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Windows Vista 核心网络过滤【改】

(2007-05-23 14:51:07)
标签:

vista

wfp

ndis

  Windows Vista(简称Vista),是微软公司推出的最新的客户端操作系统,内部名称Windows NT 6.0。相对于Windows NT 5.x,其网络结构变化非常大,原有的TDI,NDIS系统挂接方法不再适用。(修改自nrworld.com 作者匿名)
 
  在Vista系统中,微软引入了两种新的网络过滤系统,WFP和 NDISfilter。由于WFP和NDIS系统十分庞大,本文从个人防火墙的技术需求出发详细叙述需要的技术细节,其他更多的内容,请参阅微软相关文档。(转载请注明wsdgs)
 
一、 WFP (Windows Filtering Platform)

Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) is a set of API and system services that provide a platform for creating firewalls. WFP API allows developers to create code that interacts with the filtering that takes place at several layers in the networking stack and throughout the operating system.

WFP integrates with and provides support for firewall features such as authenticated communication and dynamic firewall configuration based on applications' use of sockets API (application-based policy). Windows Filtering Platform is a development platform and not a firewall itself.

  其包含从用户态到核心态的一系列应用层,根据需要可以在某一层设置回调函数拦截数据。
  1、 callout callout是WFP系统提供的扩展其功能的一种机制,callout由一组callout函数组成,每组有三种函数, ClassifyFunction,处理收到的网络数据,例如端口号IP地址等。NotifyFunction,处理加载、删除callout事件。 FlowDeleteFunction,删除层与层之间关联的上下文。 callout由callout驱动具体实现,每个驱动可以注册多个callout。 
  2、WFP的层和层数据WFP有很多层,每一层分成若干子层,具体有哪些请参阅微软文档,我以FWPM_LAYER_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4层为例进行讲解。这层位于ALE层,是其子层之一。面向连接的应用程序准备连接,面向无连接的程序准备通信,都发生在这一层。如果在这里拒绝了上述操作,应用程序就不能访问网络,这类似以前的TDI程序的Create事件,就是应用程序访问网络的请求刚到协议栈还没有处理。WFP每一层都有其特定的数据,根据这些数据又有特定的过滤条件,例如这层包括FWPS_METADATA_FIELD_PROCESS_ID类型数据,这个类型由UINT64类型数据定义,表示和本次网络访问请求相关的进程ID,可是FWPS_LAYER_INBOUND_IPPACKET_V4层就不包括这一类型的数据,其实 FWPS_LAYER_INBOUND_IPPACKET_V4已经到了IP层,这里进程ID已经没用了。因此在 FWPM_LAYER_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4层可以以进程ID作为过滤条件,而到了 FWPS_LAYER_INBOUND_IPPACKET_V4层就不能用进程ID作为过滤条件了。每一层都有哪些数据类型,根据这些数据有哪些过滤条件可用,请参阅微软的WFP文档层标识符等章节。综上,WFP系统很像一个已经有了数据过滤引擎的防火墙,但是没有规则。我们编写用户层的程序给WFP引擎设置规则,编写核心态的callout驱动处理 WFP抓到的网络数据包。根据微软的文档所示,WFP能够到达IP层,如果我们想进行MAC层的处理,就必须利用NDISfilter驱动。
 
  3、应用WFP实现应用程序访问网络时提示这是个人防火墙的基本功能之一,当有应用程序访问网络时询问用户是否允许。首先我们编写一个callout驱动,用来处理WFP抓到的网络数据。由于 WFP抓到的数据只送到callout驱动不会送到用户层程序,所以这里必须用驱动根据数据判定放行还是阻止。Callout驱动向系统注册 callout函数:
 
FWPS_CALLOUT0 sCallout;
sCallout.calloutKey = *calloutKey;
sCallout.flags = flags;
sCallout.classifyFn = ClassifyFunction;//MonitorCoFlowEstablishedCalloutV4
sCallout.notifyFn = NotifyFunction; sCallout.flowDeleteFn = FlowDeleteFunction;
status = FwpsCalloutRegister0(deviceObject, &sCallout, calloutId);
 
FWPS_CALLOUT0结构用来组织一组callout函数,之后用FwpsCalloutRegister0函数注册。这里详细介绍下ClassifyFunction函数,这个函数主要处理网络数据包,
 
