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(2008-04-28 19:28:20)


An organization that is well structured for change is one that is organic. An organic organization has the structural characteristics mentioned above and others like wide span of control, cross-functional teams, free flow of information and low formalization. Organic organizations have "organizational structure that is highly adaptive and flexible with little work specialization, minimal formalization and little direct supervision of employees." (Robbins et al., 2000, p.362) Organic structures incorporate the use of teams. Teams use a much flatter design of management.
一个组织的结构良好是为了有机的适应变革。一个有机组织的结构特征,上述提及到的以及其他类似的大跨度的控制,跨功能团队,自由流通的资讯和低形式化。有机组织有" 组织结构以少许工作专业化的高适应性和灵活性,最小的形式化和少的直接监管的员工"  (Robbins et al., 2000, p.362)。有机结构合并着团队的用处。团队的用处是一个谄媚的管理设计。

The learning organization is the best-structured organization for change. This is quite apparent in the definition "An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change because all members take an active role in identifying and resolving work related issues." (Robbins et al., 2000, p.376) To achieve this the organization has a structure that is without boundaries.
学习型组织是最好的结构组织的变革。它明显的定义是"组织已开发出连续的能力去适应和改变,因为所有的成员采取积极的作用去发现和解决工作的相关事宜" (Robbins et al., 2000, p.376)。要达到这个目标,组织的结构是无限制的。

Leadership "is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals." (Robbins et al., 2000, p.593) Transformational leaders are the style or type of leader best suited to change. They are a style of leaders that entail certain qualities that are conducive to change. These are "... individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma." (Robbins et al., 2000, p.617) Leadership is crucial to facilitate the vision required for an organization to become a learning organization. Leadership can be used to reduce the resistance to change by altering people's attitudes, expectations, perceptions and behavior through motivation, communication, participation, facilitation, negotiation manipulation and coercion.

领导才能"是一种影响团体从而去实现目标的能力" (Robbins et al., 2000, p.593) 。变革型领导人的风格或类型是最适合变革的领导人。他们是一群有风格的领导需具备着一些素质有利于变革.这些" …个性化的考虑,智力激励和魅力" (Robbins et al., 2000, p.617). 领导能力是关键,以促进组织的前景所需使之成为学习型组织。领导能力可以通过人们态度,期望,观念和行为-通过激励,沟通,参与,便利化,谈判操纵和胁迫的改变来减少变革的阻力,。

Control is "The process of monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned, and of correcting any significant deviations." (Robbins et al., 2000, p.683) The control of the organization needs to flexible enough to absorb and deal with change. Managers need to move away from bureaucratic style of control to encourage change. Bureaucratic organizations strain the use of rules, regulations, procedures, policies and hierarchal authority. For an improved environment for change organizations should use clan or market approach to control.

控制是"监测活动的过程以确保员工正在完成计划,并纠正任何重大偏差" 。(Robbins et al., 2000, p.683) 组织的控制需要有足够的灵活性去吸收和应付变革。管理者需要远离官僚作风的管制,从而去鼓励变革。官僚机构劳损了规则,规定,程序,政策和层次权威。为改善组织变革的环境应利用宗族或市场的办法来控制。

How do we put the functions of management and the possible changes of organizations into a process of change? Managers can use the process of reengineering. "A radical redesign of all or part of a company's work processes to improve productivity and financial performance." (Robbins et al., 2000, p.64) Rather than creating an environment for change this method just goes right on in and changes it. Reengineering is extremely stressful on the organization. "Yet, for all the enormously stressful uncertainty placed on employees, the payoffs from reengineering can be powerful." (Robbins et al., 2000, p.717) An organization that has gone through the reengineering process has experienced and adapted to change and therefore are better experienced to accept and embrace change in the future.
我们应如何把管理职能和组织可能发生的改变变成一个变革的过程呢?管理者可以使用的再造过程。"一个全部或部分彻底的重新设计公司的工作流程可以提高生产力和改善财务表现" (Robbins et al., 2000, p.64). 而不是创造一个环境去改变原理并且去变革它.再造对于组织是极其有压力的. "然而,所有巨大精神压力的不确定性放置在员工身上,但是再造相应的报酬可以使之成为强有力的" 。(Robbins et al., 2000, p.717) 组织表示通过再造过程,经历了和适应改变,因此在未来中都有更好的经验接受变革.

