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涂润生在美国《无限能量杂志》上发表的文章

(2012-01-16 12:53:59)
标签:

美国

存在性

电荷运动

推迟势

相对性

文化

分类: 相对论

    相对性原理给电动力学带来的麻烦在美国《无限能量》杂志2012年第一期发表。

 

    我刚收到主编Christy Frazier的通知,美国《Infinite Energy Magazine》杂志已经出版了《相对性原理给电动力学带来的麻烦》短文。该文的摘要和主要内容如下。

 

摘要可以证明“势的推迟的存在性在Lorentz变换下保持不变”。根据Lorentz变换的意义可知,这就是“势的推迟的存在性与观察者的运动状态无关”。可是,如果不同惯性系等价,改变观察者的运动状态,由恒定电荷运动导致的势的推迟的存在性应该改变。这就是相对性原理给电动力学带来的麻烦。Maxwell方程组是没有考虑势和场的推迟的基本方程,只能在低速下近似成立。

    其主要内容如下:

考察作相对运动的一根电中性导体与一个带电体之间的势的推迟。

通过一些具体的Lorentz变换操作,不难发现:给非推迟势作Lorentz 变换得到的仍然是非推迟势,给推迟势作Lorentz 变换得到的仍然是推迟势。就是说,标量势φ和矢量势A在Lorentz变换下不但保证形式不变,而且性质也不变。李纳-维谢尔势就可以通过给静系中的推迟势作Lorentz变换得到。这表明,势的推迟的存在性与Lorentz变换无关。给一个物理量作Lorentz变换,相当于改变观察者的运动状态来观察这个物理量。势的推迟的存在性与Lorentz变换无关就是势的推迟的存在性与观察者的运动状态无关。由静止电荷改变电荷量导致的势的推迟在定性上的确与观察者的运动状态无关。

    但是,恒定电荷运动也可以导致势的推迟。在不同惯性系等价的相对性原理成立的前提下,在相对于恒定电荷运动的体系中(例如上述电中性民导体上)观察,存在势的推迟(因为电势在空间中的分布随时间而变),在与恒定电荷相联系的体系中观察(在相对恒定电荷静止的体系中观察),不存在势的推迟(因为电势在空间中的分布不随时间而变)。就是说,由恒定电荷运动导致的势的推迟的存在性与观察者的运动状态有关。同一个恒定电荷运动导致的势的推迟的存在性是不对称的。同一次相互作用中,势的推迟不可能既存在又不存在。而相对性原理要求“同一次相互作用中,势的推迟既存在又不存在”。

这就证明了“对于势的推迟的存在性,相对性原理不成立”。

 

下面是对这个过程的感慨。

    最著名的杂志不刊登有争议的文章。几乎所有那些影响力大的杂志都有一个同样的原则:凡是挑战相对论理论和违背经典理论的文章一概不受理。要知道,今天的科学论文就像八股文一样,投稿规定很多而且繁杂,每个杂志的规定也各不相同。现代科学已经被大大地宗教化了。也就是说,科学派别就像宗教派别几乎一样。科学交流都是在“教派”内部进行。一个违背这些“派别”(学派)的观点是根本无法从其内部打入进去的,只能从外向内慢慢渗透。在科学主流内部,挑战者都感觉自己现在的处境就像是中国古代小脚女人社会中的大脚女人一样,无论怎么挣扎也很难被体制内的人认可。但是,在体制外面有很多像我一样的人,他们被定义为民科,还有就是那些尚未进入体制内的年轻人。这些人的思维还处于自由或纯净的状态,就像皇帝新衣故事里的小孩一样,虽然知识有限,但比受到利益牵绊和严重洗过脑的体制内人更容易看到事物的本质。

    在今天的科学杂志上发表的科学论文中有多少是真正具有科学价值的呢?看上去每一篇文章都很严谨,可是,纸上画出来的饼看上去再怎么好吃也是没有实际营养的。脱离了科学原则的文章写得再怎么严谨也是没有实际科学意义的。科学杂志当然也是一个科学交流的平台,问题是它现在实际上不是一个公平的交流平台。这也是一个现实而重大的与科学有关的问题。

    与我写的其他文章一样,此文也先投过《自然》等最著名的杂志。但是,没有进入同行审查程序,甚至没有分派给编辑(稿件管理系统中没有留下投稿记录)。经过多次向《自然》、《科学》等著名杂志投稿,发现,《自然》、《科学》、《物理评论》、《美国科学院院刊》、英国物理学会主办的杂志,都是先由“稿件协调员”处理稿件。这些人一般是根据作者的背景“刷”稿的。民科的作品根本上不了他们的法眼。另外,他们估计有争议的文章也是必“刷”的,且不看作者背景。越是名刊越是不刊登有争议的文章。国内的最高级刊物虽然影响因子只有2~3, 但看背景的问题更严重。民科的文章根本不理。记得梅晓春的文章是以“福州大学教授”的身份在《中国科学》上发表的,如果以“福州原创物理研究所”的身份是发不了的。

