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[转载]谁拥有月球?全人类。

(2017-09-20 12:56:51)
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分类: 历史_文化_法治
国际太空站是《外层空间条约》呼吁合作探索太空的成果。(NASA)

由于有1967年10月生效的《外层空间条约》(Outer Space Treaty)的保障,太空中没有核武器,月球上没有军事基地。而且,每个国家都可以自由地探索宇宙,造福人类。

这项条约是在美国和前苏联的冷战高潮中达成。当时两国预见到人类将会向月球和更遥远的外层空间发展,并且希望避免目光短浅的军事或国家竞争。条约将太空定义为人类共同的边疆,对它的探索应采取国际合作途径。目前共有103个签约国。

除了明确太空非军事化和各国享有参与探索权外,这项条约还规定:

  • 所有国家不得对外层空间伸张主权。
  • 月球和其他天体将只完全用于和平目的。
  • 宇航员是全人类的使者。
  • 各国对自身太空活动负责,无论活动是由政府还是非政府实体展开。
  • 各国对由其太空物体造成的破坏承担责任。
  • 各国必须避免对太空和天体的有害污染。
Indian schoolchildren with Mars Orbiter poster (AP Images)

印度学龄儿童站在印度火星轨道飞行器海报四周。这个飞行器正在向地球发回火星图像。(AP Images)

体现《外层空间条约》重要意义的一个有力实例是国际太空站(International Space Station)。国际太空站已经连续载人运行将近14年,共有15个国家的宇航员登站。另一个国际合作体现在对火星的探索


Thanks to the Outer Space Treaty, which came into force on October 10, 1967, there are no nuclear weapons in outer space and no military bases on the moon. And every country is free to explore the cosmos for the benefit of all.

The treaty was agreed to at the height of the Cold War between the United States and the former Soviet Union. Both nations foresaw human expansion to the moon and beyond and wanted to prevent a short-sighted military or national competition. The treaty defines space as a shared human frontier whose exploration should be an avenue for international cooperation. Right now, 103 countries are parties to the treaty.

In addition to the demilitarization of space and the right of every country to participate in its exploration, the treaty holds that:

  • Nations may not make territorial claims over outer space.
  • The moon and other celestial bodies will be used exclusively for peaceful purposes.
  • Astronauts are the envoys of all mankind.
  • Countries are responsible for their national space activities, whether carried out by governmental or nongovernmental entities.
  • Countries are liable for damage caused by their space objects.
  • Countries must avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies.
Indian schoolchildren with Mars Orbiter poster (AP Images)

Indian schoolchildren pose with a poster of their country’s Mars Orbiter, which is sending images of the planet back to Earth. (AP Images)

A good example of what the Outer Space Treaty has come to signify is the International Space Station, which has had a continuous human presence for nearly 14 years and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different countries. Another example is the international effort to explore the planet Mars.

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