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Louisiana Purchase-路易斯安那购地

(2008-04-12 11:49:40)
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分类: 中高级口译

Louisiana Purchase-路易斯安那购地

Louisiana Purchase
路易斯安那购地
 
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of approximately 530 million acres (800,000 sq mi or 2,100,000 km) of French territory in 1803, at the cost of about 4¢ per acre (7¢ per ha); totaling $15 million or 80 million French francs.
 
 路易斯安那购地是指美国在1803年从法国手里以每英亩4美分(或每公顷7美分)的价格购得的约5.3万英亩的土地(80万平方米或者)。
Including interest, America finally paid $23,213,568 for the Louisiana territory.The land purchased contained all of present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota south of Mississippi River, much of North Dakota, nearly all of South Dakota, northeastern New Mexico, northern Texas, the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide, and Louisiana on both sides of the Mississippi River, including the city of New Orleans. (The Oklahoma Panhandle, and southwestern portions of Kansas and Louisiana were still claimed by Spain at the time of the Purchase.) In addition, the Purchase contained small portions of land that would eventually become part of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
 
算上利息的话,美国为购买路易斯安那共花费了23,213,568美元。这块购买的土地包括了今天的阿肯色州、密西西比州、密苏里州、爱荷华州、俄克拉荷马州、堪萨斯州、内布拉斯加州、明尼苏达州密西西比河以南部分、北达科他州,几乎全部的南达科他州、新墨西哥州东北部、德克萨斯州北部、蒙大拿州的一部分,怀俄明州,科罗拉多州大陆分水岭以东部分,以及路易斯安那州横跨密西西比河两岸部分、包括今天的新奥尔良城。(俄克拉何马州狭长地带、堪萨斯的西南部和路易斯安那州在购买当时仍然被西班牙宣布占有)另外,此次购买也包括了最后成为加拿大亚伯达省和萨斯喀彻温省一部分的土地。
 
The land included in the purchase comprises around 23% of the territory of the modern United States.[1] The purchase was an important moment in the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. At the time, it faced domestic opposition as being possibly unconstitutional. Although he felt that the Constitution did not contain any provisions for acquiring territory, Jefferson decided to purchase Louisiana because he felt uneasy about France and Spain having the power to block American traders' access to the port of New Orleans.
 
此次购买的土地包含了现代美国领土约23%的面积,是托马斯"杰弗逊执政时期的一项重大事宜。当时,这项提议面临着国内极大反对的声浪,认为这不符合宪法的规定。尽管杰弗逊认为宪法没有包含任何关于获取领土的规定,但是他依然决定购买路易斯安那,因为他担心法国和西班牙在当时拥有过大的实力来阻隔美国通向新奥尔良地区的商路。
 
Background
背景
A contemporary mapmaker's vision of "Louisiana" edged on the west by the Rocky MountainsThe city of New Orleans controlled the Mississippi River through its location; other locations for ports had been tried and had not succeeded. New Orleans was already important for shipping agricultural goods to and from the parts of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains. Through Pinckney's Treaty signed with Spain on October 27, 1795, American merchants had "right of deposit" in New Orleans, meaning they could use the port to store goods for export.
 
当时的地图绘制员眼里的“路易斯安那”是一直延伸到落基山以西的地区。新奥尔良城控制着密西西比河穿过其聚居地的部分,其他聚居地的港口试图夺过控制权,但是未能成功。新奥尔良已经成为阿巴拉契亚山脉以西美国地区往来运输农产品的要塞。根据美国与西班牙于1795年10月27日签订的平克尼条约的规定,美国商人有免税临时寄存货物的权力,这就意味着他们能够利用港口来囤积出口商品。
 
Americans also used this right to transport products such as flour, tobacco, pork, bacon, lard, feathers, cider, butter, and cheese. The treaty also recognized American rights to navigate the entire Mississippi River which had become increasingly vital to the growing trade of their western territories.
 
美国人还利用此项权力运输面粉、土豆、猪肉、培根、猪油、羽毛、苹果汁、黄油和奶酪等产品。该条约同时还承认美国对密西西比河的控制权,而这条河流对西部地区逐渐增长的贸易变得越来越重要。
 
 In 1798 Spain revoked this treaty, which greatly upset Americans. In 1801, Spanish Governor Don Juan Manuel De Salcedo took over for Governor Marquess of Casa Calvo, and the right to deposit goods from the United States was fully restored. Napoleon Bonaparte returned Louisiana to French control from Spain in 1800, under the Treaty of San Ildefonso (Louisiana had been a Spanish colony since 1762). However, the treaty was kept secret, and Louisiana remained under Spanish control until a transfer of power to France. The transfer finally took place on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the cession to the United States.
 
