论者,也需要一些盲目的动力。你需要决定哪一片黑暗你接下来要去探索,尽管他们都是一样的黑。而且还有一些角落是光明永远无法帮助你看到的地方,比如你的背后。无知带给我们的恐惧,我们用另一种无知去对抗,当然,前提是我们并没有意识到这是一种无知。所以我们把这种无知冠名为相信,并且在我们的理智无法解答的时候,用暴力来维护。

Darkness scares us-because we are blinded. Light gives us sight-we are knowledgeable. But as light is intensified, we may not able to see as well, being blind in another sense. That is the best description to our history. It is justified if ignorance is deemed a guilt, fear, helplessness, displeasure or dissatisfaction. And that’s why we demand the light of intellect, with which we learn, we recognize, we comprehend and reform the world, and we reforge ourselves whilst we rebuild the environment. But will intellect alone have us gratified? The strongest beam of light also has its end, and the brighter part we have, the more extensive darkness we are able to see. Things are not that beautiful even within our vision. Things beautiful have manifested themselves; so have ugly ones. The conflict between id and super-ego has risen above the sea surface, with super-ego wielding the weapon of knowledge in challenge of the prestige id used to shade in darkness. There are many things that we understand how to do but are unwilling to, for we do not have a bit of belief in them. That is undoubtedly another nightmare. Fighting becomes unnecessary unless the light is glaring enough to whiten the black in our eyes. Hence here comes belief, one kind of blindness to fight with the other. When different values confront each other in our mind, when ego loses the power to balance the fight between id and super-ego, and when a strong anxiety poaches into our heart, ego suddenly finds itself a powerful counterweight-belief. The first carrier of belief is various myths, and subsequently religion. Till now, the clout of religion still remains overwhelming and for atheists even, some blind incentives are also needed. You are to decide which dark area is going to be explored, though they are dark the same. Moreover, there are some corners that brightness will never help you to reach, say your back. Ignorance brings us fear, against which we fight with another kind of ignorance. Of course, the precondition is that we are not aware of that kind of ignorance. Hence we name it belief and guard it with violence when our intellect fails to give an answer.

只可惜我们的时代发展得太迅速,知识的爆发带给我们的并不仅仅是满足感,更多的是焦虑。我们知道得太多了,以至于神也不再眷顾我们,因为我们把他们赶走了。知识让我们取得了一部分神的力量,但代价是本来可以让神负担的一切都重回到我们的肩上。这副担子太沉重了。强光散尽,一个清晰的世界,却一点也不美好。你看到无数个活的上帝正和你在一起,一同生活在这个世界。以前你会自觉的拜倒在那个假想的全能脚下,现在你还能吗?那些人和你都一样,甚至有些地方还不如你,凭什么你要满足他们?一切关系都赤裸裸的呈现在我们面前。我们知道的就是我们知道的。我们不知道的更加清晰可辨。就在我们目力可及的范围内,超我和本我打得血肉模糊。自我跪地祈祷,寻求另一个能蒙蔽他双眼的神。我相信,我们这代人是最没有安全感的一代,将来可能更甚。越聪明,越没有安全感。

Regrettably, we are undergoing too fast the development of our era, that knowledge explosion grants us with not only sense of satisfaction, but anxieties more. We are too knowledgeable and even gods have withdrawn their patronage, for they are banished. Knowledge enables us to acquire some of the divine power, the expense being the return of all that at first could be shared by god onto our shoulders. This is too heavy the burden. At the dissipation of the glaring light stands a clear world, which is by no means beautiful. You have seen countless live gods together with you in this world. You might once voluntarily prostrate yourself at the feet of the imaginary omnipotent, and is it still possible for you now? They are all the same with you, with some inferiorities even, why are you to gratify them? All connections are totally exposed before us. We know for what we know, and we know better for what we don’t. Within the reach of our sight, super-ego and id have fought to masses of bleeding flesh, while ego is praying on its knees for another god to blind its eyes. So I believe that we are the generation mostly lacking in the sense of security, and probably even more for the future. The smarter you are, the less sense of security.

这就是信仰,它的唯一作用就是强烈的自我暗示,暗示我们的价值观是可行的,是有依据的,是正确的。它是价值观的根基。

Such is belief, whose sole function is strong self-suggestion, of that our value is feasible, well-grounded, and correct. It is the basis of value.

