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[转载]“通向和谐之路:美中交往史,1784年-1979年”

(2017-09-20 14:30:53)
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The U.S. EMBASSY BEIJING CORDIALLY INVITES YOU TO

Visit Photo Beijing 2015 & a Special Exhibition

“Path to Harmony: The United States and China, 1784-1979”

 

美国驻华大使馆热诚邀请您参观2015北京国际摄影周并观赏图片展

 

通向和谐之路:美中交往史,1784-1979

 

[转载]“通向和谐之路:美中交往史,1784年-1979年”

 

Yuan Jinting

Map of Hankow, c.1886-1898

Wuhan, Hubei Province

汉口地图(细部),约1886-1898

湖北省,武汉

 

展期:20151025 –111

每日开放时间:早9点至晚6点(周一至周四);早9点至晚9点(周五至周日)

中华世纪坛南广场影像艺术空间4号馆(请凭身份证从世纪坛南门换票入场)

地铁1号线、9号线,军事博物馆站

Duration:  Sunday, 10/25 – Sunday, 11/1

Daily Time 09:00 – 18:00Mondays – Thursdays09:00 –21:00, Fridays - Sundays

VenueVisual Art Space 4 Hall, SouthSquare, China Millennium Monument, A9 Fuxing Road

MetroJun Shi Bo Wu Guan Station (Military Museum), Subway Line 1, Subway Line9

 

通向和谐之路:

美中交往史,1784- 1979

 

 

年轻人和长者通常很难自然而然结为好友,但是,相对年轻的美国和历史悠久的中国早在1783年美国独立之后不久就已经开始建立联系。在接下来的两个半世纪里,两国一直努力在国家利益、贸易、文化交流、外交和两国平等的基础上建立稳固的纽带关系。尽管在向这个目标前进的过程中走过不少弯路,但如今,作为世界上两个最强大和富有的国家,美中两国已经在承认各自特色的同时建立了良好的关系。

 

与其他较早进入中国的西方国家一样,美国最初是通过贸易走进中国的。后来,两国之间外交

人员、留学生、学者和军事人员的交流进一步丰富了互利互惠的交流途径。

 

1867年,清政府任命蒲安臣代表中国出任驻华盛顿特区大使,这为美中的初期交往做出了重大

贡献。蒲安臣此前曾担任美国驻中国公使,因此熟知双方政府的利益所在。18721881年的中国留美幼童计划进一步促进了美中两国的交往。该计划挑选了一批幼童前往新英格兰留学,希望

他们在归国之后对中国的现代化进程做出贡献。

 

1896年,中国的著名政治家李鸿章总督正式出访美国和其他国家,使中国的国际知名度显著提升。在华盛顿特区停留期间,李鸿章主张废除限制中国劳工移民的美国法律,但未能成功。中国的

广东省早在19世纪淘金热时期就开始向美国大量移民。他们留在美国,为提高美国的基础建设和农业水平做出了贡献,包括建立起第一条横贯大陆铁路,和培育出平氏樱桃和抗霜冻柑橘。许多早期的中国移民从旅居者成为了美国公民。

 

二战期间,美国帮助中国坚持抵抗日军入侵。除了担任军事顾问和指导角色的美国人,陈纳德

将军领导的中华民国空军美籍志愿大队,即广为人知的飞虎队也发挥了巨大作用。战后,两国间的正式关系自1949年中华人民共和国成立之后经历了一段停滞,直至1971年,两国才努力向

邦交正常化迈进。

 

今天,美中两国之间的联系以各种新的途径继续向前发展。正如二十世纪的中国人——尤其是在作为国际大都市的上海——接受了现代化、西方化的生活方式,美国人也爱上了中国的事物——尤其是中国美食,但通常根据美国口味加以调整。中国学生学习英语已经有很长的历史,而近年来,美国学校也开始广泛教授中文,这表明两国之间的互相学习仍在继续。

 

美中关系形象地阐释了公元前5世纪孔子的一句名言:有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?

 

林希文博士

哈佛大学哈佛-燕京图书馆西方语言图书馆员(退休)


Path toHarmony:  The United States and China,1784-1979

 

The young and the old are rarely thought of as natural friends,but the relatively young United States and the much older China began to pursuea relationship soon after the former achieved its independence in 1783. Overthe following two and a half centuries, both countries have sought to develop astable bond based on national interests, trade, cultural exchanges, diplomacy,and the equality of nations. Although there have been significant diversions inthe path to that end, the United States and China now engage as the world’s twomost powerful and wealthy countries while acknowledging their distinctidentities.

 

America’s entrée into China followed the route of other Westernnations that preceded it through trade. The exchange of diplomats, students,scholars, and military personnel further opened avenues with benefits to bothcountries.

 

An essential contribution to early U.S.-China relations was theQing Dynasty’s appointment of Anson Burlingame as its representative toWashington, D.C., in 1867. Burlingame had previously been the U.S. minister toChina and thus was well-versed in the interests of both governments. TheChinese Educational Mission (1872-1881) further facilitated U.S.-Chineseinteractions by sending a select group of boys to schools in New England, with theexpectation that they would contribute to China’s modernization after theirreturn home.

 

China’s international visibility was greatly enhanced in 1896 bythe official mission of her leading statesman, Viceroy Li Hongzhang, to theUnited States and other countries. While in Washington, D.C., Li advocated unsuccessfullyfor the repeal of U.S. laws that restricted the immigration of Chineselaborers. Chinese had begun emigrating in large numbers from Guangdong Provinceduring the nineteenth-century Gold Rush. They stayed on to improve America’sinfrastructure and agriculture, including building the first Transcontinental Railroadand developing the Bing cherry and the frost-resistant orange. Many earlyChinese immigrants progressed from sojourner to citizen.

 

During World War II, the U.S. helped sustain China’s resistance toJapan’s advances, primarily as military advisors and instructors, but also byGeneral Claire Lee Chennault’s 1st American Volunteer Group, popularly known asthe “Flying Tigers.” After the war, official relations between the two nationsexperienced a hiatus from the founding of the People’s Republic of China in1949 until efforts towards normalization in 1971.

 

Today, connections continue to develop in new and novel ways. Justas twentieth-century Chinese adopted modern, Western ways, particularly incosmopolitan Shanghai, Americans developed a taste for things Chinese, notablyChinese food (often adapted to American tastes). Chinese students have longstudied English, but the widespread instruction of Mandarin in American schoolsis a recent phenomenon, illustrating that the two countries continue to learnfrom each other.

 

U.S.-China relations mirror an expression by Confucius in thefifth century B.C.: “To have friends come from afar: is that not happiness (有朋自远方来不亦乐乎)?”

 

 

 

Dr. Raymond Lum 

Librarianfor Western Languages (Ret.)

Harvard-YenchingLibrary, Harvard University

 

 

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