加载中…
个人资料
jianbin32
jianbin32
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:10,487
  • 关注人气:7
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

英语中的分隔现象

(2007-09-17 00:26:14)
标签:

知识/探索

 

英语中的分隔现象

 

一.分隔现象产生的原因

 

在英语句子中,两个结构关系密切或意义紧密相连的成分应尽量紧挨在一起。但有时因为表达、修辞、句型等原因,需要在这些紧密相连的成分之间插入一些其他词语,从而造成分隔现象。

 

1.自然分隔

 

当两个及以上的后置定语同时修饰一个名词时,或两个及以上的状语同时修饰一个动词或形容词时,或一个及物动词有两个宾语时,分隔是必然的。

For the last thirteen years of her life she was a widow in a land where she was not liked, ruled by a son who hated her. 在她生命的最后13年,她孀居在她儿子统治的国家,那个国家不喜欢她,她儿子也恨她。

land有两个后置定语:where she was not liked和ruled by a son who hated her。必定有一个会与所修饰的词语分隔。

We assume it’s a feeling that comes as a result of good things that just happen to us, things over which we have little or no control. 我们认为幸福是一种感觉,这种感觉是由于我们刚经历了一些好事而产生的,对这些事我们几乎不能甚至根本不能控制。

good things有两个修饰语,定语从句that just happen to us和同位语things over which we have little or no control。由于同位语本身还带有一个定语从句,且同位语和前面那个定语从句与他们所共同所修饰的词语的关系相比不太密切,故放在后面。

 

2.句型限制

   

    在一些特殊结构中,由于句型的要求,连系动词必须和主语补语分隔,如:

Try as you may, you will not succeed. 虽然你可以试一试,但不会成功的。这是一个由as引导的让步状语从句,try和may必须分隔,如改为As you may try则会导致意义变化。

Are you ready? 准备好了吗?

are和ready的分隔是一般疑问句的句型要求。

 

3.修辞需要

 

1.为保持句子平衡、避免头重脚轻现象,或为了避免累赘。如:

    She keeps in the garden some of the most lovable little rabbits you ever saw. 她在花园里养着一些你所见到过的最可爱的小兔。

宾语较长而状语太短,故将状语提前到宾语前,造成动宾分隔。

2.为使表达更准确、严密,以免引起误解。如:

He has promised to really unite the people in the company. 他许诺要真正团结全公司的人。(修饰unite)

这是一个分裂不定式,如果将really插入其他位置,本句句意就回变化。如:

He has promised really to unite the people in the company. 他确实许诺要团结全公司的人。(修饰has promised)

He has promised to unite the people really in the company. 他许诺要团结确实在公司里的人。(修饰in the company)

3.为了强调,可将句中某个成分置于句首或句尾,或为了使上下文衔接紧凑而把句中某个成分置于句首,或为了突出某一部分,从而造成分隔现象,如:

This too we have tolerated. 这我们也忍受了。

为强调宾语,将其提前到句首,从而造成动宾分隔。

Happy people, as especially in individualistic Western cultures, like themselves. 快乐的人都非常自我表现赏识,这在强调个性的西方文化中显得尤为突出。

“Happy people like themselves.”一句本身已很短,本句中插入成分as especially in individualistic Western cultures因此显得很醒目,这样做的目的在于强调。

4.避免句式呆板,使表达生动活泼。如:

It was, as I said, not to be liked. 正如我所说的那样,这是不招人喜欢的。

as I said也可置于句首,现置于句中,说出时有所停顿,句式显得较灵活。

 

二.用作分隔的词语

 

两个本应紧挨在一起的词语往往可以被较短的谓语、主谓结构、定语、状语宾语、同位语等分隔,如:

He laughs best who laughs last. 谁笑到最后,谁笑得最好成绩。

修饰He的定语从句who laughs last被谓语laughs best分隔

    Those who have been in a serious accident often report that, as it occurred, everything happened in slow motion. 那些经历过严重事故的人常描述说,在事故发生的过程中,一切都以慢动作的形式进行。

状语从句as it occurred将本应紧挨在一起的连词that和它引导的宾语从句分隔开了。

下面是一些经常起分隔作用的词语。

    1.介词短语,如in addition to, for example, for instance, of course, as a result, in fact, as a matter of fact等。如:

Happy people, as especially in individualistic Western cultures, like themselves. 快乐的人都非常自我表现赏识,这在强调个性的西方文化中显得尤为突出。