The environment and that we create through change and trying to encourage change is one that is conducive to stimulating innovation. We need to have flexible structures, good communication, and culture that are relaxed and supportive of new ideas. An organization's culture can be a prevailing force for innovation or seriously threaten the innovative endeavor. Crucial to the implementation of cultural change is management's ability to use leadership and provide a shared vision of the future. In a chaotic, dynamic world of change we must be able to come up with new ideas and inventions in order to compete in the global market. Those who are good innovators are the ones who can gain competitive advantages.

Change and survival are synonymous. Survival demands change. Managers must be intuitive and read the current and changing situation surrounding them and make the best decision to coordinate work and apply resources (Graham, 1997, p174). We have discussed what change is, how we depict it and what forces or creates change. Change implemented correctly can unleash employee creativity and potential, reduce bureaucracy and costs, and provide ongoing improvement for an organization. Given these benefits it would seem a good idea to encourage change.

变革和生存权是同义的。生存需求着变革。管理者必须直觉的,通过阅读了当前变革形势的环境,并做出最适当的决定去协调工作和运用资源((Graham, 1997, p174).我们讨论了什么是变革,我们描绘出怎样变革以及什么促使或产生变革。在组织中,变革的正确实施可以释放出员工的创造力和潜力,减少了官僚主义和费用,并提供持续的改善.考虑到这些好处,它似乎是鼓励变革的一个好主意.

Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values (Griffin, 2000, p289). Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards.
道德规范可以被定义为根据道德的主要价值观来评价行动的过程. (Griffin, 2000, p289)在整个世纪以来,人们试图选择利润和道德之间。也许,他们中的一些人两样都取得,但每一次它可能引起的道德的问题。这些问题涉及到公平,公正,对或错,因为它只能按道德标准来解决。
Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of management. Corporations have to maintain the same standards as an individual person and, in addition, corporations, as organizational units, have their own social responsibilities toward customers, employees and society. However, any business should keep its original purpose of functioning - making profit. Balancing the traditional standards of profitability and burden of social responsibilities is not an easy task. In recent years it has been a trend of setting standards of corporate ethics according to high degree of morale.


Unfortunately, cooperation of unethical behavior of a manager with a journalist may lead to an undesirable result. "Early in December 1995, Smart Money's editor-at-large James J. Cramer wrote an article for his monthly column; Unconventional Wisdom, recommending four $2 to $6 "orphan" stocks. Trading records show that at the peak, Cramer's firm had paper profits of more than $2 million on the stocks. The gain occurred because he had adopted at least three of the "orphan" sometimes before writing the article. Cramer's article said that he was buying one of the stocks but did not disclose that (p. 42). Clearly, neither the manager nor the editors had in any way cared of conducting the ethical behavior and as the result the innocent investors were hurt.
不幸的是,管理者与一名记者合作的不道德行为也可能导致不良的结果. "早在1995年12月,Smart money的主编James J Cramer在月度专栏写了一篇文章, 超凡的智慧,推荐了四支$2至$6的"孤儿" 股票.股市交易记录显示这些股票在高峰期, 在这次的股票,Cramer公司的书面利润超过$200万。增益产生了,因为他在发表文章前已经购买了至少三支"孤儿"股票.但Cramer的文章并没有透露他已经购买了股票(P42).” 显然,在任何情况下,管理者和编辑都没有进行道德行为,导致无辜投资者被伤害了.