在1798年西班牙撕毁了这一条约,引起美国极大的不安。1801年Don Juan Manuel De Salcedo接替Marquess of Casa Calvo成为西班牙统治者,恢复了美国能够临时寄存货物的权力。1800年,拿破仑通过圣埃尔德枫索(San Ildefonso)条约从西班牙手里夺回了对路易斯安那的控制权(路易斯安那自1762年起就成为了西班牙的殖民地)。但是该条约在当时是保密的,直到西班牙将控制权顺利交接给法国。最后,直到1803年11月30日才交接了控制权,而此时距离出售给美国的时限仅仅3个星期。
 
Americans were fearful that they would lose their rights of use to New Orleans. President Thomas Jefferson decided that the best way to assure long term access to the Mississippi would be to purchase the city of New Orleans and the nearby portions of Louisiana east of the Mississippi. Jefferson sent James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston to Paris to negotiate the purchase in 1803. Their interest was only in the port and its environs; they did not anticipate the much larger transfer of territory that would follow.
 
美国人担心他们会失去利用新奥尔良的权力。杰弗逊总统决定能长期控制密西西比的方法只能是一并购买新奥尔良和密西西比河以东路易斯安那的部分,于是他于1803年派遣詹姆士门罗和利文斯顿前去巴黎商议购地事宜。当时他们最大的兴趣只是在港口及其周边地区,并没有预料到以后的大面积购地的情况。
Negotiation
 谈判
The original treaty of the Louisiana purchase.
路易斯安那购地原始条约
J
efferson laid the groundwork for the purchase by sending Livingston to Paris in 1801, after discovering the transfer of Louisiana from Spain to France. Livingston was to pursue a purchase of New Orleans, but he was rebuffed by the French.In 1802, Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours was enlisted to help negotiate. Du Pont was living in the United States at the time and had close ties to Jefferson, as well as to the political powers in France. He engaged in back-channel diplomacy with Napoleon, on Jefferson's behalf, during a personal visit to France. He originated the idea of the much larger Louisiana Purchase as a way to defuse potential conflict between the United States and Napoleon over North America.
 
杰弗逊发现路易斯安那从西班牙手里转到法国手里后,于1801年派遣利文斯顿去巴黎,并制定了关于购地的框架协议。利文斯顿是想去购买新奥尔良,但是遭到了法国的断然拒绝。1802年,杜篷也参与到谈判中来。杜篷当时居住在美国,当时与杰弗逊和法国权贵都关系密切。站在杰弗逊一边,他以个人名义去了法国,与拿破仑进行了私下会谈。他首次提出了扩大路易斯安那购地的规模来缓和以后法国与美国在北美地区可能存在的潜在冲突的想法。
Jefferson disliked the idea: purchasing Louisiana from France would imply that France had a right to be in Louisiana. A strict constructionalist, Jefferson also believed that a U.S. president did not have the authority to engage in such a deal because it was not specified in the constitution, and that to do so would moreover erode states' rights by increasing federal executive power.
 
杰弗逊不喜欢这个主意:向法国购地也就意味着承认法国有权处置路易斯安娜地区。作为一个严谨的建构主义者,杰弗逊同时也相信美国总统没有权力进行如此大的一项收购,因为这种做法没有在宪法中特别提及,并且这样做会增加联邦执行的权力,从而更多的削减各州的权力。
 
 On the other hand, he was aware of the potential threat that a neighbor like France would be for the young nation, and was prepared to go to war to prevent a strong French presence in the region. Meanwhile, Napoleon's foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, was vehemently opposed to selling Louisiana since it would mean an end to France's secret plans for a North American empire.
 
