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Grammar新编英语语法(下)

(2012-09-21 17:26:26)
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杂谈

Grammar新编英语语法(下)

Grammar新编英语语法(上)

 

Lecture 13  Non-finite Verb非限定性动词
     The non-finite verbs are so called because they are not marked for tense or for subject-verb concord. We recognize three types of non-finite verbs: infinitive, -ing participle and -ed participle. All the three non-finite verbs may be used in different functions. They carry different implications, even in the same environment:


the books to be published  ( future)
the books being published  (present)
the books published       (past)


     But the most difficult part of the job of handling non-finite verbs is whether to use the infinitive or the -ing participle after certain verbs. Grammar rules, if there are any, are not very helpful at that.
§1. Infinitive
I. Forms:

Active Passive
Simple to do to be done
Perfective to have done to have been done
Progressive to be doing /
Perfective Progressive to have been doing /
1. Aspect:
The Aspect of the infinitive indicates the sequence of the actions of the infinitive and the verb of the main clause.
1) the simple infinitive: the action of the infinitive happens at the same time with or after the verb of the main clause
I had to pretend to be a man in order to get a job.
Reporters are sent to cover the event.
2) the perfective infinitive: the action of the infinitive happens before the action of the verb of the main clause
They are said to have discussed the problem.
☻be, wish, hope, mean, intend, plan 等动词的过去式以及would like, should like与动词不定式的完成体连用,表示过去想做而未做的事
I wished to have helped you, but I had no money then.
I intended to have seen you last week, but I was very busy.
He would like to have attended the meeting, but he was ill.
3) the progressive infinitive: the action of the infinitive and the action of the verb of the main clause happen at the same time
The police are reported to be searching for the man who robbed the bank.
2. Voice:
The voice of the infinitive indicates the relationship between the infinitive and its logical subject.
1) general rule:
active voice is used when the logical subject is the agent of the action of the infinitive, while passive voice is used when the logical subject is the recipient of the action of the infinitive.
He doesn’t like to be treated like a guest.
These books are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room.
It is very dangerous for children to play with fire.
2) As postmodifiers of nouns:
a. Usually, when an infinitive is used to modify a noun, the logical subject of the infinitive is the noun it modifies, so the voice is usually determined by the relationship between the infinitive and the noun it modifies.
The question to be discussed at the next meeting will be a hard nut to crack.
He was the last guest to arrive.
Have you got a key to unlock the door?
This is the best book on the subject to appear this year.
b. In some contexts, both active and passive forms are possible without difference in meaning.
Give me a list of people to invite / to be invited.
The procedure to follow / to be followed is this.
The man to consult / to be consulted is Mr Johnson.
c. If the agent of the action of the infinitive is the subject of the main clause, the infinitive takes the active form even though it indicates a passive meaning.
I have got a lot of letters to write.
We’ve got a lot of cases to investigate.
Compare:
Secretary: I have got a lot of letters to type. (“I” is the agent of “type”)
Boss: I have got a lot of letters to be typed. (“I” is not the agent of “type”)
3) There be + n. + to-infinitive
a. In some contexts, both active and passive forms are possible without difference in meaning.
There is no time to lose / to be lost.
b. In other cases, an active form seems more natural than the passive.
There is a lot of work to do.
c. In some other cases, the active infinitive and the passive mean differently.
There was nothing to see. (There was nothing for one to see)
There was nothing to be seen. (The thing being looked for was not there.)
There is nothing to do.  (We have nothing to do. We can go now.)
There is nothing to be done. (We can do nothing.)
There is only one thing to do. (We have only one thing to do.)
There is only one thing to be done. (We have no other ways.)
4) Some times usage requires the active infinitive rather than the passive, even though the logical subject of he infinitive is the recipient of the action.
This house is to let.
You are not to blame for what happened.
A lot remains to do.
5) Infinitives after adj.s usually takes the active forms.
The question is difficult to answer.