On the other hand, being ethical can be clever marketing strategy. Increasingly, consumers are swayed by "non-commercial" factors, such as whether the product harms the environment. Firms such as Ben & Jerry's, an ice cream maker and Body Shop international, a cosmetics retailer, have enforced their brands by publicizing their ethical standards...Calmins Engine, a maker of diesel engines, made the product greener while lobbing for stricter pollution laws. Du Pont, a leading producer of ozone damaging CFCs, became an early member of anti-CFCs lobby partly because it knew it was well ahead of its rivals in developing alternative. ("The Economist", December 1996, p.21) But ethical self-promotion can backfire. As in the case of the Body Shop company that was publicly enforced to rephrase a statement that its product were not tasted on animals (Some other companies did that in the past). This accident made many consumers to question Body Shop ethical standards. Another interesting issue in corporate management is social responsibilities. Responsibilities can be defined as set of obligations an organization has to protect and enhance the society in which it functions (Griffin, 2000, p. 168). There are a few main components of social responsibilities.
另一方面,成为有道德的可以说是聪明的营销策略。越来越多的消费者被”非商业”的因素所左右,如产品是否危害环境。企业如Ben & Jerry's,一个冰淇淋制造商和Body Shop国际公司-化妆品零售商,都宣传自己的道德标准通过致力于自己的品牌…. Calmins Engine-柴油发动机制造商,使产品更加的绿化,低于严格的污染的法律。杜邦公司是一家领先的生产者的损害臭氧的氯氟碳化合物,成为早期反氟氯化碳派的成员,因为它知道在开发替代中它远远超过它的竞争对手("The Economist", December 1996, p.21)。但是道德的自我推销可能会适得其反。在案件Body Shop的公司中,这是公开执行的另一种方式声明中表示,它的产品没有动物来测试(其他一些公司在过去也表示)。这起事件使很多消费者对Body Shop的道德标准质疑。另一个有趣的问题,企业管理是社会的责任。责任可以被界定为一套义务,组织以保护和改善社会作为它的职能(Griffin, 2000, p. 168)。社会责任有几个主要组成部分.

Any business has responsibilities to its customers. The paramount duty in this respect is to provide customers with quality and safe products. Unfortunately, not all businesses follow this rule. The example of such deception is tobacco industry, which deliberately manipulated with the level of nicotine in cigarettes. Despite of declaration of managers, scrutinize research made it clear that industry tried to maintain the addictive level of nicotine. The purpose of it was far from humanistic - addicted smokers kept buying cigarettes, making the industry prosperous and profitable. There have been a number of other different customers' abuses such as sale of fruits with overdosed chemicals, breast implants for women and etc. Though, the responsibilities to its customers are crucial point of management, the way managers treat employees is another parameter of evaluation of companies ethical well-being. Unfortunately, the most concern of managers is theirs own job rather than theirs employees.
Another problem is equal employment opportunities for everyone. Although a lot was done to destroy the system that kept women and minorities away from the top management positions, many corporations still rely on white men's stereotypes and prejudice. Women are considered just as accessories for men and are not treated equally. In fact, firm's attitude toward employees often determines the way employees feel about company. As a rule, corporate code of ethics contains the pattern of behavior, an employer expect from employee.


Another responsibility of the companies' management is to stockholders. This usually rises a so called "agent problem" (Dyckman, 1998, p.67). Managers are in control of the property stockholders. However, the interests of these two groups may not be the same. As manager is looking for more power and prestige, they can tend to be less profitable operations. Also corporate officials may vote for high salaries and bonuses for themselves, decreasing the dividends of stockholders by that.

公司管理的另一种责任是对于股东。通常,这种责任是增加的,就是所谓的"代理人问题" (Dyckman, 1998, p.67) 。管理者控制着的股东的财产。然而,利益这两个群体中可能不会相同。作为管理者,是寻求更多的权力和威望,他们往往不在乎有利润的的业务。而且,公司管理人可能会投票给他们自己高工资和奖金,从而通过降低了股东的分红。

There is no particular solution for all of these issues. There is only hope that ethical standards and social responsibilities would guide every manager throughout his/her career. Professional conduct should be governed by a code of ethics that reflects positively on the practitioner and managerial profession. Simply stated, nothing should prevent a manager from maintaining high ethical standards and social responsibility in the quest for high performance and quality.

In conclusion, it is obvious the ability to stimulate change, excellent planning capabilities, and ethics are essential traits a manger should possess and utilize in leading organizations in the 21st Century. These traits help the manager focus on success for their organization; as well, they are traits subordinates look for in their leader. By using these traits, a manager can place him/herself on a path that can lead to success.

总而言之,在21世纪里, 可以显而易见的看到, 刺激变革的能力, 卓越的规划能力和道德规都是不可或缺的特质一经理应具备的,并且利用这些特质去领导组织。这些特质有利于管理者为组织侧重成功.同样的,他们是下属在领导的身上中寻找的特质。通过这些特质,经理人可以在他/她的道路中走向成功.


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