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如何写作电影剧本

(2011-09-14 18:46:41)
标签:

写作

电影

电影剧本

娱乐

分类: 影视内容制作

如何写作电影剧本
wannaflyer翻译于2010-07-09 15:53:53

 

电影剧本怎样写? 
Contributor
作者
By Christina Hamlett, eHow Contributing Writer
克里斯蒂娜·汉姆雷,eHow作者

 

Difficulty: Moderately Challenging
困难度:中等


If you love movies and have a lot of imagination, you may be thinking it would be fun to write a movie script yourself. Thanks to a host of creative resources on the Internet, software programs that take the guesswork out of formatting and even opportunities to pitch your work to prospective producers, you don't even have to live in Hollywood to generate your own movie magic. Here's how to get started.
如果你热爱电影并且想象力丰富,那么你也许会觉得亲笔写作电影剧本很好玩。互联网上创意资源丰富,有各种软件能帮你摆脱版式设计的麻烦,专注悬念设置,甚至能帮你把作品送到大制片人手中。要创造自己的电影奇迹,你不是一定要住在好莱坞。要知道怎样开始吗?跟我来吧。


Instructions.Things You'll Need:
小提示:你需要:
•Computer
电脑  
•Screenwriting software
剧本写作软件
•Internet access
互联网
•DVD player
DVD播放机


Step 1
第一步
Decide the length and genre of the movie you want to write. If you're brand new to this medium, you may want to start out with a film short rather than a full-length feature. A film short can be anywhere from 3 minutes to an hour and uses only a few characters and locations. In contrast, a feature film is more complex and ranges anywhere from 90 minutes to 3 hours, the average being 2 hours. Genre refers to whether your film is a drama, comedy, romance, fantasy, sci-fi, western and so forth. For your first screenplay, it's best to start out writing in a genre that you personally enjoy watching.
确定你要写作的电影剧本长度和类型。假如你是一只菜鸟,也许可以尝试一下电影短片,而非长片。电影短片片长在3分钟到1个小时之间,角色和场景较少。而长片片长则在90分钟到3个小时之间,一般为2个小时。电影类型分为剧情片、喜剧片、爱情片、奇幻片、科幻片以及西部片等等。作为你的第一个剧本,你最好选择个人喜欢的电影类型。


Step 2
第二步
Rent and watch at least 10 films in your chosen genre to familiarize yourself with their structure and the elements that make them click. A comedy, for instance, relies on wacky situations, sight gags, and snappy banter. In contrast, a horror story takes advantage of light, shadow, music and surprises that jump from out of nowhere. Visit your local video store and ask for genre recommendations, flip through a DVD catalog or visit Netflix online to search for films to study.
选择完电影类型后,租看至少10部同类型影片,以熟悉其结构及成功元素。举例来说,喜剧侧重表现愚蠢的情节、引人发笑的形体表演以及机智的讽刺笑话。而恐怖片则利用灯光、阴影、音乐以及突然出现的惊异元素。到当地的音像商店,让他们为你推荐典型的类型片,浏览DVD目录,或者访问Netflix在线,寻找可供学习的影片。


Step 3
第三步
Download free screenplays from websites such as Simply Scripts and Drew's Script-O-Rama to study formatting and structure. Rent the DVD of one of the free screenplays you download to compare how what is written on the page translates to what actually appears on the screen. Screenwriting is about brevity. Accordingly, you're not going to be writing every single detail about what the characters are wearing, what color the house is or how many times the camera moves because these things are left to the discretion of the director, cinematographer, wardrobe designer and other professionals.
从Simply Scripts和Drew's Script-O-Rama这样的网站上下载免费剧本来学习剧本的格式和结构。把你下载的剧本的DVD租来观看,比较一下剧本上的内容在荧幕上是怎样呈现出来的。创作电影剧本要简洁,因此,你并不需要详细描写角色的衣着如何,房屋的颜色如何或者摄影机需要移动几次,这些工作应该是由导演、摄影师、服装设计师以及其他人员来考虑的。