从另一方面来说,他充分意识到一个象法国这样强大的邻国对于一个年轻的国家是一个潜在的威胁,并准备好一旦法国要侵占就发动战争来抵抗。同时,法国的外交部长塔列朗强烈反对出售路易斯安那,因为这样就意味着法国密谋建立北美帝国梦想的终结。
 
Throughout this time, Jefferson had up-to-date intelligence on Napoleon's military activities and intentions in North America. Part of his evolving strategy involved giving du Pont information that was withheld from Livingston. He also gave intentionally conflicting instructions to the two. He next sent Monroe to Paris in 1803. Monroe had been formally expelled from France on his last diplomatic mission, and the choice to send him again conveyed a sense of seriousness.
 
那段时间,杰弗逊搜集拿破仑军事行动的时时情报,以及他在北美地区的企图。他的演变策略的一部分包括给杜篷一些没有透露给利文斯顿的信息,甚至有时候会故意给两人相左的指示。接着,杰弗逊在1803年再次派遣门罗去巴黎。在上一次的外交任务中,门罗是被法国正式驱赶回国的,因此,这回再次派遣他去法国充分表达了美国方面对此的严肃态度。
 
Napoleon was faced with the defeat of his armies in Saint-Domingue (present-day Republic of Haiti) where an expeditionary force under his brother-in-law Charles Leclerc was attempting to reassert control over a slave rebellion that threatened France's most profitable colony. Political conflicts in Guadeloupe and in Saint-Domingue grew with the restoration of slavery on May 20, 1802, and the defection of leading French officers, like the black general Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the mulatto officer Alexandre Pétion in October 1802, within the context of an ongoing guerrilla war. The French had successfully deported Toussaint L'Ouverture to France in June 1802, but yellow fever was destroying European soldiers and claimed Leclerc in November.
 
拿破仑当时面临着在圣多米尼各(今天的海地共和国)的失败,他派遣了一支远征军去那里,由他姐夫查理斯领导,试图从起义的奴隶手中夺回控制权,从而解除对法国利润最丰厚的殖民地的威胁。随着在1802年5月20日恢复奴隶制以来,在瓜得罗普岛与圣多米尼各之间的政治冲突不断增长,并且一些主要的法国军官在进行游击战争的时候叛变,包括黑人将军让-雅克"德萨林和1802年10月叛变的混血军官亚历山大"佩蒂翁。法国成功的于1802年将杜桑"卢维图尔解往法国,但是黄热病却摧毁了士兵的健康,并在11月蔓延到雷克雷尔。
 
Lacking sufficient military forces in America, Napoleon needed peace with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to implement the Treaty of San Ildefonso and take possession of Louisiana. Otherwise, Louisiana would be an easy prey for the British or even for the Americans. Britain had breached her promise to evacuate Malta by September 1802 as stipulated in the peace of Amiens, and in the beginning of the year 1803, war between France and Britain seemed increasingly unavoidable. On March 11, 1803, Napoleon decided to start building a flotilla of barges to invade Britain.
 
由于缺乏足够的军力部署在美洲,拿破仑需要与英国和爱尔兰保持和平,执行圣埃尔德枫索条约,占领路易斯安那。否则,路易斯安娜就会成为英国甚至美国的盘中餐。但是英国公然破坏于1802年9月前撤离马尔他以维护亚眠地区和平的承诺,在1803年开始,英法之间的战争看起来在所难免。1803年3月11日,拿破仑决定开始建立一支驳船舰队以入侵大不列颠。
 
These circumstances led Bonaparte to abandon his plans to rebuild France's New World empire. Napoleon gave notice to his minister of the treasury, François de Barbé-Marbois, on April 10, 1803, that he was considering surrendering the Louisiana Territory to the United States. On 11 April, 1803, just days before Monroe's arrival, Marquess de Barbé-Marbois offered Livingston all of Louisiana instead of just New Orleans. President Jefferson had instructed Livingston to only purchase New Orleans. However, he was certain that the United States would accept such a large offer.
 
大环境迫使拿破仑放弃重建法国新的世界帝国的计划。1803年4月10日,他指示他的财政部长弗朗西斯,说他正在考虑把路易斯安那的领土让渡给美国。次日,也就是在门罗到达的几天前,巴贝马侯爵向利文斯顿提出了出售整个路易斯安那而非仅仅新奥尔良的建议,而之前杰弗逊总统指示利文斯顿仅仅购买新奥尔良。但是,他确信美国会同意这桩大买卖的。
 
The American negotiators were prepared to spend $10 million for New Orleans but were dumbfounded when the entire region was offered for $15 million. The treaty was dated April 30, 1803, and was signed on May 2. On July 14, 1803, the treaty reached Washington D.C. The Louisiana territory was vast, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to Rupert's Land in the north, and from the Mississippi River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west. Acquiring the territory would double the size of the United States at a cost in the currency of the day of less than 3 cents per acre (7 cents per ha).
 
