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The important results from Yuhuicun Site, Bengbu

(2008-10-10 09:20:54)
标签:

蚌埠

龙山文化

大型堆筑台迹

文化生活区

分类: 翻译

The important results from Yuhuicun Site, Bengbu, Anhui in 2008

安徽蚌埠禹会村遗址2008年发掘有重大成果

The Yuhuicun Site (YHC) of Longshan Culture (LSC) in Bengbu, Anhui represents a new cultural type for a region between Changjiang and Huai River. It revealed abundant cultural contents as well as complicated and unique cultural features from the Spring 2008 excavation. The large piled soil pedestal (PSP), burnt pits and vessel pits are all important in the search of the emergence of the Chinese civilization. They also have foundational effect for the understanding of the regional cultural development.

安徽蚌埠禹会村龙山文化遗址,代表了江淮之间地区一个新的文化类型,尤其是通过2008年春季的大面积发掘,呈现出了丰富的文化内涵和复杂、特殊的文化面貌,特别是具有祭祀性质的大型堆筑台迹和烧坑、器物坑的出现,在我国正在实施的中华文明探源工程中,对于区域性文明化进展的探索和研究起到了重要的支撑作用。

YHC, as a representative site of LSC along Huai River, has undergone survey-cum-excavation by IA, CASS in Spring 2008. New discoveries were made with stunning results.

禹会村,作为淮河流域龙山文化阶段典型遗址的代表,在中华文明探源工程第二阶段工作的实施中,再次经过中国社会科学院考古研究所2008年春季的详细钻探和大面积发掘,又有了新的进展并获得了可喜的成果。

The major task in Spring 2008 was to carry out a more comprehensive survey via drilling to investigate the distribution of the site. The project also included the extension of the excavated area focusing on the site’s care are for an in-depth investigation.

2008年春季的主要工作重点是对已知的遗址范围内进行详细的钻探,以了解遗址地下遗迹的分布情况;对遗址中已知的重要区域进行扩大范围的揭露,以求获得更加丰富的资料。

Drilling results showed the extension of the site over 500,000 square meters along the eastern bank of Huai River. Although only a small area has been exposed so far and many of the cultural deposits have been disturbed, the thickness of the original layers is estimated to have reached up to 3 meters, proving that the YHC was important and used over an extensive period of time.

钻探工作,是在已知的50万平方米的遗址范围内,就文化遗迹的分布和堆积情况以及重点区域进行了细致的钻探。通过钻探可知:遗址呈南北向分布于淮河东岸,暴露的面积小于50万平方米,虽然现有很多文化层都被破坏,但钻探得知原文化堆积厚度可达3米,从而证明了禹会村是当时人类活动范围大,文化堆积时间长的遗址。

The excavation focused on two parts of the site: the built pedestal vestige and the living area.

发掘 工作,是在前期工作的基础上继续对堆筑台迹和文化生活区两个部位进行揭露。

1.      The Piled Soil Pedestal (PSP) vestige

Based upon previous drilling results in 2007, this year’s excavation focused on the western part of the PSP. Scale and the plan of the northern part have been exposed. Thus we can see the so-called “T”-shaped plan of the PSP. It was constructed with layers of ash at its base, loess in the middle and white soil on top. White soil was overlaying the entire pedestal. The “T”-shaped pedestal, which had an East-West-width of 19.30 meters and a North-South-length of 38 meters, occupied the central area of the site.

An additional round-cornered rectangular piled soil structure measuring 11.30 meters East-West and 6.30 meters North-South was discovered further north on the white soil surface. Intensionally fired surfaces were observed on both the east and west walls of the PSP, with artifacts such as pottery cups and pottery Yan unearthed near those surfaces. Along the western fired surface stretched five ditches in an North-South direction.

 

1.堆筑台迹发掘现象  根据前期的钻探和2007年发掘提供的信息,今年又对堆筑台迹西侧部位进行了揭露,从而呈现出了该遗迹北部的格局和规模,至此可以使我们清楚的看到,这处“甲”字形或称“T”字形布局的人类堆筑台迹,其整体均是以灰土、黄土、白土自下而上逐层堆筑而成,最后形成一个大面积的白土覆盖面。该次清理的白土覆盖范围(主要为“甲”字形的上部)为东西宽19.30米,南北长38米,应为该处遗迹的主要部位。并在其北部的白土面之上完整的清理出一处东西长11.30米,南北宽6.30米,为圆角长方形的再次堆筑层,并在堆筑层的东西两侧存在有明显的烧烤面,同时在烧烤面附近出土有陶杯、陶甗等器物。而在西侧烧面之上还存在有五条南北向槽沟。

In addition, there existed 9 bowl-shaped pits about 0.50 meters deep and diameters of more than 2 meters. Some were slightly smaller than others, but all were distributed in different parts of the excavated area. The pits’ walls and bases were paved with the same sequence of ash, loess and white soil, and they were built at the time the PSP was constructed. At the northern end of the PSP, a trench with a width ranging from 1.35 meters at its western end to 6.60 meters in the east, created an artificial separation of the northern part of the PSP. Walls and base were, once again, paved with ash, loess and white soil. The white soil paving north of the trench, which was not fully excavated during this season, was relatively flat and extended to 21.30 meters.