Step 4

第四步
Study books about the craft of screenwriting. Publishers such as Michael Wiese Productions specialize in how-to texts for film and television writing and offer invaluable resources in constructing your story, gleaning advice from industry professionals and understanding the fundamentals of how movies are financed, filmed and distributed.
自学电影剧本创作的书籍。类似Michael Wiese Productions这样的出版商专门出版有关电影电视剧本创作类的书籍,能够提供宝贵资源,帮你构建故事情节,你也能从中获得行业专家的建议,理解电影的资金来源、拍摄以及发行方面的基本知识。


Step 5
第五步
Outline your story before you start writing it. Screenwriting is about three-act structure. The first third of your script introduces the main characters and identifies the core conflict or quest. The second third escalates the stakes and forces the protagonist to take bigger risks. The third act throws in more obstacles to place the protagonist between a rock and a hard place and then resolves all of the outstanding issues. One of the easiest ways to outline your screenplay concept is to decide how many pages it will be and divide it by 3. Since 1 page of typed script equals 1 minute of screen time, a 15-minute film short would be 15 pages in length, and each act would be 5 pages long.
动笔之前,应列出电影的故事大纲。电影剧本应当是三幕式结构。前三分之一介绍故事的主要人物和故事的中心冲突或探究问题。中间三分之一增加冲突,迫使主角承担更大的风险。最后一幕则设置更多的障碍,将主角置于困境之中,并在最后解决所有的重大问题。要列出故事大纲,最简单的一个办法是先考虑一下剧本要写多少页,然后用总页数除以3.一页打印剧本相当于屏幕上的一分钟,所以说,一个15分钟的短片其剧本长度为15页,每一幕均为5页。


Step 6
第六步
Identify who your protagonist (hero) will be. This person will have the most visibility on screen and will also have the core conflict or quest around which all other events revolve. Identify who or what is going to oppose your protagonist's objectives. The antagonist (villain) can't be bad just for the sake of being bad or he will come across as superficial. The villain's goals must be as clearly defined as those of the hero to constitute a battle worth watching.
 确定故事的主角。这个角色将拥有最高的出镜率,故事的中心冲突和所有事件所要解开的谜题都将围绕他展开。确定主角会遇到什么样的对手或者困难。故事的反面人物(恶人)可不能为恶而恶,否则其人物形象会变得没有深度。他的目标应当像主角的那样清晰明了,从而使故事冲突有可观性。


Step 7 
第七步
Decide how many settings and how many additional characters you will need to tell your story. It's best for a first-time screenwriter to think economically about production costs to make his or her screenplay accessible to as many prospective producers as possible. For instance, a 15-minute short that has a cast of 500 actors, multiple costume changes and expensive sets replete with explosions and natural disasters isn't likely to attract any buyers.
确定故事需要多少场景和配角。作为一名初次动笔的剧作家,你应该考虑制作成本的经济性,从而保证自己的剧本吸引尽可能多的制片人。举个例子,假如一部15分钟的短剧用到了500名演员,多次更换服装,并且充满了昂贵的爆炸和天灾场面,那它是很难吸引到制片人的。


Step 8
第八步
Start writing your script. If you don't have a screenwriting software program such as Final Draft (finaldraft.com) loaded on your computer, it's still feasible to create a script as a Word document. The downside to this, however, is that you're going to make a lot of extra work for yourself and, furthermore, your finished product may not look as professional as those of your competitors.
开始动笔。假如你电脑上没有按照专业的剧本写作软件,如Final Draft (finaldraft.com),Word编辑器也是可以胜任的。不过这样做的缺点就是,你需要费很多额外的功夫,而且你的产品看起来也不如竞争对手专业。


Step 9
第九步
Get feedback on your screenplay. Join or start a local screenwriters' critique group where you can read and evaluate each other's work. Enter screenplay competitions through websites such as Movie Bytes (moviebytes.com). Have your screenplay professionally evaluated through services such as Hollywood LitSales. Pitch your polished script through websites such as InkTip (inktip.com).
取得自己剧本的反馈。加入或者建立一个当地的剧本批评小组,从而阅读评论彼此的作品。通过网站参加剧本创作大赛,如Movie Bytes (moviebytes.com)。通过Hollywood LitSales这样的服务机构使自己的剧本得到专业评审。通过InkTip (inktip.com)这样的网站对自己润色过的剧本进行评分。

【本文由wannaflyer独家授权给译言网使用,未经许可请勿转载。商业或非商业使用请联系译言网】

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