也许我们需要再造一个上帝,一个我们可以信赖的全能者。

Maybe we need to recreate a god, one omnipotent that we can rely on.

我们自己。

Ourselves.

看过老无所依这部电影。也许你会感受到什么。

You may have some reflections after seeing the movie ‘No Country for Old Man’.

如果我们能,我们会毫不犹豫地干掉所有阻碍我们的人。我毫不怀疑这点。但知识赋予我们力量的同时,让所有人都拥有同样的武器。最终我们还是要接受别人的帮助。分享和倾诉安慰了我们疲倦和受伤的心灵,让我们感到满足。以致必须被写到超我的程式中去。只可惜这也是自欺欺人。

As long as we can, we will not hesitate to wipe out all that are standing in our way, which is beyond my doubt. But the time knowledge imparts us with power, it leaves no one. We finally still have to receive others’ help. So have sharing and confession consoled our tired and wounded hearts, at which we feel satisfied, that I feel compelled to include it in my super-ego equation. Regrettably, it is self-deceiving too.

我一直无法理解所谓分享和倾诉的作用。且不说,对于那些倾听的人到底是不是认真地在听你。就算他们听了,安慰了,又能对事情有什么实质性的改变?发生的事情,已经都发生了,不能悔改。听他们安慰无非就是听他们说,这不是你的错,如果当时是他们的话,也许会做得更糟。总之就是把你往好里说,而把你的错误归结为全人类的通病。为什么我们听到这些话会快乐呢?我们需要自己比别人优秀?而当我们成功的时候,我们需要分享,也就是别人的赞美。我们喜欢听别人说,你很优秀。潜台词是,你比大多数人优秀。当然很多时候会有些特别的例子。但绝大多数人确实就是如此。所谓的分享和倾诉对于我们来说,只是迎合了我们比他人优秀的臆想而带来的满足感。

I have always failed to understand the effect of sharing and confession. Not to mention if the listeners are making themselves serious, what essential changes there will be even if they have listened and given consolation? What happened had happened already and there’s no use crying over spilt milk. Their consolation, if you’d listen to, is no more than such that it’s not your fault and things would have been worse if it had been them. You will be commended anyway, while your misdoings will be attributed as the common fault of all humans. Why will we be pleased to hear those? Is it that we need ourselves to be superior to others? And when we succeed, we are in need of sharing, which is tantamount to others’ praise. We love to hear others say you are so excellent, with overtones of your superiority over most others. Of course there will be special examples in many cases, but so it is for the majority. To us, the so-called sharing and confession merely pander to the sense of satisfaction from our illusive superiority.

那么为什么我们比别人优秀会有满足感呢?这归超我管,还是本我管?

Then, why is there sense of satisfaction from our superiority? Is it in the charge of super-ego or id?

不论如何,超我也不是神圣的,一如许多道德规范。

Anyway, super-ego is not holy either, like many moral conducts.

……

 

1982年阿斯派克特的实验标志着定域确定性的破碎。或者用量子物理史话中的原文更容易让人理解一些:

Aspect’s experiment in 1982 marked the crash of local certainty. Or, it is easier to understand with the original text in ‘History of Quantum Physics’:

爱因斯坦:玻尔,亲爱的上帝不掷骰子!

‘Einstein: Bohr, God does not play dice with the universe!

玻尔:爱因斯坦,别去指挥上帝应该怎么做!

Bohr: Einstein, who are you to tell God what to do?

现在,就让我们狂妄一回,以一种尼采式的姿态来宣布:

Now, boldly, let’s declare in a Nietzschean manner, that

爱因斯坦的上帝已经死了

Einstein’s God is dead.’

这个世界追根究底,总是这么让人沮丧。不过既然我们的宏观世界依旧可以用经典的牛顿定律来解释,为什么不让我们的信仰继续带领我们寻找幸福呢?

 The world in its final analysis is so depressing all along. But now that our macro-world can still be interpreted with the classic Newton’s Law, why not let our belief continue to lead us the way to happiness?

 

幸福是什么?

What is happiness?

第一 我觉得我活着

First, I think I am alive.

第二 我觉得我活得很好

Second, I think I am having a good life.

第三 我觉得别人都觉得我活得很好

Third, I think all others think that I am having a good life.

 

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