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Book Three Unit Three Section A (2)

(2008-09-19 16:25:40)
标签:

新视野英语教程

第三册

unit

three

section

a

教育

分类: 新视野英语教程第三册

Unit Three

Section A: Life Is Full of Choices

Ⅰ. Main idea

     The passage tells us a story of about Michael. Michael is a person who chooses to look on the bright side of a situation. He takes a positive attitude towards everything and he benefits a lot from his positive attitude, especially when the terrible accident happened to him. It is his amazing attitude to face life with laugh that at last saved him from death. From this story we learned that attitude is everything. Life can be different, and it all depends on your own choice. 

Ⅱ. Structure

Part I: (Paras. 1-5) Michael takes a positive attitude towards life and he also helps others to look on the positive side of a situation.

Part II: (Paras. 6-13) Michael encountered a terrible accident and his positive attitude saved himself from death.

Ⅲ. Text Learning

1. Michael is no run-of-the-mill kind of guy. He is always happy and always has something positive to say.

Meaning: Michael is by no means an ordinary man. He is always cheerful and talks about good things in life.

Note: “No”, as a determiner (限定词), means not a or not any. But in certain circumstances no and not a cannot be used interchangeably.

eg. "He is no singer." means "He can't sing at all (他根本不会唱歌)."

While "He is not a singer." just indicates the fact that the person is not a singer by profession (他不是个歌唱家).

Therefore, the sentence "Michael is no run-of-the-mill kind of guy." suggests that Michael is an extraordinary (不一般的) kind of person.

run-of-the-mill: ordinary; not special in any way 普通的;不突出的

a run-of-the-mill office job 一般性的办公室工作

They gave a run-of-the-mill performance; Many people regretted coming to see it.

他们的表演很一般,所以许多人后悔前来观看。

The president of our school is not a run-of-the-mill. 我们学校的校长很不一般。

Translation: 迈克尔决非等闲之辈,他总是那么乐观,总能看到事物积极的一面。

2. ... he would reply, "If I were any better, I'd be twins!"

Please notice the subjunctive mood used in the sentence. English people use this expression to tell others that they are in a very happy mood. By saying "I'd be twins", the speaker means he has a maximum level of happiness himself and could only be happier if there should be someone exactly like him.

3. If an employee had a bad day, Michael would tell him/her how to look on the positive side of the situation lest they'd continue feeling down.

Meaning: If one of his fellow workers felt miserable that day, Michael would tell him/her to be cheerful and hopeful in face of difficulties so that they would not continue to feel miserable.

"Lest they'd..." is an adverbial clause modifying the main clause "Michael would tell him/her how to..." Note that the subject they in this adverbial clause refer to him/her in the main clause. It may seem that the pronoun concord (一致) is problematic(有疑问的), but in informal speech such disagreement is very common.

e.g. Everyone was clapping their hands. 大家都在鼓掌。

Nobody left their seats when the curtain fell. 当帷幕落下时,没有人离开他们的座位。

Translation: 假如某个员工哪一天遇到不顺心的事,迈克尔总是告诉他们如何看待事物积极的一面,以免他们继续感到沮丧。

3. He was like a ray of sunshine, a prince among men.

Meaning: He was a person with shining personality, a great person standing out among ordinary people.

4. Each time something bad happens, I can choose to be a victim or choose to see it as a type of learning.

Meaning: Whenever something bad takes place, I can either choose to think that I'll suffer a lot from it or choose to consider it as something that I can learn from.

It =something bad

Translation: 每当不幸降临时,我可以甘当受害者,也可以把它当成一种学习。

4. After 18 hours of surgery and weeks of intensive care, Michael was released from the hospital with metal rods placed in his back.

Meaning: After the operation which went on for 18 hours and many weeks of careful treatment, Michael was allowed to go back home, but he had metal rods placed in his back.

Also, please pay attention to the structure of "with something (somebody) doing/done" (with 复合结构), which is so frequently used in English:

e.g. She stood there with her hands folded.  她两手交叉站在那儿。

With the temperature rising so rapidly, we can't go on with the work.

气温升得那么快,我们无法继续工作。

5. I didn't want to see his wounds, but I did ask him what had gone through his mind as the accident was taking place.

Meaning: I didn't want to see his scars, but I did ask him what he was thinking about the moment the accident was taking place.

"Something goes through one's mind" means "one is thinking of/about something".

6. I simply yelled: “I’m choosing to live. Work on me as if I am alive, not headed to the grave.

Meaning: I know I am so seriously wounded that I'm within an inch of my life. However, do all you can to save me, treating me just like a living man, not as a man who is going to die.

Note that the verb in the clause introduced by as if is in the indicative mood (陈述语气), suggesting that "I am truly alive, not dead." “as if” clauses generally indicate an unreal condition: She looks as if she were drunk. (In fact she is not drunk at all). The word head in this sentence is used as a verb meaning "move in a certain direction". Headed is the past participle of head, and headed to the grave means on the road to the grave, that is, to die. What the writer implies is that I have decided to see this challenge as a new way of living, not dying.

work on: give one’s attention to doing something 抓紧办理,致力于

I’m still working on the list of names. 我正抓紧拟出那份名单。

She worked on her colleagues to go traveling with her.她努力说服她的同事与她一起旅游。

Translation: 我索性吼道:“我要活下去!快救我,把我当活人医治,别把我当成快要死的人!”

