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克谈教育(五)(中英对照)

(2010-05-04 06:24:13)
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教育

LETTERS TO SCHOOLS VOLUME ONE
15TH JANUARY, 1980
(Excerpts)

……You have to begin with yourself, to understand yourself, and in relation to that, what is the first step? Is it not affection? Probably when you are young you have this quality but very quickly we seem to lose it. Why? Is it not because of the pressure of studies, the pressure of competition, the pressure of trying to reach a certain standing in your studies,comparing yourselves with others and perhaps being bullied by other students? Do not all these many pressures force you to be concerned with yourself? And when you are so concerned with yourself, you inevitably lose that quality of affection. It is very important to understand how gradually circumstances, environment, the pressure of your parents or your own urge to conform, narrows the vast beauty of life to a small circle of yourself. And if you lose this affection while you are young there is a hardening of the heart and mind. It is a rare thing to keep this affection throughout life, without corruption. So this is the first thing you must have. Affection implies care, a diligent care in whatever you are doing; care in your speech, in your dress, in the manner of your eating, how you look after your body; care in your behaviour without the distinctions of superior or inferior; how you consider people.

……你得从自己开始,了解你自己,而与此有关的第一步是什么呢?不是爱吗?可能你年轻的时候具有这项品质,但是好像很快就失去了。为什么?难道不是因为学习压力,竞争压力,想要在学业中达到某个位置的压力,拿自己和别人比较的压力,或者被别的学生欺负了的压力?难道不是这些压力在迫使你去关心自己?当你太关心自己的时候,就不可避免地失去了爱这项品质。来自周围环境和你们父母的压力或者你们自己迫切想要遵从的渴望,让生命的广博之美变得只有你自己这个小圈子这么狭隘,了解这一点是很重要的。如果你在年轻的时候失去了这种爱,那么心灵和头脑就会变得僵硬。在整个一生中都保有这种爱,不让它腐败,是非常稀有而珍贵的一件事。所以这是你首先要有的一样东西。爱意味着关心,勤勉地关注你正在做的事情;关注你的语言,你的穿着,你吃东西的样子,如何照顾你的身体,没有优劣高下之分地关注你的行为;以及你如何看待别人。

     Politeness is consideration for others and this consideration is care, whether it is for your younger brother or oldest sister. When you care, violence in every form disappears from you - your anger, your antagonism and your pride. This care implies attention. Attention is to watch, observe, listen,learn. There are many things you can learn from books but there is a learning which is infinitely clear, quick and without any ignorance. Attention implies sensitivity and this gives depth to perception which no knowledge, with its ignorance can give. This you have to study, not in a book, but, with the help of the educator, learn to observe things around you - what is happening in the world. What is happening with a fellow student, what is happening in that poor village or slum and to the man who is struggling along that dirty street.

    礼貌是对他人的体贴,不管对象是你的弟弟还是姐姐,这种体贴就是关心。你关心别人的时候,任何形式的暴力都会从你身上消失,包括你的愤怒,你的对抗和你的骄傲。这种关心意味着关注。关注是看,是观察,是倾听和学习。从书本上你能学到很多东西,但是有一种学习是无限清澈的,快速的,没有任何的愚昧无知。关注意味着敏感,这就给觉察注入了深度,这种深度是带着愚昧的知识所无法给予的。你必须要学习这种关注,不是从书本上学习,而是在教育者的帮助下,学习如何观察你周围的事情,世界上正在发生着的事。一个同学身上发生着什么事情,那个贫穷的村子或贫民窟里正发生着什么,那个挣扎地走在肮脏的街道上的人正经历着什么。

     Observation is not a habit. It isn't a thing you train yourself to do mechanically. It is the fresh eye of interest, of care, of sensitivity. You cannot train yourself to be sensitive. Again, when you are young you are sensitive, quick in your perceptions, but again this fades as you grow older. So you have to study yourself and perhaps your teacher will help you. If he doesn't it doesn't matter for it is your responsibility to study yourself and so learn what you are. And when there is this affection your actions will be born out of its purity. All this may sound very hard but it is not. We have neglected all this side of life. We are so concerned with our careers, with our own pleasures, With our own importance, that we neglect the great beauty of affection.