The road is busy to cross.
II. Notes on the use of the infinitive sign
1. to-infinitive & bare infinitive
occasions on which bare infinitives are used
1) follow the modals
2) follow semi-auxiliaries
3) follow modal idioms:
would rather, would sooner, would (just) as soon, may / might (just ) as well, cannot but, cannot help but, etc.
4) follow rather / sooner than, esp. when rather / sooner than takes the initial position.
5) often combined with a main verb to form some fixed combinations
6) usually appears after “causative verb + object”
  let, make, have
7) usually occurs after “sense verb + object”
  see, hear, observe, notice, feel, watch
8) after “have known + object”,
9) often appears after “help” or “help + object”
10) usually appears after the preposition “except / but” when there is a form of the main verb “do” before the preposition, which is otherwise followed by a to-infinitive
11) usually appears in the complement when the subject of the SVC pattern contains a form of the main verb “do”
12) appears after “why / why not”
13) other idiomatic usage
 ☻When Structures 6), 7) and 8) are used in passive voice, to-infinitive should be used.
3. Infinitive sign used along
1) To avoid repetition, the infinitive sign can sometimes be used alone, that is to say, the base in the to-infinitive can be omitted, sometimes together with its complementation. This kind of omission is quite common in informal style.
George says that he is going to leave Shanghai, but I don’t think he really wants to.
You may go if you wish to.
2) If the base of the infinitive is the verb be or have, it should be retained, even though its complementation is omitted.
 A: Aren’t you the manager?
 B: No, I don’t want to be.
 A: He hasn’t finished yet.
 B: Well, he ought to have.
3) In some contexts, both the to-infinitive and its complementation can be omitted so that no trace remains of the infinitive.
 You will make it if you try (to).
 I’d like to do it now, but I haven’ t got the time (to)
4. Ellipsis of the infinitive sign
1) When two to-infinitives are coordinated by and or or, the second to is usually omitted unless there is a contrastive meaning.
I intend to call on him and discuss this question again.
2) When there is a contrastive meaning, the second to must be retained.
To be or not to be, that is the question.
3) The infinitive sign cannot be omitted if there is no coordinator between the coordinate infinitives.
Please go to the seaside to swim, to get suntanned.
4) The infinitive sign can not be omitted if a sequence of infinitives occur in a parallel construction.
The student must learn to read extensively, to analyze what he reads and to summarize the main points presented.
5. infinitive to or preposition to
1) Verb + preposition to
add to, agree to, adhere to, admit to, allude to, amount to, attend to, attest to, bow to, cling to, come to, correspond to, confess to, consent, contribute to, get to, object to, pertain to, react to, resort to, revert to, refer to, relate to, submit to, stick to, take to, witness to, yield to
☻agree, swear, come, get + to + do / doing:
agree to do: 听从别人而同意
agree to doing: 同意,答应,允诺
We agreed to do it.
Mary’s father has agreed to her marrying John.
swear to do: 发誓做某事
swear to doing: 强调地说
He swore to tell the truth.
He swore to having paid for the goods.
come to do: 终于…
come to doing: 到达,涉及到
He came to realize that he was mistaken.
When it comes to helping his wife with the housework, John never grumbles.
get to do: 达到某一阶段
get to doing: 开始做某事
When you get to know him, you’ll like him.
Lying in bed, unable to sleep, I got to thinking how nice it would be to go away and start a new life somewhere else.