    我相信民科有一个共同的感觉:文章和成果受到刊物的不公正对待,没有一个说理的地方。即使知道审稿人的评语是完全没有道理的,也不能像刑事和民事那样可以申诉。民科呼唤“科学法庭”的诞生。

《无限能量》杂志是支持新观点的杂志之一,不收版面费,要求投稿文档的格式为PDF。杂志社有相应的网站。对待稿件不唯背景。有关能源问题的研究和讨论的文章也可以向其投稿。其影响因子要比国内的《前沿科学》高很多。

    物理学领域的中等影响力的期刊有:《国际理论物理》、《物理学通讯》、《物理学杂志》等。

 

《相对性原理给电动力学带来的麻烦》的英文原版如下:

Relativity Principle Brings About Trouble for Electrodynamics

Tu Runsheng

(Huangshi Supervision and Inspection Centre of Product Quality,

16 Flower Garden Road, Huangshi City, Hubei Province, P. R. CHINA)

 

The existence of potential retardance is unchanged under Lorentz transformations. Based on the means of Lorentz transformations, the existence of potential retardance is not relevant to the motion state of observers. However, if deferent inertial systems are equivalent, the existence of the potential retardance induced by constant charge motion should change when the viewer’s motion-state changes. This is the problem that the relativity principle brings about for electrodynamics. Maxwell’s equations are the basic equations, but don’t consider the retardance of potential and field, and can only be established approximately under low speed.

 

In electrodynamics, the scalar potential φ and vector potential A have the invariance of Lorentz’s gauge (the symmetry of form). We have noted the invariance of the potential’s form in the invariance of Lorentz’s gauge only, contented ourselves with the form symmetry in it, but discussed very little of whether or not the potential’s essence vary. Under Lorentz transformations, whether or not the potential’s essence varies is a very important question.

Through some concrete operation of Lorentz transformations, we can easily discover the following: the non-retarded potential can only be obtained by performing Lorentz transformations on a non-retarded potential; through performing Lorentz transformations on a non-retarded potential, we can only obtain a non-retarded potential; through performing Lorentz transformations on a retarded potential, we can only obtain a retarded potential.1,2 Under Lorentz transformations, the scalar potential φ and vector potential A not only maintain their form, but also maintain their nature. The Lienard-Wiechert potential may be obtained by performing Lorentz transformations on a retarded potential in a static system. This indicates that the existence of a potential’s retard has nothing to do with the Lorentz transformations. Performing Lorentz transformation on a physical quantity is equal to changing a viewer’s state of motion to observe this physical quantity. The existence of a potential’s retard has nothing to do with the Lorentz transformation in which the existence of a potential’s retard is related to the viewer’s state of motion. The potential’s retard induced by a static charge changes its charge quantity, qualitatively, and indeed has nothing to do with the viewer’s state of motion.

    But, the potential’s retard may also be induced by the movement of a constant charge. Under the premise of the relativity principle—that different inertial systems are equivalent to be tenable observed from the system which is moving relative to the constant charge—the potential’s retard exists; observing from the system which is related to the constant charge (from the system which is static relative to the constant charge), the potential’s retard doesn’t exist. That is to say, the existence of the potential’s retard induced by the movement of constant charge has something to do with the viewer’s state of motion. The existence of the potential’s retard induced by the same constant charge moving is unsymmetrical.

    For a specific potential’s retardance, it is not possible to both exists and does not exist, i.e., that the existence of potential’s retardance is not relative but absolute. Since the existence of potential‘s retarddance is absolute, We can use it to distinguish different inertial frames, and find the absolute rest system: when there is relative motion at uniform velocity between a neutral conductor and a charged body, if there isn’t potential’s retardance in the process that the induced charge produces, the charge is absolute static. If there is a potential’s retardance in the process that the induced charge produces, and the value equals the maximum value calculated using the relative velocity, the conductor is absolute static.

    The above analysis indicates that if one does not consider the relativity principle, the conclusion of electrodynamics is that the existence of the potential’s retard has nothing to do with the viewer’s state of motion. If one considers the relativity principle, the existence of the potential’s retard induced by the movement of constant charge has something to do with the viewer’s state of motion and must inevitably be obtained. In the other words, for the potential’s retard induced by the movement of constant charge, Lorentz transformations can guarantee its symmetry, yet the relativity principle requires its nature to be asymmetric. This is the trouble brought about by the relativity principle for electrodynamics: natural symmetry and formal symmetry aren’t completely consistent.

    People interpreted the relativity principle as a machine that makes symmetry, and became intoxicated with this idea, never thinking that the relativity principle is sure to make the asymmetry of the potential’s retard in electrodynamics. Why has this conflict been concealed? There is a mistake in the idea and logic associated with it.

