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汽车发动机英语教程 lesson 12  Crankshaft 曲轴 英汉对照

(2011-11-04 13:46:17)
标签:

crankshaft

曲轴

教育

分类: 汽车发动机英语

lesson 12  Crankshaft

曲轴

 

The principal force an engine crankshaft must resist is the bending action of the connecting rod thrust when the piston is at top center.

 Then the maximum gas pressure acts straight down on the crankpin and tends to bend the shaft between the adjacent supporting bearings.

 The crankshaft must also withstand the twisting or “torsional” forces produced by the turning effort of the connecting rod.

发动机曲轴必须承受的主要力量是在活塞处于上死点时连杆推力产生的弯曲力。

此时,最大气体压力垂直向下作用在曲轴销上,两个相邻的支撑轴瓦之间的曲轴趋于弯曲。

曲轴也必须承受得住连杆翻转所产生的扭弯或扭转力。

 

Most modern engines have one-piece crankshafts forged from carbon steel or from alloy steel containing nickel, chromium, and molybdenum.

 In large in-line engines of many cylinders, the crankshaft may be two forgings, flanged at the ends and bolted together.

 In extremely large engines, crankshafts too large to be made as single forgings are “built up” of individual webs (“throws” or “cheeks”) and journals.

 The web forging are bored slightly smaller than the journal fits and the parts are then shrunk firmly together.

 A few modern engines use cast crankshafts, made of special cast-iron containing chromium, nickel, and molybdenum.

多数现代柴油机是整体曲轴,用碳钢或含有镍、铬和钼的合金钢锻造而成。

在大型直列发动机的许多汽缸里,曲轴可以为2根锻件,其端部为凸缘,用螺栓连接起来。

在特大型发动机里,曲轴,因太大而无法造成单根整体锻件,而是用独立的曲柄板(曲柄或颊板)和主轴颈组装而成的。

crankshaft web:曲轴连接板,曲柄板;

crankshaft throw:曲轴弯程, 曲轴行程(曲轴半径);

crankshaft cheek:曲轴(连接)板, 曲柄(颊)板, 曲柄臂, 曲柄颊)

连杆颈的直径要镗得比曲轴颈的配合直径要小些,且零件因为收缩而紧紧地装配在一起。

少数现代柴油机使用铸造曲轴,用含有铬,镍,和钼的特殊铸铁制造。

It is customary to heat-treat forged shafts to relieve the internal strains caused by the forging process and to improve the strength of the material。

“Induction hardening”, an electrical process which rapidly heats metal parts on the outside, is often applied to give the journals a hard, long-wearing surface while retaining a tough inner core.

 In addition the journal surfaces may be “superfinished” to make them extremely smooth.

为了消除曲轴锻造过程中产生的内应力,并提高材料的强度,通常进行热处理。

感应淬火,是一种能快速加热金属零件外表的电加工法。通常采用这种方法,使曲轴颈表面耐磨,其芯部较硬。

此外,可以对轴颈表面进行“超静加工”,使其特别光滑。

Counterweighting.

 Crankshafts are sometimes “counterweighted” by adding weights to the crank webs opposite to the crankpins.

 This relieves the loads on the main bearings by offsetting the inertia forces.

 Also in the case of one-, two-, and three-cylinder engines, it improves the balance of the engine itself.

In crankcase-scavenging engines, counter-weights serve a further purpose by occupying idle space in the crankcase and thus improving the pumping action of the bottom side of the descending piston.

配重

曲轴有时要在曲柄销对面的曲柄臂上增加重量进行配重。

通过抵消惯性力,这样能消除主轴承上的负载,

同时,在单缸,双缸和三缸发动机上,配重改善发动机自身的平衡。

在曲轴箱扫气的发动机里,配重的另外的目的填充曲轴箱的怠速空间,因此,在下降的活塞时改善底边的抽吸作用。

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