2) Verb + noun / pronoun + preposition to
ascribe … to, apply … to, attribute … to, abbreviate…to, accustom … to, commit … to, devote …to, dedicate … to, owe … to, prefer … to, reconcile … to, reduce … to, resign … to
3) Verb + -ed participle + preposition to
be accustomed to, be abbreviated to, be reduced to, be resigned to, be reconciled to, be devoted to, be given to, be used to
4) Verb + adverb particle + preposition to
 get round to, get down to, get near to, look forward to, face up to,
feel up to
5) Adjective + preposition to
adjacent to, averse to, deaf to, equal to, loyal to, preferable to, similar to, superior to, sensitive to, tantamount to
6) Noun + preposition to
obstacle to, limit to, aid to, objection to, indifference to, key to, answer to, hinderance to
7) Complex prepositions ending in to
according to, as to, owing to, preliminary to, preparatory to, previous to, prior to, thanks to, in addition to, in relation to, with a view to, with an eye to
III. Adjective + infinitive
1. Type I
This type of SVC pattern is characterized by the fact that the subject of the main clause is also the logical subject of the infinitive. The adjectives occurring in this pattern are all dynamic adjectives.
1) adj.s showing emotional feelings.
He is glade to help others.
He was very pleased to be given the job.
I’m sorry to be late.
I was surprised to see how angry he was.
2) adj.s showing good or bad luck
He was lucky to be able to find a job.
He was fortunate to escape being injure in the accident.
She was unlucky not ot win the game.
3) adj.s showing mental state or personal attitude
He is anxious to see her.
I’m determined to finish the work tonight.
We are ready to make the attempt.
If the subject of the main clause is not the logical subject of the infinitive, the logical subject should be expressed with an introductory for
I’m quite willing for your brother to come with me.
I’m afraid for her to go swimming alone.
4) adj.s showing character or behavioral trait
He is foolish to meet her again.
She was careless to bread the cup.
You are kind to say so.
They were thoughtful to come home early.
☻These sentences can be transformed into a corresponding IT-pattern.
It is foolish for him to meet her again.
It was thoughtful of them to come home early.
2. Type II
In this type of SVC pattern, the subject of the main clause is the logical object of the infinitive. The adjectives are generally stative adjectives.
That question is difficult to answer.
This car is expensive to overhaul.
Dirty water is nasty to drink.
She is pleasant to talk to.
☻These sentences can be transformed into an anticipatory IT-construction:
It is difficult to answer that question.
It is nasty to drink dirty water.
☻But there are constructions of the same type that cannot be so transformed:
The coffee is bitter to taste.
They are attractive to look at.
The box is heavy to move.
The river is narrow to sail up.
3. Type III
In this type, the subject of the main clause may be the logical subject or logical object of the infinitive. The adjectives used in this structure are usually the ones showing difficulty or easiness, quickness or slowness. In most cases, the adjective can be turned into a corresponding adverb in deep structure.
These books are easy to sell.
=It is easy to sell these books.
=These books sell easily.
He was hesitant to take action.
=He took action hesitantly.
He is quick to take offence.
=He takes offence quickly.
☻for v.s of
It was good of you to go jogging with me. (You were kind to do that.)
It was good for you to go jogging with me. (It was a good, healthy experience for you.)
IV. Noun (phrase) + infinitive
1. Here the infinitive is used as postmodification.
2. Semantic relations
1) subject-verb relation: the noun (phrase) is the logical subject of the infinitive:
Jim was the last guest to arrive.
Have you got a key to unlock the door.
2) verb-object relation: the noun (phrase) is the logical object of the infinitive.
He has a large family to support.
This is the best book to read.
In the case of an intransitive infinitive, an appropriate preposition should be added.
The boy needs a friend to play with.
There is nothing to talk about.
3) the noun phrase is in apposition to the infinitive
The boy had an impulse to jump over the fence.
I have no wish to quarrel with you.
3. noun + infinitive v.s. noun + preposition + -ing participle
1) noun + infinitive / + preposition + -ing participle
 attempt, chance, effort, freedom, intention, necessity, opportunity, reason, time, way
The doctor made a bold attempt to save / at saving the child’s life.
They made an effort to finish / at finishing the work in one day, but they failed.
The liberated people will have the freedom to choose / of choosing their own social system.
2) noun + infinitive
ability, agreement, ambition, anxiety, curiosity, disposition, mind, obligation, permission, refusal, reluctance, temptation, tendency, wish, etc
They have the ability to produce nuclear weapons.