In the axis of the southern central part, there was an additional square soil platform with sides of 1.30 meters and 0.90 meters high. Its upper part had unfortunately been destroyed. This square platform had been added after the PSP was built. Along the periphery of this small platform an obvious ditch boundary was seen. The platform’s soil was relatively purer with a denser and harder compaction. It can be assumed that this was an important part, possibly an altar, of the PSP.

除此之外,在如此大的白土堆积面上,存在有9处圆形圜底坑,直径多为2米,深为0.50米左右,个别略小,分布于所暴露面积的不同部位,其坑壁、坑底均为堆筑铺设的灰土、黄土和白土,显然是在堆筑时有意而为。堆筑台迹的北端又有一条宽1.35米(西部)-6.60米(东部)的沟带横跨东西,从而在台迹北部形成了一条人为的隔离带。同样,沟壁和沟底也是人为铺设的灰、黄、白土层。而该沟以北的白土面堆筑的较为平整,同时,其东西宽度又向两侧扩延到21.30米,本次发掘尚未完全揭露。在所暴露的堆筑台迹南端中部(即中轴部位),存在一个1.30米见方的土台,现存高度0.90米,上部已被破坏。该方土台是在堆筑台迹铺设后又重新挖槽堆筑而成,周边即保留有明显的坑槽界限。该土台土质较纯,并具有一定的密度和硬度,应该是整个堆筑台迹中的重要组成部分。

2.      The excavation of the western bank

Ash pits were the major features seen in the central part and the western river embankment of the site. There were some roughly complete artifacts found in the pits. One of the large ash pits with a bowl-shaped bottom was constructed by the sequence of digging – roasting – paving – roasting – paving. On the fired walls and base of each layer many artifacts of high specification with delicate morphology were found.

2.文化生活区发掘现象  遗址中部和河堤西侧的发掘,灰坑为主要的遗迹现象,灰坑中有完整和较完整的器物出现。其中一个大型圜底烧坑,分多次堆筑而成,经过了挖坑-烧烤-堆筑-烧烤-堆筑等不同的过程,并在每层坑壁及坑底的烧面之上,遗留有多件规格高、器形别致的陶器。

The pottery vessels found in this area were large in size with thin walls. The vessel forms were elegant and most of the pottery was not intended for daily use. Judging from the appearance of the pottery, it is obvious that some were related to fire religious ceremonies. Meanwhile, a certain percentage of blackish and shiny eggshell pottery has been found.

生活区出土的陶器,一般器形大,胎壁薄,器形别致,多为非生活实用性器物,而且个别的陶器外表,明显的显露出局部燎祭的现象,同时,黑光亮的蛋壳陶器占有一定的比例。

Understanding the data of the YHC site

The YHC site belongs to the late LSC, representing strong regional characteristics, mainly from the LSC of Shandong and Henan provinces. There were few functional artifacts found on the site. The existence of the large PSP, the unique pottery, the fired pits as well as the artifact pits revealed the site has a religious/sacrificial functions.

对禹会村遗址考古资料的认识

 

禹会村遗址的文化时代为龙山文化晚期,所表现的特征除具有很强的地域个性以外,又以山东龙山和河南龙山为主。遗址中具有实用性的器物较少,而大型的人类堆筑遗迹和器形别致的陶器以及烧坑、器物坑的存在,说明遗址是以祭祀为主要内容。                                               

During the excavation, a comprehensive interdisciplinary research in view of environmental archaeology has been conducted. The research identified the general environmental trend of the region, which had undergone repeated climate change from warm-humid to cold-dry pattern. Besides, it is believed that the Yuhuicun Site in Bengbu is related to the epics of Dayu and the flood.

 

发掘期间,从环境考古的角度做了多学科综合研究,研究表明该地区的环境总体趋势大致经历了暖湿-冷干-暖湿-冷干的气候变化过程,从而揭示了蚌埠禹会村与“大禹治水”的史实具有密切的联系

 

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