7. Attitude is everything.

Meaning: One's attitude is the most important factor that may determine the outcome of everything one experiences.

Ⅳ. Structure Focus

1. The usage of “lest”

lest conj. in order that the stated thing should not happen; in case 惟恐;免得

Lest anyone (should) worry that this will lead to price increases, let me reassure you that it will not.

为避免有人担心这样会导致物价上涨,我再次向你们保证绝对不会有这种事。

I obeyed her lest she should be angry. 我得顺着她,免得她生气

Handle it carefully lest it be broken. 小心拿,以免摔坏。

Note:lest引导目的状语从句,从句的谓语动词用(should)+动词原形表示虚拟语气。类似的词语还有: inorder that,for fear that,in case。 

Exercise:

1. The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he_______himself.                      (A)

A) injure     B) had injured     C) injured      D) would injure

这个疯子被关进墙上装有衬垫的病房,以免他伤害自己。

本题测试lest用法。由lest引导的句子谓语部分应用虚拟语气should +动词原形,should可以省略。

lest意为“以防、以免”,equals “in case,for fear that”。

2. While crossing the mountain area, all the men carried guns lest they _____ by wild animals.        (A)

A) should be attacked B) had been attacked C) must be attacked D) would be attacked

Referrence: http://edu.qq.com/a/20050401/000022.htm

          http://news.koolearn.com/t_10841_0_253199.html

2. The usage of “as if”

as if 好像,好似 She spoke to me as if she knew me. 她和我说话的神情,好像她早就认识我似的。 (= as though)

as if 的用法

一、as if 从句的作用

1.在look, seem 等系动词后引导表语从句。

如: She looks as if she were ten years younger. 她看起来好像年轻了十岁。

It seems as if our team is going to win. 看来我们队要胜了。

2.引导方式状语从句。

如: She loves the boy as if she were his mother. 她爱这男孩,就好像她是他的母亲一样。

The child talked to us as if he were a grown up. 那孩子跟我们谈起话来,像个成年人似的。

二、as if 还可用于省略句中。 如果as if 引导的从句是“主语+系动词”结构,可省略主语和系动词,这样as if 后就只剩下名词、不定式、形容词(短语)、介词短语或分词。

如: He acts as if (he was) a fool. 他做事像个傻子。

Tom raised his hands as if (he was going) to say something. 汤姆举起手好像要说什么。

She left the room hurriedly as if (she was) angry. 她匆忙离开房间好像生气的样子。

三、as if 从句的语气及时态

1.as if 从句用陈述语气的情况。当说话者认为句子所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时。

如: It sounds as if it is raining. 听起来像是在下雨。

He talks as if he is drunk. 从他谈话的样子来看他是醉了。

2. as if 从句用虚拟语气的情况。当说话人认为句子所述的是不真实的或极少有可能发生或存在的情况时。从句虚拟语气动词时态的形式如下:

1)如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时。

如: You look as if you didn’t care. 你看上去好像并不在乎。

He talks as if he knew where she was. 他说话的样子,好像他知道她在哪里似的。

2)从句表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用“had+过去分词”。

如: He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. 他说起罗马来好像他以前去过罗马似的。

 The girl listened as if she had been turned to stone. 那女孩倾听着,一动也不动,像已经变成了石头似的。 3)从句表示与将来事实相反,谓语动词用“would/could/might+动词原形”。

如: He opened his mouth as if he would say something. 他张开嘴好像要说什么。

It looks as if it might snow. 看来好像要下雪了。                                            http://blog.hjenglish.com/hj8000/articles/695451.html

Ⅴ. Check-up Exercises

Translating

A. Translate the following into English.

1. 这事件可能产生的后果(consequences)应予以认真考虑。(reflect on/upon)

The likely consequences of the incident need to be reflected on/upon.

2. 他差点解决了这个问题。(with an inch of...)

He was within an inch of solving the problem.

3. 假如你要把财产转让给他人,须使他成为合法产权人(legal owner)。 (transfer... to)

If you want to transfer your property to someone, you should first make him the legal owner of it.

4. 自从公司迁到这个地区以来,已有数十台电脑被窃,公司决定采取措施制止偷窃。(take action)

More than ten computers have been stolen since the company moved to this area, so the company decided to take action to stop it.

B. Translate the following into Chinese.

1. Michael is no run-of-the-mill kind of guy. He is always happy and always has something positive to say.

迈克尔决非等闲之辈,他总是那么乐观,总能看到事物积极的一面。

2. If an employee had a bad day, Michael would tell him/her how to look on the positive side of the situation lest they continue feeling down.

假如某个员工哪一天遇到不顺心的事,迈克尔总是告诉他们如何看待事物积极的一面,以免他们继续感到沮丧。

3. Each time something bad happens, I can choose to be a victim or choose to see it as a type of learning.

每当不幸降临时,我可以甘当受害者,也可以把它当成一种学习。

4. I simply yelled: “I’m choosing to live. Work on me as if I am alive, not headed to the grave.”

我索性吼道:“我要活下去!快救我,把我当活人医治,别把我当成快要死的人!”

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