They signed an agreement to rent the house.
He is under no obligation to do that.
Her refusal to accept his offer of help is really disappointing.
Wood has a tendency to swell if it gets wet.
3) noun + preposition + -ing participle
hope, method, aptitude, delay, difficulty, excuse, experience, interest, genius, habit, idea, motive, objection, passion, plan, possibility, skill, success
Edison had a great aptitude for inventing new things.
Have you had much experience in teaching English?
There is no hope of winning the game.
We must improve our method of teaching foreign languages.
A hundred years ago, few people believed in the possibility of flying.
4. the only/ordinal/adj.-est + n. + infinitive
Columbus was believed to be the first person to set foot on the American continent
I’m afraid he is the only person to consult about your illness.
The best way to deal with him is not to give an inch. If you do, he’ll tale a food.
This was the last play to be performed that year.
V. the Collocation of Infinitive with Verbs
1. verb + infinitive
agree, aim, apply, arrange, choose, claim, decide, demand, desire, determine, endeavour, expect, hope, learn, manage, offer, pledge, prepare, pretend, profess, promise, refuse, resolve, seek, swear, threaten, undertake, venture, volunteer, vow
 We must agree to differ.
 I aim to finish it tomorrow.
 Last year he applied to retire.
 Some of these verbs such as agree, arrange, promise, resolve, claim, decide, demand, determine, hope, pretend, profess, swear, threaten, etc can also be followed by a corresponding that-clause.
We agreed to start early.
=We agreed that we would start early.
I hope to be able to come.
=I hope that I’ll be able to come.
2. verb + object + infinitive
1) Verbs of perception or sense verbs
see, hear, watch, feel, etc.
 Did you see him enter the building?
2) causative verbs
have, let, make, etc.
 Don’t forget to have your children come with you.
3) some phrasal verbs
arrange for, ask for, rely on, etc.
 I’ll arrange for you to meet the manager.
4) verbs showing mental state
consider, declare, find (= consider), prove, think, believe, discover, feel (= think), imagine, judge, suppose, understand, etc.
 I believe him to be reliable.
☻In this case, the infinitive after verbs is invariably “to be”.
 We know him to be reliable.
 He declared himself to be innocent.
☻After such verbs as consider, declare, find, prove, think, the infinitive “to be” can be omitted.
 He proved himself (to be) innocent.
☻If the infinitive “to be” is in the perfective form, then it cannot be omitted.
 We considered him to have been foolish.
☻In view of the fact that the noun or pronoun in this context may be viewed as the object of the finite verb that goes before or as the logical subject of the infinitive that follows, an alternative construction with a that-clause is available for interpretation,
 They believed him to be insane.
 =They believed that he was insane.
5) verbs having the force of “advice”, “permission”, “forbiddance”,
advise, allow, forbid, permit, recommend, require, urge, etc.
 I advised him to give up smoking.
☻Some verbs such as recommend, require, urge may also be followed by by a that-clause.
 They required us to give up smoking.
 They required that we (should) get there before nine.
☻Verbs such as advise, allow, forbid, permit, recommend can also be followed directly by an –ing participle as object.
She advised us to give up smoking.
She advised giving up smoking.
3. verb + (object) + infinitive
1) Some verbs such as ask, can’t bear, hate, intend, like, prefer, want, etc, the object is optional, that is, these verbs can occur either in the “verb + infinitive” construction or in the “verb + object + infinitive” pattern.
Do you intend to make a long stay here?
We didn’t intend them to act like that.
Do you like to play chess?
I like people to tell the truth.
2) Most of these verbs can also be followed by a that-clause.
 She asked to do more work.
 She asked them to give her more work to do.
 She asked that she be given more work to do.
3) Some may also be directly followed by an –ing form.
 I hate troubling you about trifles.
 She preferred dressing formally to wearing sport clothes.