    The idea behind the relativity principle has been treated as a kind of faith. Both the potential’s retardance—regardless of whether it is induced by the movement of constant charge or by static charge changing their electric quantity—are absolute, i.e. have nothing to do with the viewer’s motion state. The relativity principle in the theory of relativity is a supposition that conforms to facts provided by the man who advanced the theory, hence it is certainly not absolute. Since most people accept the theory of relativity, they also accept the relativity principle. The basic supposition of the theory of relativity has seriously influenced people’s ideological concept because of the enormous influence it has. Many people have promoted the ideological concept that the relativity principle is absolutely exact and everything is relative, and adhere only to this line of thinking. This idea has seriously affected people’s logical thinking and judgments. Thus, scientists without hesitation deny the absoluteness of the potential’s retard postponement induced by relative motion.

    Logically, with the relativity principle, we can’t afford to allow the potential’s retard induced by a static charge changing its electric quantity to be absolute. If the electrodynamics textbooks do not differentiate the two cases of the potential’s retard induced by static charge changing its electric quantity and the potential’s retard induced by the movement of constant charge, the idea that the relativity principle allows the potential’s retard induced by a static charge changing its electric quantity to be absolute must be expanded for the relativity principle to allow that the potential’s retard induced by the movement of constant charge is absolute. Textbooks only note a situation in which the potential’s retard induced by a static charge changes its charge quantity, but neglect a situation in which the potential’s retard is induced by the movement of constant charge. Textbooks make Lorentz transformations to a potential, but do not indicate the distance and the potential’s vector, thus it has confused the two types of Lienard-Wiechert potentials of different significance. But in fact, because the potential’s retard induced by a static charge changes its charge quantity and is not caused by the movement, therefore, the existence of potential retard of this type has nothing to do with the viewer’s state of motion necessarily. It cannot represent the existence of the potential retard induced by the movement of constant charge also having nothing to do with the viewer’s state of motion. If the different inertial systems are equivalent, then the existence of the potential retard induced by the movement of constant charge must be related to the viewer’s state of motion. Briefly put, the logical error violated by the predecessor is that it confuses the essential distinction between the existence of potential retard induced by the movement of constant charge and the existence of potential retard induced by a static change changing its charge quantity.

    As stated above, so long as a charge moves at high velocity, the field and the potential in Maxwell’s equations are not all retarded field and retarded potential. We can’t derive the retarded potential and retarded field from Maxwell’s equations. Yet we can derive Coulomb’s law from them. Maxwell’s equations are derived by way of the analogy with hydromechanics. But hydromechanics does not consider the delayed transmission of force. Maxwell’s equations have prophesied that the propagation speed of an electromagnetic wave is limited. But it does not consider the effect that the propagation speed of field has limited influence on electromagnetic interaction. Thus it can be seen that Maxwell’s equations do not consider the retard of potential and field, and can only establish approximately under low speed. According to common practice....the movement of the energetic particle in an accelerator should make it possible to confirm the retarding effect. But, the energetic particles in an accelerator move in a uniform magnetic field, and the particle’s movement in the uniform field does not have a retarding effect.

 

References

1. Tu, R.S. 2008. “Asymmetry in Retarded Effects of Fundamental Interaction Has Far-reaching Influence on Electromagnetics and the Theory of Relativity,” Scientific Inquiry, 9, 2, 131-146.

2. Tu, R.S. 2010. “Serious Amount of Problems in Electrodynamics and Their Solution,” Scientific Inquiry, 11, 2, 97-114.

 

About the Author

Runsheng Tu graduated from the chemistry department of Huanggang Teachers College in 1981. He is an engineer at Huangshi Products Quality Inspection of China. His research interests include: quantum mechanics, the theory of relativity, cosmology and management science.

*Email: 2run3@sina.com

Huangshi Supervision and Inspection Centre of Product Quality....

16 Flower Garden Road, Huangshi City, Hubei Province, China.涂润生在美国《无限能量杂志》上发表的文章

 

Cover Letter

It is universally known that a potential maintains its form unchangeable under Lorentz transformations. Whether or not the essence of a potential is maintain unchangeable under Lorentz transformations? We can easily find: The non-retarded potential can only be obtained by performing Lorentz transformations on a non-retarded potential; through performing Lorentz transformations on a non-retarded potential, we can only obtain a non-retarded potential; through performing Lorentz transformations on a retarded potential, we can only obtain a retarded potential. That is to say, whether or not a potential belong to the category of retarded potential, isn’t related with Lorentz transformations qualitatively. Under the premise of different inertial systems to be equivalence, for the potential at a field-point excited by a constant charge, if observing from the system which is static relative to the constant charge, it is retarded potential, if observing from the system which is moving relative to the constant charge, isn’t retarded potential. Obviously, the existences of potential’s retard induced by the movement of constant charge are asymmetry between different inertial systems. This asymmetry requires the existence of potential’s retard to be related with Lorentz transformations 

Because, Lorentz transformations act on physical quantity is equivalent to the physical quantity being viewed by the viewer who changes itself movement state. To have find that the potential’s retard induced by the movement of constant charge is qualitatively asymmetry (it is decided by relativity principle), will shock to the fixed sense of people as the broken symmetry of weak interaction found by Yang Chen Ning and Li zheng Dao. It will arouse the maximum interest of all.

 

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