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Book Three Unit Five Section A (2)

(2008-12-10 18:51:58)
标签:

新视野英语教程

第三册

unit

five

section

a

教育

分类: 新视野英语教程第三册

Unit Five

Section A: Naming Customs

Ⅰ. Main idea

    Cultures and families have different naming customs. In some areas, people go to a fortune-teller to get a name that will bring good luck to a child. Names can also be a sign of family heritage. Some people name their children after famous rulers or public figures. In some countries, government puts restriction on the naming of a child. The passage tells us all those elements that are influencing the naming of a child.

Ⅱ. Structure

Part I: (Paras. 1-4) Cultures and families have different naming customs. Examples are given to support this idea.

Part II: (Paras. 5-7) Government in some countries also restrict the naming of a child, in addition to the naming customs.

Part Ⅲ: (Para. 8) It is hard to decide who should be responsible for the naming of a child.

Ⅲ. Text Learning

1. People believe a suitable name can serve as an outline for a child's future, helping to determine if the child will be a famous painter or piano player, a lawyer or a landlord.

Meaning: People believe a good name can predict what a child will become in the future and it helps to decide if the child will be a famous painter or a famous piano player, a lawyer or a landlord.

Here “helping” is a v-ing participle phrase used as an adverbial modifier for accompanying.

Translation: 人们相信一个合适的名字能够大致勾勒出一个孩子的前程,有助于确定这个孩子将来是一位有名的画家还是出色的钢琴演奏家,是一位律师还是个旅馆老板。

2. Names can also be a sign of family heritage.

Meaning: Names can tell a lot about a family's history too.

3. The first part of a boy's first name usually follows a strict genealogy used for many generations.

Meaning: Normally, the first part of a boy's first name is strictly chosen to represent that which has been in the family for many generations.

4. All the boys in one generation of a family, the brothers and male cousins, will have the same first part to their name.

Meaning: All the boys, whether they are brothers or cousins, in one generation of a family will have the same first name.

Translation: 同一个家族的同一代人中的所有男孩,无论是兄弟还是堂兄弟,他们的名字的第一部分将是相同的。

5. In Iceland, a girl's last name translates as "daughter of..." and a boy's translates as "son of...".

Meaning: In Iceland, a girl's last name means "daughter of..." and a boy's last name means "son of..."

Translate v. 1) be expressed or be capable of being expressed in another language 解释为;理解为

I translate his silence to mean that he is in agreement. 我把他的沉默理解为同意。

In Japan, girls' names often end in─ko, which literally translates as "child."

在日本,女孩子的名字常常以ko结尾,这个ko可直译为“子”。

2) change (speech or writing) from one language into another 翻译

She translated the book from French into English. 她把这本书从法文译成英文。

6. Finally, some people name their children after famous rulers or public figures, like George Washington Carver, for example, or even after their favorite soap opera actors on television.

Meaning: As a final point, some people choose to give their children the same name as that of a famous ruler or someone in the public eye or even after their favorite soap opera actors on television.

soap opera: [C] (US) a radio or TV serial drama, mainly about domestic problems, characterized by stock characters and situations, in a sentimental or melodramatic way. 肥皂剧

Translation: 最后,一些人以有名的统治者或社会名人的名字来作为孩子的名字,比如像乔治·华盛顿·卡弗这样的名字,还有人以他们最喜爱的电视肥皂剧的演员的名字来给孩子取名。

7. The government insisted he have a middle name that showed he was a boy.

Meaning: The government firmly demanded (that) the child (should) have a middle name that would indicate he was a boy.

Note that this clause is in the subjunctive mood. Also pay attention to the construction: insist + (that) clause +subject + (should) or insist +on/upon +gerund/noun.

insist: v. order or demand (that something must happen or be done) 坚决要求

e.g. She insisted that Peter leave or she would call the police.  

她坚持要彼得离开,否则就打电话叫警察。

insist on/upon: consider very important; place great importance on 认为非常重要;强调

e.g. I insist on his coming with us.  我坚持要他同我们一起走。

Note "insist" cannot be directly followed by an infinitive (不定式).

8. This is also an issue in Japan, where the government feels children should not be given names that other children will make fun of.

Meaning: This is also a matter of importance in Japan. The Japanese government feels that parents should not give their children funny names that other children will laugh at.

Translation: 命名在日本也是一个问题,日本政府认为人们应该避免给孩子们取一些会被其他孩子取笑的名字。

9. Whatever the government and parents decide, though, it is really the children who have to live with their decisions!

Meaning: No matter what the government and parents decide, however, it is indeed the children who have to spend their lives with the chosen name.

whatever: no matter what 无论;不管

e.g. Whatever you say, I believe she is a kind-hearted woman.

不管你说什么,我都相信她是个好心的女人。

Whatever books she buys, she will choose the one she feels most interested in.

不管她买什么书,她都是挑选自己最感兴趣的。

Ⅳ. Structure Focus

1. in the hope(s) that: holding the expectation that 希望……

 His parents sent him to college in the hopes that he could live a better life in the future.

 他的父母送他上大学,希望他将来能过上更好的生活。

He works very hard to earn money in the hope that he can pay off all the debts as early as possible. 他非常努力地赚钱,以便早日还请债款。

2. the -ing participle phrase “helping...”.

A suitable name can serve as an outline for a child's future, helping to determine if the child will be a famous painter or piano player, a lawyer or a landlord.

Here “helping” is a v-ing participle phrase used as an adverbial modifier for accompanying.

Ⅴ. Check-up Exercises

Translating

A. Translate the following into English.

1. 生活并不总是像美丽的童话,你得承认这点。(live with)

Life is not always like a fairy tale, and you have to live with it.

2. 他们是德国最精明能干(smartest)的年轻人,是他们这一代人的精华。(the cream of the crop)

They were the smartest young people in Germany—the cream of the crop of their generation.

3. 这件事已经够复杂的(complex),你最好不要再插手了。(step in)

The thing has already been very complex, so you had better not step in again.

4. 多亏你的建议,没用多长时间就解决了困难。(iron out)

Thanks to your suggestion, it didn’t take long to iron out the difficulties.

B. Translate the following into Chinese.

1. People believe a suitable name can serve as an outline for a child’s future, helping to determine if the child will be a famous painter or a piano player, a lawyer or a landlord.

人们相信一个合适的名字能够大致勾勒出一个孩子的前程,有助于确定这个孩子将来是一位有名的画家还是出色的钢琴演奏家,是一位律师还是个旅馆老板。

2. All the boys in one generation of a family, the brothers and male cousins, will have the same first part to their name.

同一个家族的同一代人中的所有男孩,无论是兄弟还是堂兄弟,他们的名字的第一部分将是相同的。

3. Finally, some people name their children after famous rulers or public figures, like George Washington Carver, for example, or even after their favorite soap opera actors on television.

最后,一些人以有名的统治者或社会名人的名字来作为孩子的名字,比如像乔治·华盛顿·卡弗这样的名字,还有人以他们最喜爱的电视肥皂剧的演员的名字来给孩子取名。

4. This is also an issue in Japan, where the government feels children should not be given names that other children will make fun of.

命名在日本也是一个问题,日本政府认为人们应该避免给孩子们取一些会被其他孩子取笑的名字。

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