VI. Infinitive clauses
1. Types
1) without an expressed subject
a. The logical subject of the infinitive clause is only implied but can be inferred from the context.
I hope to be able to come.
The best thing would be to tell every body.
He has a large family to support.
All she seems to do is (to) gossip with her neighbours.
b. Attitudinal infinitive clause (Disjunct): the logical subject may be understood to be the speaker himself.
To be frank, you need a great deal of courage.
To begin with, I think you are wrong.
To tell the truth, I forgot all about your request.
To put it bluntly, that student is sure to fail.
Feorge is a very good boy, to be sure.
2) with an expressed subject
a. Generally introduced by for, of, with, rather than, etc.
The best thing would be for you to tell everybody.
It’s very kind of you to help me.
He knew that with him to help, she could and would succeed.
Rather than you do the job, I prefer to finish it myself.
b. Absolute construction: the logical subject appears without any introductory word
We shall assemble at 10:45, the procession to start moving at precisely eleven.
3) introduced by a wh-word or subordinator
a. the structure of wh-word + infinitive is the equivalence of a nominal clause, which can be used as the subject, the object, the complement and the apposition.
When and where to hold the meeting has not been decided .
That is a real problem. I don’t know what to do.
We were discussing how to improve our English teaching.
The tour guide didn’t tell the tourists when to be back at the coach.
Our difficulty is where to get enough food.
There is the problem of how to keep in touch with each other by E-mail.
I had no idea where to buy food in the Disney Parks.
b. With a subordinator:
He opened his lips as if to say something.
2. Syntactic functions
1) Subject
To compromise appears advisable.
To lean out of the window is dangerous.
To stop the work now seems impossible.
Most often, the anticipatory IT-construction is used, in which “it” is used at the beginning of the sentence as an anticipatory subject while the real subject which is the infinitive is placed at the end.
It’s hard /difficult to say which is better.
It’s an honour to meet you.
It cost a lot of money to build this museum.
It’s against my principles to collaborate with them.
2) Object
He agreed to pay for the car.
They failed to fulfill the plan.
The soldiers refused to surrender.
Occasionally, the infinitive which is used as the object can be put at the end of the sentence while “it” can be used as the formal object.
I have long had it in mind to answer your letter.
She took it on herself to apologize to me.
I find it easy to get on with Jim.
He thought it best to be on his guard.
3) Complement
Her ambition was to be a film star.
Mary’s task is to set the table.
Smokers are persuaded to give up smoking.
Did you see anyone enter the house?
My boss told me to type out two letters.
4) Postmodifier
5) Adverbial
a. Adverbial of purpose
a) As an adverbial of purpose, the infinitive is usually with to
She stood up to be seen better.
b) If we want to strengthen or negate a purpose, use in order to or so as to
He opened the window in order to / so as to get some fresh air.
He left early in order not to / so as not to miss the train.
☻ “in order to” can be placed both at the beginning and at the end of the sentence, while “so as to” is usually used at the end
b. Adverbial of result:
to-infinitive, so … as to, such …as to, enough to, too…to, only to
In 1935 he left home never to return.
His work was so good as to make him well-known in the city.
His indifference was such as to make all despair.
It was cold enough to freeze our fingers.
This coffee is too hot to drink.
They hurried to the station only to find the train had already left.
☻Only to, denoting a disappointing sequel, is usually found with verbs such as “find, hear, be told”
☻ “too…to…” usually has a negative meaning, but it may take a positive meaning in the following cases:
— too + easy/eager/anxious/glad/kind/pleased/willing/ready/apt, etc. + to…
He is too ready to come.
She is too easy to get along with.
They are too anxious to know the news.
— only /all /but + too…to… : very
We are only too willing to do it for you. 我们非常愿意为你去做那事。
I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 能帮助你我非常高兴
He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。
— too…not to…
He is too wise not to solve the problem. 他非常聪明必能解决这个问题。
— 如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定,too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意 为"不太"。
It's never too late to mend.  改过不嫌晚。(谚语)
c. Adverbial of cause:
As an adverbial of cause, infinitive clauses generally collocate with adjectives or verbs denoting emotion or fortune
I am delighted to know that you have got a job.