NTSTATUS MonitorCoFlowEstablishedCalloutV4
(IN const FWPS_INCOMING_VALUES0* inFixedValues,//WFP传进来的本层特有的数据
 IN const FWPS_INCOMING_METADATA_VALUES0* inMetaValues,//本层相关的扩展数据
 IN VOID* packet,
 IN const FWPS_FILTER0* filter,
 IN UINT64 flowContext,
 OUT FWPS_CLASSIFY_OUT0* classifyOut//用这个结构里的字段告知WFP对数据包做出处理
)
{
 NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS;
 UINT64 flowHandle;
 UINT64 flowContextLocal;
 UINT32 index;
 UINT32 LocalIPADDRv4,remoteIPADDRv4;
 USHORT LocalPort,remotePort;
 UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(packet);
 UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(filter);
 UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(flowContext);
 index = FWPS_FIELD_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4_IP_LOCAL_ADDRESS;
 LocalIPADDRv4 = inFixedValues->incomingValue[index].value.uint32;
 index = FWPS_FIELD_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4_IP_LOCAL_PORT;
 LocalPort = inFixedValues->incomingValue[index].value.uint16;
 index = FWPS_FIELD_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4_IP_REMOTE_ADDRESS;
 remoteIPADDRv4 = inFixedValues->incomingValue[index].value.uint32;
 index = FWPS_FIELD_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4_IP_REMOTE_PORT;
 remotePort = inFixedValues->incomingValue[index].value.uint16;
 DbgPrint("BaseTDI: LocalIP %lx LocalPort %d \n remoteIP %lx remotePort %d",LocalIPADDRv4,LocalPort, remoteIPADDRv4,remotePort);
 DbgPrint("BaseTDI: PID %d ,PID's PATH %s",inMetaValues->processId,inMetaValues->processPath->data); DbgPrint("\n");
 if (monitoringEnabled)
 { //访问规则代码,在这里通知用户态程序
  AskUser(LocalIP, LocalPort, remoteIP, remotePort, PID);
  If classifyOut->actionType = FWP_ACTION_PERMIT;//允许发送或接收
  else classifyOut->actionType = FWP_ACTION_BLOCK; //不允许发送或接收
 }
 return status;
 
在完成callout驱动后,下面介绍用户态程序如何设置WFP系统。
 
设置的大体流程如下,主要代码讲解,
 

WFPAppAddCallouts()//向WFP系统添加callout DWORD
{
 FWPM_CALLOUT0 callout;
 DWORD result;
 FWPM_DISPLAY_DATA0 displayData;
 HANDLE engineHandle = NULL;
 FWPM_SESSION0 session; //初始化一次会话
 RtlZeroMemory(&session, sizeof(FWPM_SESSION0));
 session.displayData.name= L"TEMP WFP Session";
 session.displayData.description = L"For Adding callouts";//创建WFP引擎句柄
 result = FwpmEngineOpen0( NULL, RPC_C_AUTHN_WINNT, NULL, &session, &engineHandle );
 if (NO_ERROR != result) {goto cleanup;} //开始与引擎交互
 result = FwpmTransactionBegin0(engineHandle, 0);
 if (NO_ERROR != result) {goto abort; } //ADD CALLOUT
 RtlZeroMemory(&callout, sizeof(FWPM_CALLOUT0));
 displayData.description = MONITOR_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_CALLOUT_DESCRIPTION;
 displayData.name = MONITOR_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_CALLOUT_NAME;
 callout.calloutKey = TEMP_MONITOR_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_CALLOUT_V4;
 callout.displayData = displayData;
 callout.applicableLayer = FWPM_LAYER_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4;
 callout.flags = FWPM_CALLOUT_FLAG_PERSISTENT; //flags置这个标志表示callout始终被WFP加载
 result = FwpmCalloutAdd0(engineHandle, &callout, NULL, NULL);
 if (NO_ERROR != result) {goto abort; } //结束本次会话
 result = FwpmTransactionCommit0(engineHandle);
 if (NO_ERROR == result) {;} goto cleanup; abort: //说明本次会话失败
 result = FwpmTransactionAbort0(engineHandle);
 if (NO_ERROR == result) {;} cleanup: //关闭引擎
 if (engineHandle) { FwpmEngineClose0(engineHandle); }
 return result;

