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《道德經》十九章

(2011-01-09 14:39:52)
标签:

道德經

道經

十九章

中英對照

杂谈

分类: 《道德经》中英对照

三九第一天,腊月初六。昨晚天边火烧云,今天阳光灿烂。

宁静致远出自被称为老子弟子文子的“非淡漠无以明德,非宁静无以致远”。宁静致远的意思是明确的——夜深人静,听觉才能延展到极远处,众人喧哗中,其实认知近在咫尺。淡漠明德呢?游心于淡,是疏离一切色,不被污染中才有美德。与宁静一样,淡漠也是排斥——守护好自己,洁身自好,才能观妙怡性。(by朱伟)

 

道經

十九章

絕聖棄智,*

民利百倍;

絕仁棄義,

民復孝慈;**

絕巧棄利,

盜賊無有。

此三者以爲文不足,

故令有所屬;

見素抱樸,

少私寡欲。

絕學無憂。

 

* 郭店楚簡:絕智棄辨。

** 郭店楚簡:絕僞棄慮,民復季(稚)子。

辜按:此為郭店楚簡本《老子》中含義更動最大的語句。通行本中的“絕聖棄智”和“絕仁棄義”在郭店楚簡本中分別是“絕智棄辨”和“絕偽棄慮”。若干學者頗爲興奮,認爲由此可得出定論:老子並不真正反對“仁”這個觀念。他們並且推論,“絕聖棄智”和“絕仁棄義”這種觀念一定是後來的莊子及其門徒強加于老子文本的。既然郭店墓主同時收藏閲讀老子的文本和儒家文本,並且老子並不反對“仁”,學者們都樂於認爲儒道兩傢當時並不勢同水火,至少並未有所衝突。對此,我有自己的看法,另文,不贅。

 

 

The Book of Tao

Chapter 19

Discard cleverness and wisdom*

And the people will benefit themselves

a hundredfold;

Discard benevolence and rectitude

And the people will again become

filial and loyal;**

Discard ingenuity and profit

And theft will no longer exist.

It is not enough to have these points

as governing principles,

So the people must be made subject

to the following:

Keep being simple in nature and mind,

Discard selfishness and weaken desires.

Discard cultural knowledge

    and worries will disappear.

 

* Guodian Chu Slips: Discard wisdom and eloquence.

** Guodian Chu Slips: Discard hypocrisy and misgivings, / And the people will restore to being like babies.

Translator’s note: These few lines are supposed to be the most important changes in the text of Lao Zi where 絕聖棄智 and 絕仁棄義 are respectively replaced by 絕智棄辨 and 絕偽棄慮. Some scholars thus vehemently conclude that this is the firm proof that Lao Zi was not really against Benevolence (Ren) and that the ideas of discarding benevolence and rectitude(絕仁棄義) and discarding sages and wisdom(絕聖棄智) must have been just the ideas of Zhuang Zi and his disciples who later on imposed the ideas on the Taoist texts. Since Lao Zi’s texts were read and collected together with Confucian texts and since Lao Zi is believed not to be against Ren, some Chinese scholars feel ready to suggest that Taoism and Confucianism were not hostile to each other, at least they did not go into conflict in their time. I wrote an article to voice my different opinion of the argument to be published recently in a journal.

 

(摘自《道德经》,中国对外翻译出版公司出版,北京大学博士生导师辜正坤教授译注

 

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