She wept to see him in such a terrible state.
d. Adverbial of condition: (if…)
As an adverbial of condition, the infinitive clause is usually found at the beginning of a sentence, but the negative one is usually at the end. The predicate verb of the main clause usually contains auxiliaries like can, must, would, should, will, shall, etc.
You will not succeed not to get her support.
To hear him talk, you would think he was a celebrity.
§2. –ing Participle
I. Forms:

Active
simple doing
Perfect  having done
II. verb + -ing
1. The followings are verbs that can only followed by an –ing form rather than an infinitive as object:
Admit, acknowledge, anticipate, advocate, appreciate, avoid, can’t help, can’t resist, can’t stand, consider, contemplate, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, don’t mind, ensure, enjoy, escape, excuse, evade, facilitate, fancy, favour, finish, give up, imagine, include, keep (on), mind, miss, pardon, postpone, practice, put off, resent, report, risk, stop, suggest
☻Some of the verbs listed above such as acknowledge, admit, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, deny, fancy, imagine, suggest, mean, mention, propose, recall, recollect, understand, etc. can also take a corresponding that-clause as object.
  The watchman reported finding the door open.
  = The watchman reported that he had found the door open.
  He anticipated getting much pleasure from the reading of that book.
  =He anticipated that he would get much pleasure from the reading of that book.
2. verb + infinitive vs. verb + -ing
Some verbs can be followed either be an –ing form or by an infinitive
1) no much difference in meaning
a. emotive verbs:
dread, like, love, prefer, dislike, hate, etc
-ing: general act
infinitive: specific act
☻prefer to do / doing
prefer doing to doing
prefer to do rather than do
☻like / love / hate / prefer + to do / doing
  would like / love / hate / prefer + to do
  feel like doing
b. process verbs
begin, start, cease, continue
-ing participle: 有意识的开始或停止做某事
to do: 情况发生变化
only followed by “infinitive” when:
 followed by stative verbs: see, believe, think, understand, etc.
 “begin, start, cease, continue” in –ing form
c. need, want, require, deserve
passive infinitive = active –ing participle
2) different meaning
verbs -ing Participle infinitve
forget, remember, regret finished earlier act act after “forget, remember, regret”, should be done, yet not have been done
stop, leave off object adverbial of purpose
go on the same act before a pause another different act
different
verb
meaning try experiment attempt
 mean represent a meaning intend
 regret repentance sympathy
3. After verbs such as advise, allow, authorize, encourage, forbid, permit, recommend, either the –ing participle or the infinitive with an expressed logical subject can be used
 She doesn’t allow smoking here. / She doesn’t allow us to smoke here.
 She advised giving up smoking. / She advised us to give up smoking.
III. verb + obj. + -ing
1. perceptive verb
see, observe, notice, watch, hear, smell, listen to, look at, feel, find, etc.
2. causative verbs:
catch, get, keep, leave, set, start, have
IV. verb + obj. + prep. + -ing
1. verb + obj. + into + -ing:  cause sb. to do
talk…into…, shame…into…, mislead…into…, cheat…into…, blackmail…into…, fool…into…, deceive…into…, trap…into…, surprise…into…, trick…into…, cajole…into…, coerce…into…, beguile…into…
2. verb + obj. + from / out of + -ing: cause sb not to do
stop… from…, prevent… from…, keep… from…, hinder… from…, restrain… from…, save… from..,.
The preposition from can sometimes be omitted, except that the finite verb occurs in the passive.
 We must prevent the trouble (from) spreading.
 I shall stop you (from) destroying yourself.
 It can't be stopped from happening here.