    观察不是一个习惯。它不是你机械地训练自己做的一件事。它是充满兴趣,关注和敏感的新鲜目光。你不能把自己训练得敏感。同样,你年轻时的觉察是敏感的快速的,但是这敏感在你变老时就褪去了。所以你们得了解自己,也许你们的老师可以帮你。如果他不帮你们,那没关系,因为研究自己并了解你自己是什么,是你的责任。有这种爱的时候,你的行为就会从它的纯净中诞生。这些听起来也许很难,但实际上不难。我们忽视了生命的这一面。我们太关心我们的事业,我们的娱乐,我们的重要性,以致于忽视了巨大的爱之美。

--------

 

LETTERS TO SCHOOLS VOLUME ONE
1ST JANUARY, 1979
致学校的信 第一卷 1979年1月1日

     It appears that as we are concerned with education, there are two factors we must bear in mind at all times. One is diligence and the other is negligence. Most religions have talked about the activity of the mind, to be controlled, shaped by the will of God, or by some exterior agency; and devotion to some deity, made by the hand or by the mind, needs a certain quality of attention in which emotion, sentiment and romantic imagination are involved. This is the activity of the mind which is thought. The word diligence implies care, watchfulness, observation and a deep sense of freedom. Devotion to an object a person or a principle denies this freedom. Diligence is attention which brings about naturally infinite care, concern and the freshness of affection. All this demands great sensitivity. One is sensitive to one's own desires or psychological wounds, or one is sensitive to a particular person, watching his desires and responding quickly to his needs; but this kind of sensitivity is limited and can hardly be called sensitive. The quality of sensitivity of which we are talking comes about naturally when there is total responsibility which is love. Diligence has this quality.

既然我们关心教育,那么有两个因素我们必须时时记在心里。一个是勤奋,另一个是懈怠。多数宗教都谈到,心智的活动,是被上帝的意志或某些外在媒介控制的,塑造的,也谈到要奉献给人类的双手或者心智制造出来的神祗,这些都需要某种关注的品质,其中包含了情感,感伤和浪漫的想象。这是心智的活动,是思想。勤奋这个词意味着关怀,警觉,观察和深深的自由感。奉献给一个物体,一个人或者信条否定了这种自由。勤奋是关注,会自然地带来无限的关怀,关心和新鲜的爱。所有这些都需要巨大的敏感。一个人对自己的欲望或者心理创伤敏感,或者对一个特别的人敏感,观察他的欲望并快速响应他的需要;但是这种敏感是受限的,甚至不能被称为敏感。我们所说的敏感的品质,是在有全然的责任也就是有爱的时候自然发生的。勤奋就有这种品质。

     Negligence is indifference, sloth; indifference towards the physical organism, towards the psychological state and indifference to others. In indifference there is callousness. In this stage the mind becomes sluggish, the activity of thought slows down, quickness of perception is denied and sensitivity is a thing that is incomprehensible. Most of us are sometimes diligent but most often negligent. They are not really opposites. If they were, diligence would still be negligence. Is diligence the outcome of negligence? If it is, it is still part of negligence and therefore not truly diligent. Most people are diligent in their own self-interest, whether that self-interest is identified with the family, with a particular group, sect, or nation. In this self-interest there is the seed of negligence although there is constant preoccupation with oneself. This preoccupation is limited and so it is negligence This preoccupation is energy held within a narrow boundary. Diligence is the freedom from self-occupation and brings an abundance of energy. When one understands the nature of negligence the other comes into being without any struggle. When this is fully understood - not just the verbal definitions of negligence and diligence - then the highest excellence in our thought, action, behaviour will manifest itself. But unfortunately we never demand of ourselves the highest quality of thought, action and behaviour. We hardly ever challenge ourselves and if we ever do, we have various excuses for not responding fully. This indicates does it not, an indolence of mind, the feeble activity of thought? The body can be lazy but never the mind with its quickness of thought and subtlety. Laziness of the body can easily be understood. This laziness may be because one is overworked or over-indulged, or has played games too hard. So the body requires rest which may be considered laziness though it is not. The watchful mind, being alert, sensitive, knows when the organism needs rest and care.

懈怠是不在乎,懒惰,对身体、对心理状态、对别人漠不关心。在这种漠不关心里有冷漠。在这种状态里心智变得迟钝,思想的行动缓慢下来,快速的觉察被否定了,敏感就变成了一种难以理解的东西。我们多数人都有时候是勤奋的,但是大部分时候是懈怠的。它们不是完全对立的。如果是对立的,那么勤奋就还是懈怠。勤奋是懈怠的结果吗?如果是,那么它就还只是懈怠的一部分,因此不是真正的勤奋。多数人勤奋地实现自我的利益,不管这个自我利益定义为家庭的,特定团体,派别还是国家的。即使自己总是在全神贯注,但这种自利行为里本身就有懈怠的种子。这种全神贯注是受限的,所以是懈怠。这种全神贯注是局限在狭窄范围内的能量。勤奋是从自我专注中解脱出来,带来充足的能量。当你理解了懈怠的本质,勤奋就不费力地产生了。如果充分理解了这一点,不是仅从字面上理解了懈怠和勤奋的定义,那么,我们思想,活动和行为最卓越的品质就会显现出来。但不幸的是,我们从未要求自己的思想,活动和行为具有这项最卓越的品质。我们几乎从不挑战自己,即使有过,我们也为没有充分回应这项挑战找了一堆借口。这说明了心智的懒惰,思想活动的无能,难道不是吗?身体可以懒惰,但是快捷灵巧的思想从不会懒惰。身体的懒惰很容易理解。这种无精打采可能是因为超时工作或过度放纵,或者游戏玩过了头。所以身体需要休息,这可能被认为是懒惰,但实际上不是。警觉的心灵,保持机警,敏感,知道这个有机体需要休息和照顾。

