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(2007-05-29 21:36:16)
分类: 英语学习

Text B

Learning a Language     

Most students would like to know how to learn a 1anguage more easily. 大部分学生都想知道如何能够轻松地学好一门语言,Most linguists and language teachers would also like to know this.大部分语言学家和语言教师也想弄清楚这个问题。Linguists are working on this problem in two ways.语言学家从两个方面研究这个问题。First,they are trying to understand how children learn to speak and understand their native language. 一方面,他们致力于弄清楚儿童是如何学会母语、理解母语的。They are also trying to learn how people learn a second language.另一方面致力于研究人是如何学习第二语言的。


Linguists are not sure how children learn to speak.语言学家并不确定儿童是如何学说话的。Some linguists think that children are born with an ability to learn and use a 1anguage.一些语言学家认为儿童生来就有学习和使用语言的能力。 This does not mean that they come into the world knowing their native language. 这并不是指一个人的母语是与生俱来的;It means that,along with many other things,they are born with the ability to learn their native language.而是指一个人生来具有学习其母语的能力,这种能力与人在其他方面表现出来的能力是相同的。With just a little exposure to the language,孩子只要与要学习的语言有一定接触,and a little help from their parents,they are able to learn to speak.在父母的些许帮助下就能够学会说话。Another group of linguists does not think this is correct.另外一派语言学家则对此持有异议。


This second group of linguists thinks that children learn to use a 1anguage from their parents.持反对意见的语言学家认为儿童是跟着父母学会使用语言的。They believe that parents teach their children to produce sounds and words in their language.他们认为父母首先教孩子发声、吐字。When children know some words,their parents will begin to teach them to say sentences.当孩子掌握一定词汇以后,父母就开始教他们如何组织句子。These linguists do not think that parents teach their children in the same way that adults are taught a second language.但是他们认为,父母教孩子的方式不同于教成年人学习第二语言的方法。Instead,相反,parents probably teach their children by talking to them and correcting their use of 1anguage. 父母是通过与孩子交谈并纠正他们的语言错误来教孩子说话的。These linguists feel that children learn their language mainly from the environment . 这一派语言学家认为,儿童主要通过语言环境学会使用语言的。 In this case,这种情况下,the environment is their family and their home. 语言环境是家庭和生活环境。As you see,可以看出,the first group of linguists disagrees.第一派语言学家对此并不赞同。


There are some other theories about how children learn a language.关于儿童如何学习语言还有一些其他理论。 Many people are studying  the process  of  language learning by children.This work is being done in many countries.许多国家中有很多人正着手研究儿童学习语言过程。Linguists are not the only people who are interested in this process.Many psychologists,doctors, and parents are also interested.People who teach foreign languages are interested, too.不仅语言学家,许多心理学家、医生和父母都对儿童的语言学习过程感兴趣。外语教师也对这一过程很感兴趣。

Foreign language teachers are interested in how children learn to speak their native language for a very important reason.外语教师对儿童如何学说母语感兴趣,有其很重要的原因。If they knew how children learn their native language,他们如果知道儿童如何学习母语,perhaps they would have an easy way to teach adults,as well as children, a second language.就可能找到一种简便的方法教儿童和成年人学习第二语言。This is a very interesting idea.这是一种非常有意思的想法。Some foreign language teachers believe that adults learn a second language the same way children learn their native language . 有些外语教师认为成年人学习第二语言的过程和儿童学习母语的过程是相同的。These teachers try to make their students' learning similar to that of children.这部分外语教师模仿儿童学习语言的过程组织教学:These teachers speak only the foreign language in the classroom.课堂上只讲外语,They will not talk to students in the native language.不与学生讲母语。They try to expose them to as much of the spoken foreign language as possible.They  do not teach them any rules for using the language.他们使学生尽可能多地接触所学外语的口语形式,不教学生语言使用的规则。Most parents don't teach their children rules for language usage,either. They simply tell them how to say something correctly.Foreign language teachers using this spoken language method do the same thing. 外语教师采用这种口语教法是因为大多数父母在教孩子说话的时候也不教孩子语言使用规则,而只是告诉孩子怎样讲话是正确的。For some students,对一些学生来说,this method is successful.这种方法是成功的,They learn to speak quickly and easily.他们能够轻而易举地、很快地学会所学的语言。They seem to enjoy using the language,他们似乎很喜欢去用所学的语言,and they do not pay much attention to whether they use exactly the right rules for what they say.并不很在意是否使用了正确的语言规则。Some students, however,cannot learn a language this way.Linguists are trying to find another way to teach them a language.另外一些学生则不适合这种方法,语言学家着手寻找一种适合他们的教学方法。

A second method,the rule-learning method,sometimes works better with these students.另外一种方法--语言规则学习法--更适合这部分学生。Some linguists believe that learning a foreign language is different from learning to speak one's  native language.一些语言学家认为学习外语不同于学习母语。They feel that students must learn the rules for using the language by  memorizing them and must practice saying things in the language and using the rules correctly.学生必须通过记忆来学习语言使用规则,必须练习使用这种语言,练习正确地使用这些规则。These linguists try to teach students the rules of the language they want to learn.语言教师首先教学生要学的语法规则,Then they give them many sentences in the language to say over and over again.再给学生一些例句让他们反复练习,The students are encouraged to make up new sentences,using the rules that they have learned and the words that they know.同时鼓励学生使用所学过的语法规则和他们所掌握的词造句。

Some students are very successful with this second, rule-learning method.一些学生使用这种语法规则学习法效果非常好,They learn the language quite quickly and can use it well.他们学得很快,用得也好。They know the rules for using the language and can speak the language and understand it,too.他们掌握了语言使用规则,能够使用所学的语言,也能够理解别人的话。For many students, this is the best way to learn a foreign language.对一些学生来说,这是学外语最好的方法。For some students, both of these methods may work.对另外一些学生来说,两种方法都行之有效。Sometimes teachers use a combination of these methods in class,有时候,老师在课堂上将两种方法结合起来用,hoping that everyone will be able to learn the language with one method or the other.目的是让每个学生都能受益。Some people can go to a country and "pick up" the language  simply from hearing it and trying to communicate in it.有些人能够到国外通过倾听,与人交流等手段自然而然的学会那个国家的语言。 These people are rare.但这毕竟是少数人。

Most people try to learn a language by taking classes and studying it in some way.大多数人还是通过课堂或者其他方式来学语言的。Most teachers will try different ways to help students learn a language quickly and easily.大多数老师也通过不同的教法来帮助学生轻松快速的学会一门语言。Linguists and psychologists are trying to understand how people learn and use a language.语言学家和心理学家正致力于弄清楚人是如何学会并使用语言的。Perhaps language 1earning will be easier when they have a clear understanding of how people learn and use a language. 也许在解决了这个问题之后,语言学习会变得容易一些。


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