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Book Three Unit Seven Section A (2)

(2009-02-17 16:04:14)
标签:

新视野英语教程

第三册

unit

seven

section

a

教育

分类: 新视野英语教程第三册

Unit Seven

Section A: Six Keys to Success

Ⅰ. Main idea

In Text A, emphasis is laid on the discussion of six keys to successs. They are:

1) Take full responsibility.

2)  Live life “on purpose”.

3)  Write out a plan.

4)  Be willing to pay the price.

5)  Become an expert.

6) Never give up.

Ⅱ. Structure

Part I: (Paras. 1) An introduction of successful people’s keys to success.

Part II: (Paras. 2-17) Illustrating six keys to success and relevant examples.

Part III: (Paras. 18) A common point shared by successful people, that is, to go after what they want earnestly and passionately.

Ⅲ. Text Learning

1. Six Keys to Success

Meaning: There are six important factors in achieving success.

Note that "key" in this sense is always followed by the preposition "to".

2. What drives them?

Meaning: What encourages them to work hard to achieve success.

drive: v. cause or compel somebody to do something (迫)使某人做某事

e.g. She was driven by the neccessity to steal food for her starving children.

为了挨饿的孩子们她不得不去偷食物。

3. To find out the answers, I interviewed some people who are quite successful at motivating others: the nation’s top motivational speakers and best-selling authors of how-to-succeed books.

Meaning: In order to find out the answers, I consulted some people who are good at inspiring others: they are excellent speakers who know how to encourage people, or authors of very popular books on how to achieve success.

1) Notethat the word “successful” is normally followed by the preposition “in”. For example:

If I am not successful in finding what I am looking for I shall return and tell you.

如果我没有找到我要找的东西,我就回来告诉你。

But “successful” may also be followed by “at” as in the following sentence.

He is extremely successful at making the government the least corrupt in Asia.

他非常成功地使该国政府成为亚洲最廉洁的政府。

2) how-to-succeed books = books on how one can succeed

Note that here “how-to-succeed” is a compound adjective, used to modify “books”. This kind of compound adjective can be from a clause. More examples:

a five-year-old girl = a girl who is five years old               一个5岁的女孩

a never-to-be-forgotten story = a story that can never be forgotten 难以忘怀的故事

Translation: 为了找到答案,我采访了一些人,他们在激励他人方面都十分成功,他们也是全国最优秀的激励他人的演说家以及有关成功之道方面的畅销书的作者。

4. Their belief is "If it's to be, it's up to me."

Meaning: They believe that "Whatever happens, I will be responsible for it."

it=anything ; is to be=is going to happen

5. Given up by his parents at birth, and labeled as a mentally challenged child, Les Brown's hopes for the future were dashed.

Meaning: Abandoned by his parents when he was born and regarded as a mentally weak boy, Les Brown felt that his hopes for the future were destroyed.

Notice that although the two-ed participles (e.g. given up...and labeled as...) look like dangling ones, they are permissible. However, special care should be taken by students when they use such structures.

Translation: 莱斯·布朗一出生就遭父母遗弃,而且还被戴上“弱智儿童 ”的帽子,因此他自己对未来的希望破灭了。

6. With much determination, he went on to become an Ohio State politician and author.

Meaning: With strong will power, he made continued efforts and finally became a politician and writer in Ohio.

Note the difference between go on followed by an infinitive and a gerund. The structure "go on +infinitive" means doing something after you have finished something else. For example:

Now that we have finished the first question, let's go on to discuss the next one.

既然我们已经讨论完了第一个问题,接下来我们就讨论下一个问题。

However, "go on +gerund" means continue without stopping or changing:

I didn't know if the two women wanted to go on talking.  我不知道这两个妇女是否还要说下去。

7. What distinguishes motivational leaders from others is that they live life "on purpose" —they are active in their lives and not just spectators.

Meaning: The difference between motivational leaders and ordinary people lies in the fact that the motivational leaders live life with a clear-cut goal in their minds; they act as active participants rather than onlookers in their lives.