}

WFPAppAddFilters(IN HANDLE engineHandle/*,IN FWP_BYTE_BLOB* applicationPath*/) //向WFP系统添加filter DWORD
{
 DWORD result = NO_ERROR;
 FWPM_SUBLAYER0 monitorSubLayer;
 FWPM_FILTER0 filter;
 FWPM_FILTER_CONDITION0 filterConditions[1]; //需要几条规则就定义几条 //初始化过滤条件
 RtlZeroMemory(filterConditions, sizeof(filterConditions));
 filterConditions[0].fieldKey = FWPM_CONDITION_IP_PROTOCOL;//所有IP协议数据
 filterConditions[0].matchType = FWP_MATCH_GREATER_OR_EQUAL;//匹配度,大于,小于,大于等于…
 filterConditions[0].conditionValue.type = FWP_UINT8;
 filterConditions[0].conditionValue.uint8 = IPPROTO_IP;
 RtlZeroMemory(&monitorSubLayer, sizeof(FWPM_SUBLAYER0));//初始化子层 
 monitorSubLayer.subLayerKey = TEMP_MONITOR_SUBLAYER;
 monitorSubLayer.displayData.name = L"TEMP Monitor Sub layer";
 monitorSubLayer.displayData.description = L"TEMP Monitor Sub layer";
 monitorSubLayer.flags = 0;//FWMP_SUBLAYER_FLAG_PERSISTENT; // We don't really mind what the order of invocation is.
 monitorSubLayer.weight = 0; //与WFP引擎开始一次会话
 result = FwpmTransactionBegin0(engineHandle, 0);
 if (NO_ERROR != result) {goto abort;} //增加一个子层
 result = FwpmSubLayerAdd0(engineHandle, &monitorSubLayer, NULL);
 if (NO_ERROR != result) {goto abort;} //FWPM_LAYER_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4
 RtlZeroMemory(&filter, sizeof(FWPM_FILTER0));
 filter.layerKey = FWPM_LAYER_ALE_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_V4;
 filter.displayData.name = L"Flow established filter.";
 filter.displayData.description = L"Sets up flow for traffic that we are interested in.";
 filter.action.type = FWP_ACTION_CALLOUT_INSPECTION; //表示把符合条件数据包交给callout处理
 filter.action.calloutKey = TEMP_MONITOR_FLOW_ESTABLISHED_CALLOUT_V4;
 filter.filterCondition = filterConditions;
 filter.subLayerKey = monitorSubLayer.subLayerKey;
 filter.weight.type = FWP_EMPTY; //系统自动设置weight。weight值越大加载越靠前
 filter.numFilterConditions = 1;//过滤条件数
 result = FwpmFilterAdd0(engineHandle, &filter, NULL, &(filterID[0]));
 if (NO_ERROR != result) {goto abort;} //结束本次会话
 result = FwpmTransactionCommit0(engineHandle);
 if (NO_ERROR == result) {;} goto cleanup; abort: //说明本次会话失败
 result = FwpmTransactionAbort0(engineHandle);
 if (NO_ERROR == result) {;} cleanup: return result;
}

 

 

二、NDISfilter NDISfilter是利用系统提供的NDIS过滤引擎,获得MAC级别的网络数据包(这里可以看出WFP,NDISfilter,还有本文未提到的 FileSystemMiniFilter,他们都是利用了微软提供的过滤引擎,向其注册回调函数,得到数据后处理)。关键代码说明,其中的详细数据结构请参阅微软文档NDISfilter一节,
NDIS_FILTER_DRIVER_CHARACTERISTICS FChars;
NdisZeroMemory(&FChars, sizeof(NDIS_FILTER_DRIVER_CHARACTERISTICS));
FChars.Header.Type = NDIS_OBJECT_TYPE_FILTER_DRIVER_CHARACTERISTICS;
FChars.Header.Size = sizeof(NDIS_FILTER_DRIVER_CHARACTERISTICS);
FChars.Header.Revision = NDIS_FILTER_CHARACTERISTICS_REVISION_1;
FChars.MajorNdisVersion = FILTER_MAJOR_NDIS_VERSION;
FChars.MinorNdisVersion = FILTER_MINOR_NDIS_VERSION;
FChars.MajorDriverVersion = 1;
FChars.MinorDriverVersion = 0;
FChars.Flags = 0;
FChars.FriendlyName = FriendlyName;
FChars.UniqueName = UniqueName;
FChars.ServiceName = ServiceName;
FChars.SetOptionsHandler = FilterRegisterOptions;
FChars.AttachHandler = FilterAttach;//如果是我们想挂接的网络介质,就在这里通知系统挂接
FChars.DetachHandler = FilterDetach;
FChars.RestartHandler = FilterRestart;
FChars.PauseHandler = FilterPause;
FChars.SetFilterModuleOptionsHandler = FilterSetModuleOptions;
FChars.OidRequestHandler = FilterOidRequest;
FChars.OidRequestCompleteHandler = FilterOidRequestComplete;
FChars.CancelOidRequestHandler = FilterCancelOidRequest;
FChars.SendNetBufferListsHandler = FilterSendNetBufferLists;//发送回调函数
FChars.ReturnNetBufferListsHandler = FilterReturnNetBufferLists;
FChars.SendNetBufferListsCompleteHandler = FilterSendNetBufferListsComplete;
FChars.ReceiveNetBufferListsHandler = FilterReceiveNetBufferLists;//接收回调函数
FChars.DevicePnPEventNotifyHandler = FilterDevicePnPEventNotify;
FChars.NetPnPEventHandler = FilterNetPnPEvent;
FChars.StatusHandler = FilterStatus;
FChars.CancelSendNetBufferListsHandler = FilterCancelSendNetBufferLists;