Part of growing up, of course, is realizing that there is only so much room in one life, whether you are male or female. 当然,成长也意味着,要明白一生就这么点儿回旋的余地,不管你是男是女。

2.非限定动词短语

The burglar, found guilty of breaking into the store, was put on four years’ probation, sentenced to 180 days, in jail and ordered to do 200 hours of community service. 窃贼因犯有闯入商店抢劫的罪行被判刑180天,缓刑四年,并被罚做200小时的社区服务工作。

The resistance experienced when one body moves over another, with which it is in contact, is called the frictional force. 一个物体在和它接触的另一物体上移动时所受的阻力叫做摩擦力。

3.独立主格结构。如:

But it’s the millions of homes, with furnaces or air-conditioners running full blast, that cause the problem. 但是,正是这成百上千万的让他们家里的炉子和空调全速运转的家庭造成了这个问题。

4.副词(短语),如however, therefore, moreover, hence, more or less等。如:

Until recently, I was reconciled, more or less, to being mediocre for life. 直到最近,我才或多或少地安于这种平庸的生活。

Sometimes, though, you may find that high priority items are they very ones you seek to avoid. 然而有时你可能会发现有些重要的优先项目正是你试图回避的。

5.同位语。如:

Jeff, a 27-year-old hacker, has a different point of view. 27岁的黑客杰夫则持另一种观点。

Joanna, Faber’s teenage daughter, came home one day looking distressed. 费伯十多岁的女儿乔安娜有一天回到家时显得很沮丧。

6.各类从句,如名词从句,状语从句,同位语从句等。

Does this simply imply, as many have surmised, that women are better at following Cicero’s advice to “resist appearance”? 这是否就如很多人推测的那样,女人比男人能更好地听取西塞罗的忠告“不受外表的影响”呢?

You just sit back and let it -- whatever it is -- happen. 不管是什么事情,你都只需袖手旁观,任其发生。

7.I think, I believe, I say, it reports等引述语。如:

It is there, they say, that children must be helped to develop enough self-esteem to make occasional failure an unthreatening prospect and enough of a sense of right and wrong to overcome the urge to cheat. 他们说,必须帮助孩子们在家里树立起足够的自尊心,不至于将偶尔的失败视作危及前途的事,使他们树立明确的是非观,克制作弊的欲望。

About a third of these impulse purchases, says Salsbury, are made because the item is attractively wrapped. 萨尔斯伯里说大约三分之一的冲动购物是因为商品诱人的包装所致。

8.呼语。如:

But the truth is, sir, all last term I felt as if had no go in me whatsoever. 可事实是,先生,整个上学期我都感到仿佛一点劲儿都没有。

Note: 扩号和破折号也可用作分隔的手段,如:

    At the opposite end of the spectrum are those who use procrastination (generally not on a conscious level) as a means of excusing work which they know is of poor quality. 另一种极端就是,有些人利用拖延(通常是无意识的)作为一种手段,为他们明知质量低劣的工作找借口。

If an advertiser wants to promote beautiful colors, patterns, or textures then media that offer high-quality color reproduction –magazine or television –should be used instead of newspapers. 如果广告商想倡导美丽的色彩、款式和质地,那么他应该利用能提供高质量的色彩复制效果的媒体--杂志或电视,而不时报纸。

 

三.几种常见的分隔现象

 

   1.主谓分隔

The death penalty, in short, is spawning death agencies. 简而言之,死刑判决导致许多死刑案件代理机构涌现出来。

Better kitchen planning, for example, could cut down on the number of trips to the supermarket. 比如说,好的厨房烹饪计划可以减少去超市的次数。

2.There be句型中的分隔

There are, of course, times when it is important not to keep our moths shut. 当然有时侯不保持沉默也很重要。

3.动宾分隔

    She carries over the shoulder of her leather coat a heavy black purse.. 她身穿一件皮

衣,肩上挎着一只沉沉的黑包。

4.系补分隔

He always ate egg-salad sandwiches at his desk. He was, of course, overweight, by 20 or 25 pounds. 他总是在办公室里吃鸡蛋色拉三明治。自然,他体重超标,达20至25磅。

     English friendships are formed outside the family circle, but they are not, as in Germany,

complementary to the family. 英国人的友谊是在家庭以外形成的,不象德国人的那样已与

家庭生活结合在一起。

5.宾语与宾语补语的分隔

She cited as an intrusion on her rights the security guards’ insistence at a concert that she and her boyfriend stop turning on their cigarette lighters. 她举例说,在音乐会上保安人员坚持阻止她和她的男友点打火机是对他权利的侵犯。