     In our schools it is important to understand that the quality of energy which is diligence requires the right kind of food, the right kind of exercise,and enough sleep. Habit, routine, is the enemy of diligence - the habit of thought,of action, of conduct. Thought itself creates its own pattern and lives within it. When that pattern is challenged either it is disregarded or thought creates another pattern of security. This is the movement of thought - from one pattern to another, from one conclusion, one belief, to another. This is the very negligence of thought. The mind that is diligent has no habit; it has no pattern of response. It is endless movement, never coalescing into habit, never caught in conclusions. Movement has great depth and volume when it has no boundary brought about by the negligence of thought.

勤奋,也就是能量这项品质,需要恰当的食物,恰当的运动和充足的睡眠,在我们的学校里,了解这一点是很重要的。习惯,例行公事,也就是思想、活动和行为的习惯,是勤奋的敌人。思想创造了自己的模式并依此运作着。当这种模式受到挑战,要么被抛弃,要么思想就制造出另一种安全模式。这是思想的活动,从一种模式到另一种模式,从一个结论、一个信念到另一个结论、信念。这正是思想的懈怠。勤奋的心灵没有习惯,从不陷在结论里。当没有懈怠的思想制造的边界时,运动就有巨大的深度和容量。

     As we are now concerned with education, in what manner can the teacher convey this diligence with its sensitivity, with its abundant care in which laziness of the spirit has no place? Of course it is understood that the educator concerned with this question and sees the importance of diligence throughout the days of his life. If he is, then how will he set about cultivating this flower of diligence? Is he deeply concerned with the student? Does he really take the total responsibility for these young people who are in his charge? Or is he merely there to earn a livelihood, caught in the misery of having little? As we pointed out in previous letters, teaching is the highest capacity of man. You are there and you have the students before you. Is it that you are indifferent? Is it that your own personal troubles at home are wasting your energy?

既然我们现在关注教育,那么老师要以何种方式把这种勤奋连同它那让懒惰性无处藏身的敏感和丰富的关怀传达给学生呢?当然,教育者关心这个问题并且在自己的日常生活中时时处处都看到了勤奋的重要性,这一点是清楚的。如果他是这样的,那么他要怎样培育这朵勤奋之花呢?他是不是深切地关注他的学生呢?他是不是真正对他看顾的这些年轻人负起了全部的责任呢?还是他只是来这谋生而已,并受困于对自己拥有太少的苦恼中?正如我们在以前的信中指出的那样,教育是人最高的能力。你在这儿,面前有一堆学生。你是不是漠不关心呢?是不是你自己家里的个人烦恼在浪费你的能量?

     To carry psychological problems from day to day is an utter waste of time and energy, indicating negligence. A diligent mind meets the problem as it arises, observes the nature of it and resolves it immediately. The carrying over of a psychological problem does not resolve the problem. It is a wastage of energy and the spirit. When you solve the problems as they arise, then you will find there are no problems at all.

日复一日地背负着心理问题是一种能量和时间的严重浪费,意味着懈怠。一个勤奋的心灵在这个问题出现时,会面对它,观察它的本质,立刻解决它。带着这个心理问题并不能解决它。那是一种能量和精力的浪费。如果你在这些问题出现时就解决掉它们,那么你就会发现根本就没有问题了。

     So we must come back to the question: as an educator in these or any other schools, can you cultivate this diligence? It is only in this that the flowering of goodness comes into being. It is your total, irrevocable responsibility, and in it is this love which will naturally find a way of helping the student.

所以我们必须回到这个问题上:作为这些学校或者其他学校里的一个教育者,你能不能培养这种勤奋?只有在这种勤奋中善良之花才能盛放。这是你无法改变的全部责任,其中有爱,这爱会自然地发现帮助学生的方法。

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