8. Trying to achieve your goals without an action plan is like trying to drive from Los Angeles to Denver without a map.

Meaning: One is just as unlikely to reach one's goals without the guidance of an action plan as he/she is to reach Los Angeles from Denver by car without a map. (Probably this is because there is no thoroughfare from Denver to Los Angeles and so it is really important for a driver to carry a map.)

9. Successful people find out what it costs to make their dreams come true.

Meaning: Successful people know the price for realizing their dreams.

Notice the structure "make +object +bare infinitive". In English, the bare infinitive usually appears after "causative verb (使役动词)+object". The causative verbs include make, let, have, etc. For example:

He made me drink a lot. 他让我喝了很多酒。

She won't have us criticize her work. 她不许我们批评她的工作。

Extending Knowledge:

使役动词考点:make、have、let三个为使役动词,其后跟省略to的不定式作宾语补足语,即:make\have\let sb. do sth.(让某人做某事)例如:The teacher made him wait outside.(主动语态);

在被动语态的句子中,则要还原不定式的符号to,即:He was made to wait outside.

也有make\have sb. doing sth.的结构,意思为:让某人一直做某事,强调动作的持续性。例如:The boss made the workers working from dawn to dark.(老板让工人们从黎明一直工作到天黑。)

另外还有make\have sth. done,指让别人帮助完成某事,例如:He made\have his bike repaired.(他让人帮他修理自行车。)

10. Patricia Fripp, who speaks to Fortune 500 executives on how to become more successful, took a comedy workshop and hired a private speech tutor to improve her speaking ability.

Meaning: Patricia Fripp, who lectures business leaders listed in Fortune 500 on how to achieve greater success, participated in a workshop on how to make people laugh and employed a speech tutor to help her develop her ability to speak.

11. You must be willing to do whatever it takes to make it happen, withstanding all of life's trials.

Meaning: You must be ready to do anything that is necessary to achieve your goal, paying whatever price and undergoing all the difficulties that come your way.

whatever it takes = anything that is necessary;to make it happen = to achieve your goal (it)

Translation: 为实现这种目标,你应甘愿付出一切代价并经受生活中的所有磨难。

12. It not only became a bestseller, but also launched an entire series of Chicken Soup books that has sold more than 12 million copies.

Meaning: This book sold extremely well. Moreover, following the success of the book, a whole set of Chicken Soup books was published and more than 12 million copies were sold.

Notice that sell is in the active voice. In English, passive meanings may sometimes be expressed by active constructions. For example:

Tomatoes bruise easily. 西红柿很容易碰伤。               The door won't lock. 这门锁不上。

His voice does not carry well. 他的声音传不远。

However, there is a marked difference in meaning between the two structures. Look at the following pair of sentences:

a) His biography doesn't sell well in China. 他的自传在中国销路不佳。

b) His biography is not sold in China.      他的自传没有在中国销售。

When we say that His biography doesn't sell well in China, we suggest that it has certain inherent(内在的) qualities that prevent or adversely (不利地) affect its sale, and that it is definitely not a best-sellers; when we say that His biography is not sold in China, we make a mere statement of fact about it. (i.e. no bookstores carry it).

Extending Knowledge:

英语中动词主动表被动用法

1) Need, want, require(要求,需要), deserve(应得,值得), be worth(值得), not bear(经不住) 后面接doing主动表被动。

The book is worth reading.        这本书值得一读。

The old building requires repairing. 这座古建筑需要修了。

These young seedlings will require/need looking after (=need to be looked after) carefully

这些幼苗将需要小心的照管。

Your hair wants/needs cutting (needs to be cut)。你的头发该剪了。

2)不定式作定语,放在被修饰词后面,与前面被修饰的名词或代词有动宾关系,又在句子中与另一名词或代词有主谓关系,不定式要用主动表被动含义。

I have much work to do.  我有许多要做的事情。(与work有动宾关系,与I有主谓关系)

Tom is looking for a room to live in.  Tom在找一间住的房间。(与room有动宾关系,与Tom 有主谓关系)

He has a family to support. 他要维持一个家庭。(与family有动宾关系,与he有主谓关系)