    The discovery has made possible new techniques for brain surgery. 这个发现使得大脑手术新技术成为可能。

6.谓语动词或非限定动词的分隔

She had, according to her daughter, given up trying to compete with her husband’s work years ago, when the children were small. 拒她女儿说,几年前,当孩子们还小的时候,她就放弃了与丈夫的工作争宠的努力。

John’s good luck was, however, not finished. 然而,约翰的好运气并未结束。

He remembered having once carried out that test at ordinary temperature. 他记得曾一度在常温下进行过那种试验。

7.修饰语和被修饰语的分隔

While apathy and alienation have become a national plague, the disengagement seems to run deeper among young Americans, those 18 to 29, setting them clearly apart from earlier generations. 虽然冷漠和疏远已成为整个国家的通病,但是18至29岁的美国青年似乎更深地沾染了自顾自的习气,从而使者代人与前几代人明显地区分开来。

Setting them clearly apart from earlier generations修饰the disengagement。

8.定语从句和先行词的分隔

The studies, one released today and the other late last year, paint a portrait of a generation of young adults, from 18 to29 years of age, who are indifferent toward public affairs. 两次全国范围的调研的结果,一次是今天公布的,另一次是去年底公布的,描绘了18至29岁的一代青年人对公众事件漠不关心的形象。

young adults的两个后置定语中who are indifferent toward public affairs被from 18 to29 years of age与其所修饰的词语所分隔。

For those of us, however, who are good at telling lies, for those of us who lie and don’t get caught, the question of whether or not to lie can be a hard and serious moral problem. 但是对于我们这些善于说谎,而且说了谎也不会被揭穿的人来说,是否说谎就是个困难而严肃的道德问题了。

9.分句间的分隔

Come on, my boy, and we shall see whether it will not fit the lock. 活计,来呀!看看它能不能打开这把锁吧。

Although they didn’t like his views, I think, in a way, they liked how he talked. 尽管他们不喜欢他的观点,但我觉得,他们还是有一点喜欢他谈话的方式的。

10.连词和主语的分隔

Although he was a bit rude to my parents, I didn’t feel angry with him, because, as I said, I like people to be confident in that way, as also because, for some perverse reason, I like it if my parents don’t like the people I associate with. 尽管他对我的父母有点不粗鲁,但我并没有生他的气,因为正如我说过的,我喜欢那种充满自信的人。而且出于一种逆反心理,我偏偏喜欢和那些我父母不喜欢我与之交往的人交往。

    If, on the other hand, he had been taught the details of the local time system just as he should have been taught the local spoken language, it would have been possible for him to adjust himself accordingly. 另一方面,正如他应该学会当地的口语一样,如果他事先了解一些有关当地时间概念的细节,也许他就能相应地做些调整了。

11.特殊结构中的分隔

It is up to us, the people, to stop the national wasteful habits. 制止全国性的浪费陋习是我们全体人民的责任。

it is up to sb. to do sth.是一个固定搭配,意为:是……的职责。本句中被一同位语分隔。

It was not until weeks later when John began receiving letters and phone calls from friends around the U.S. who had seen his ad on TV, that it occurred to him that the ad was being used a lot. 直到几周后,当约翰收到曾经在电视上看到过他的广告的朋友们来自美国各地的来信和电话时,他才意识到这个广告正在频繁地播放。

    本句是强调句型,其引导词可能是句中的when, who, that。但仔细分析可知,when引导的是修饰weeks的定语从句,who引导的是修饰friends的定语从句,两个从句本身被其他成分都分隔,同时他们又将“It was not until weeks later that it occurred to him that the ad was being used a lot.”这一关键结构分隔。

12.多重分隔

He is survived by his wife, Helen, forty-eight years old, a good woman of no particular marketable skills, who worked in an office before marrying and mothering. 他先于妻子,48岁的海伦去世。海伦是个好女人,没有特别的经营能力,结婚生子前曾在一个办公室工作过。

his wife后有四个修饰语:同位语Helen和a good woman of no particular marketable skills,定语forty-eight years old,和定语从句who worked in an office before marrying and mothering。这些修饰成分按照长短和与被修饰语的密切关系排列,自然后面的修饰成分就一个一个地被分隔了。

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
后一篇:Success
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

    后一篇 >Success
      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有