当时美国人只打算用1千万美元来购买新奥尔良,但在看到整个地区出价一千五百万美元时,个个都目瞪口呆了。该条约从1803年4月30日开始生效,但是直到5月2日才正式签署。1803年7月14日,条约送抵华盛顿。路易斯安那地区幅员辽阔,南起墨西哥湾,北抵鲁玻特地区,东起密西西比河,西至落基山。购买这片土地将美国的领土扩大了一倍,按当时货币算,花费大约为每英亩3美分(每公顷7美分)。
 
Domestic opposition
国内反对浪潮
The American purchase of the Louisiana territory was not accomplished without domestic opposition. Jefferson's philosophical consistency was in question because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. Many people believed he was being hypocritical by doing something he surely would have argued against with Alexander Hamilton. The Federalists strongly opposed the purchase, favoring close relations with Britain over closer ties to Napoleon, believing the purchase to be unconstitutional, and concerned that the U.S. had paid a large sum of money just to declare war on Spain.
 
美国购买路易斯安那地区是伴随着国内的反对之声而完成的。杰弗逊的哲学连贯性受到质疑,因为他以前是严格的宪法执行者。很多人认为他很虚伪,因为很明显他的很多做法会与亚历山大"汉密尔顿发生争执。联邦党人强烈反对此次购买,倾向于希望与英国的关系更为紧密,而非法国。他们认为此次购地是违背宪法的,声称这样做是让美国花了一大笔钱,得到的结果仅仅是与西班牙宣战。
 
The Federalists also feared that the political power of the Atlantic seaboard states would be threatened by the new citizens of the west, bringing about a clash of western farmers with the merchants and bankers of New England. There was concern that an increase in slave holding states created out of the new territory would exacerbate divisions between north and south, as well. A group of Federalists led by Massachusetts Senator Timothy Pickering went so far as to plan a separate northern confederacy, offering Vice President Aaron Burr the presidency of the proposed new country if he persuaded New York to join. Burr's relationship with Alexander Hamilton, who helped bring an end to the nascent northern secession movement, soured during this period. The animosity between the two men ended with Hamilton's death in a duel with Burr in 1804.
 
 联邦党人同时还担心大西洋海岸各州的政治权利会受到西部新移民的威胁,带来大量的西部农民,以及新英格兰的商人和银行家。同时,也有另外一种担心,害怕在新的领土里面增加蓄奴州会加剧南北之间的分化。一些由麻萨诸塞州议员蒂莫西"皮克林领导的联邦党人竟然计划成立一个独立的北方联盟,拥立副总统阿伦伯尔为总统,前提是如果他能说服纽约也加入进来。由于这个原因,在这一时期伯尔与曾经一起制止过北方分裂运动的汉密尔顿关系恶化,两人之间的仇恨最终以1804年的决斗中汉密尔顿的身亡收场。
Treaty signing
 条约签订
On April 30, 1803, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed by Robert Livingston, James Monroe, and Barbé Marbois in Paris. Jefferson announced the treaty to the American people on July 4. The United States Senate ratified the treaty with a vote of twenty-four to seven on October 20; on the following day, it authorized President Jefferson to take possession of the territory and establish a temporary military government. In legislation enacted on October 31, Congress made temporary provisions for local civil government to continue as it had under French and Spanish rule and authorized the President to use military forces to maintain order. Plans were also set forth for a mission to explore and chart the territory, which would become known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
 
1803年4月30日,利文斯顿、门罗和巴贝马侯爵在巴黎签署了路易斯安那购地条约。7月4日,杰弗逊向美国人民公布了这一条约。美国参议院在10月20日以24:7的投票数通过了此项条约;次日,授权给杰弗逊总统接管领土并建立一个临时军政府。法律于10月31日起开始生效,国会同意给当地民政府提供临时供给,以便其能够继续象在法国和西班牙统治时期一样的运作,并授权总统能够使用武装力量来维持秩序。与此同时,还制定出一些计划对这片疆土进行勘探,即后来的刘易斯与克拉克远征。

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