3)不定式修饰作表语和宾语补足语的形容词时,结构:主语+系动词+形容词 + 不定式;动词+宾语+形容词+不定式。如果形容词是表示难易、利弊等含义,如 difficult, easy, comfortable(舒适的), convenient(便利的,方便的), hard, cheap, expensive等,不定式用主动表被动。

The question is difficult to answer.           这个问题很难回答。

The work is easy to do.                   这项工作很好做。

I found the car comfortable to ride in.        我觉得这种车很好坐。

That makes poetry difficult to write.                那就使得诗很难写。

4)在be to结构中的一些不定式:这种结构中的不定式通常应用主动表被动。下列动词用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义:

Who is to blame for starting the fire? 这场火灾应由谁负责?

You are to blame for the accident.      你应为这事受动责备。

The house is to let. 此房出租。           A lot remains to do. 还剩下许多事情要做。

5)系动词没有被动形式,但有些系动词常表示被动意义。常见的有taste(吃起来), sound (听起来), prove(证明是), feel(摸上去感到),  look(看起来), smell(闻起来)等,例如:

Your reason sounds reasonable.               你的理由听起来很合理。

Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth. 良药苦口。

6)一些与can’t(不能)或won’t(不会)连用的动词。常用的有: lock(锁住), shut(关上), open(打开), act(上演), write(写), cut(砍,切), wear(穿,戴)等,用作不及物动词时,用主动表被动。例如:

The door won’t open.这门打不开。                  It can’t move.它不能动。

7)一些动词如sell(销售), wash(洗), clean(打扫),  burn(燃烧), cook(煮)等与副词如well(好), easily(容易地),  perfectly(十分地)等连用 ,描会事物的特性,用主动表被动,结构是主语+动词+加副词。例如:

The book sells well.这种书很畅销。                 These clothes wash easily.这些衣服很易洗。

The pen writes well. 这笔很好写。

8)主语much, a great deal, little, what等,其表语如是不定式,则用不定式的主动表被动。

What is to do? 做什么?                                       Much is to do. 太多要做的事。

9)在 “there be”句型中作主语的定语如果现在分词时,所用的现在分词要用主动表被动意义。

There is nothing doing these days. 这些天没事干。 I see there’s a good idea planning. 我知道又在打好主意。

Exercises:

1. There are many good films played by ChengLong that are worth _____.

 A) to be seen       B) being seen          C) seeing               D) to see

2. The food _____ easily and sells _____.

 A) cooks ; well     B) is cooking; good    C) is cooked; well      D) cooked; good

3. The windows of the building can’t _____.

 A) be closed        B) close              C) be closing            D) closed

4. The flowers were so lovely that they _____ in no time.

A)sold               B)had been sold        C)were sold              D)would sold

Keys: 1-4 CABC

http://www2.edudown.net/Article/gaozhong/zhengzhi/200710/2974.html

Referrence: http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/38568459.html?fr=qrl

http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/55893428.html?fr=qrl&fr2=query

http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/50253375.html?fr=qrl&fr2=query

http://www.24en.com/cet/word/grammar/2008-04-07/75983.html

13.   All these successful people share one point: they go after what they want—earnestly and passionately accomplishing their dreams. 

Meaning: All these successful people have one thing in common: they pursue their goals –working seriously and wholeheartly to achieve them.

accomplish   vt. succeed in doing; finish successfully; achieve 完成(任务等);做成功

She's accomplished a great deal in the last few weeks. 在过去几周里,她完成了相当多的工作。

I don't feel our visit really accomplished anything.    我觉得我们的访问什么成效也没有。

Extending Knowledge:

C.f. accomplish/ finish/complete/end

Accomplish 通常接 task, aim, journey, voyage 等名词, 有时兼有“达成(效果)”之意, 如:

The explorers accomplished the voyage in five weeks.   探险队在五周内完成了航程。

Complete 比 accomplish 具体, 可接建筑、工程、书籍等名词, 指“按预期目的把未完成的工作经过进一步的努力使之完成”, 主要涵义是“补足缺少的部分”, 如:

The building will be completed by the end of this month.  这座楼于本月底建成。

Finish 在许多情况下可与 complete 换用, 但不及 complete 正式,常含有“认真仔细地完成工作的最后阶段的精工修饰, 使之完美”的意思。 如:

I have finished the book. 我已读完了这本书。

(Note: finish,complete作为动词在一起比较时,这两个词的一般含义是“做完”、“完成”,有时可以互换使用。然而,有时它们却有明显的词义差别。

finish表示过去某个时候着手做的事已经做完,或者表示对已经做完的事进行精密加工

This machine part needs surface finishing.这个机械零件需要精密加工。

The writer has finished (or completed) the novel. 但是如果作为读者说“我已经看完这部小说了”,用英语说却只能是I have finished the novel.

不过,如果你是文学系的学生,老师布置了任务,要读完这部小说,那么又非用complete不可了。

另外finish常暗示着必需完成的另外一些细节:

I finished the pillowcase with a border of lace. 我给枕套加了一个宽花边。

complete侧重表示做完或完成某工作,特别是一项任务,或者把某工作圆满结束,暗指取得成功的最后一步。如果要用英语表达“这位作家已经写完那部小说了”,这两个词都可以用.

The house was completed five moths ago. 这座房子是5个月前竣工的。

They had just had enough time to swim out of danger when the boat again completed a circle.

他们刚游出危险区,这时快艇又完成了一圈的运动。(注:完成一个圆周的运动,用complete是很准确的。)

A few cars, however, completed the race.  有几辆车跑完了比赛的全程。)

End强调结果:

We ended the meal with fruit and cheese.  我们最后吃的是水果和奶酪。

Referrence: http://dict.yqie.com/english/a/accomplish.htm

http://edu.qq.com/a/20050415/000094.htm

http://www.eduzhai.net/yingyu/602/656/yingyu_217949.html

http://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/accomplish

Translation: 所有这些成功者都有一个共同的特点:他们追求自己想要的一切——真诚而热切地实现自己的梦想。

Ⅳ. Structure Focus

1. “instead of + -ing pariticiple”

instead of  prep. in place of; rather than代替,而不是...

The economy is shrinking instead of growing.         经济正在萎缩而不是在增长中。

The general condition is bettering instead of worsening. 总的情况不是在恶化而是在好转。

http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/38079342.html

2. “how + infinitive”: how to do

Ⅴ. Check-up Exercises

Translating

A. Translate the following into English.

1.这故事使他认识到,一个人的未来掌握在自己手里,别人怎么认为并不重要。(lie in)

The story made him realize that one’s future lies in his/her own hands and not in the approval of others.

2. 这是你自己的错(fault),不要将工作的失败归咎于别人。(blame for)

It’s your own fault. Don’t blame others for the failure of your work.

3. 老板说由你负责决定要还是不要它。(up to)

The boss said it was up to you to decide whether to take it or not.

4. 由于这对孪生姐妹长得如此之像,人们很难将她们区分开。(distinguish from)

The twin sisters looked so alike that people could hardly distinguish one from the other.

B. Translate the following into Chinese.

1. To find out the answers, I interviewed some people who are quite successful at motivating others: the nation’s top motivational speakers and best-selling authors of how-to-succeed books.

为了找到答案,我采访了一些人,他们在激励他人方面都十分成功,他们也是全国最优秀的激励他人的演说家以及有关成功之道方面的畅销书的作者。

2. Given up by his parents at birth, and labeled as a mentally challenged child, Les Brown’s hopes for the future were dashed.

莱斯·布朗一出生就遭父母遗弃,而且还被戴上“弱智儿童 ”的帽子,因此他自己对未来的希望破灭了。

3. You must be willing to do whatever it takes to make this goal happen, withstanding all of lifes trials.

为实现这种目标,你应甘愿付出一切代价并经受生活中的所有磨难。

4. All these successful people share one point: they go after what they want—earnestly and passionately accomplishing their dreams. 

所有这些成功者都有一个共同的特点:他们追求自己想要的一切——真诚而热切地实现自己的梦想。

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