NDIS_FILTER_DRIVER_CHARACTERISTICS这个结构用来组织NDISfilter功能函数供NDIS系统回调,例如 FilterSendNetBufferLists,发送数据回调函数,NDIS发送MAC帧时回调这个函数,相应数据可以在这个函数里得到处理,之后还给NDIS系统继续处理。
VOID FilterSendNetBufferLists( IN NDIS_HANDLE FilterModuleContext, IN PNET_BUFFER_LIST NetBufferLists, IN NDIS_PORT_NUMBER PortNumber, IN ULONG SendFlags )
{
 PMS_FILTER pFilter = (PMS_FILTER)FilterModuleContext;
 NDIS_STATUS Status = NDIS_STATUS_SUCCESS;
 PNET_BUFFER_LIST CurrNbl;
 BOOLEAN DispatchLevel; //这里开始分析PNET_BUFFER_LIST指向的网络数据,并显示如何获得MAC地址
 PNET_BUFFER_LIST pNetBufList,pNextNetBufList;
 PMDL pMdl;
 PNDISPROT_ETH_HEADER pEthHeader = NULL;
 ULONG TotalLength,Offset,BufferLength; pNetBufList = NetBufferLists;
 while (pNetBufList != NULL)
 {
  pNextNetBufList = NET_BUFFER_LIST_NEXT_NBL (pNetBufList); //得到当前和包相关的MDL,MDL里即MAC帧,详细的NET_BUFFER_LIST结构请参阅微软相关文档
  pMdl = NET_BUFFER_CURRENT_MDL(NET_BUFFER_LIST_FIRST_NB(pNetBufList));
  TotalLength = NET_BUFFER_DATA_LENGTH(NET_BUFFER_LIST_FIRST_NB(pNetBufList));
  Offset = NET_BUFFER_CURRENT_MDL_OFFSET(NET_BUFFER_LIST_FIRST_NB(pNetBufList));
  BufferLength = 0;
  do
  {
   ASSERT(pMdl != NULL);
   if (pMdl)
   {
    NdisQueryMdl( pMdl, &pEthHeader, &BufferLength, NormalPagePriority);
   }

   if (pEthHeader == NULL)
   {
    BufferLength = 0; break;
   }

   if (BufferLength == 0){ break;}
   ASSERT(BufferLength > Offset);
   BufferLength -= Offset;
   pEthHeader = (PNDISPROT_ETH_HEADER)((PUCHAR)pEthHeader + Offset);
   DbgPrint("DstMAC %x-%x-%x-%x-%x-%x",pEthHeader->DstAddr[0], pEthHeader->DstAddr[1],pEthHeader->DstAddr[2], pEthHeader->DstAddr[3],pEthHeader->DstAddr[4], pEthHeader->DstAddr[5]);
   DbgPrint("srcMAC %x-%x-%x-%x-%x-%x",pEthHeader->SrcAddr[0], pEthHeader->SrcAddr[1],pEthHeader->SrcAddr[2], pEthHeader->SrcAddr[3],pEthHeader->SrcAddr[4], pEthHeader->SrcAddr[5]);
   DbgPrint("\n");
   if (BufferLength < sizeof(NDISPROT_ETH_HEADER)) { break;}
  }
  while (FALSE);

  pNetBufList = pNextNetBufList;
 }
}

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