3. verb + obj. + for + -ing:
thank…for…
punish…for …
4. other prep.: of, with, on, etc.
congratulate…on...
charge…with…
accuse…of…
V. Some expressions used with –ing participle:
1. It’s no use / good doing:
It’s no good feeling sorry for yourself. It’s all your own fault.
It’s no good trying to persuade me. You won’t succeed.
There’s nothing you can do about the situation, so it’s no use / good worrying about it.
2. it’s useless / senseless doing
3. There’s no / not much / little point in doing: no good reason, little reason for doing it
There’s very little point in protecting the poor condition of light in the classroom.
4. There is/was no + doing
There is no denying that she is very efficient. 她效率高是不容否认的。
There was no knowing when he would be back. 不知道他什么时候回来。
5. be worth doing
Is it worth running such a risk?
The Stone Forest is worth seeing.
6. have trouble / difficulty doing
Did you have any difficulty getting a visa?
I’m sure you’ll have no trouble passing he oral exam.
7. It’s a waste of money / time doing
It was a waste of time reading that novel. It was rubbish.
It’s a waste of money buying things you don’t really need.
8. spend / waste time doing
I spent hours trying to fix the machine.
She wastes a lot of time daydreaming.
9. be busy doing
I’ve been busy translating a book into Chinese.
10. go shopping / dancing / sailing / skating/ riding / swimming / walking / hiking / jogging / cycling / skiing / fishing / camping , etc.
11. do the (some, any, a lot of, much, a little, a bit of, more, less, this, that) shopping / typing / cleaning / washing / digging / ironing / tidying / cooking
VI. –ing participle clauses
1. Types:
1) Without expressed subject or subordinator
a. Its logical subject can be inferred from the context or from the situation in which the clause occurs.
One of my bad habits is biting nails.
He denied having been there.
I have a friend living in London.
I heard him singing in the next room.
Beating a child will do more harm than good.
b. Attitudinal –ing participle clauses (Disjunct): the logical subject may be identified as the speaker himself or people in general.
Judging from what you say, he has done his best.
Generally speaking, this book is not very difficult.
Considering everything, it wasn’t a bad holiday.
Supposing there was a war, what would you do?
Taking everything into account, they ought to be given another chance.
2) With subordinator:
An –ing participle clause may sometimes be introduced by a subordinator. The logical subject of this type of –ing participle clause is generally identical with the subject of the main clause.
When sleeping, I never hear a thing.
He wrote his greatest novel while working as an ordinary seaman.
Whether waking or sleeping, the subject is always in his mind.
Though understanding no Greek, Charles was able to communicate with them.
3) With expressed subject
a. An –ing participle clause may be with an expressed subject. This type of –ing participle clause commonly functions as subject, object or prepositional complementation.
Do you mind my / me making a suggestion?
My parents object to me / my going out alone.
I’m annoyed about John / John’s forgetting to pay.
John doesn’t like the idea of my / me being mixed up in this affair.
Your / You falling into the river was the climax of the whole trip.
It helped them to make friends quickly, his being the only doctor in the village.
It’s no use your pretending to be deaf.
☻the case of the logical subject
 When the logical subject is a life noun, use genitive noun or possessive determiner. (when the –ing participle is used as subj., only genitive can be used as its logical subj., when used as obj., common case can also be used.)
Your coming to help is a great encouragement to me.
Jane’s not having received proper training was to her disadvantage.
I strongly object at your saying that.
They’re looking forward to Mary’s coming.
 In colloquial speech, a common case noun or an objective pronoun is frequently favoured when the –ing participle is used as obj.
I don’t mind Flora leaving home.
I don’t remember my mother complaining about it.
 When the logical subject is a lifeless noun, only the common case noun can be used.
I was afraid of the tent falling down during the night.
There is necessity for more houses being built.
 When the logical subject is the indefinite or demonstrative pronoun (不定代词或指示代词), only the objective form can be used.
She was awakened by someone knocking at the door.
Is there any likelihood of this being true?这可能是真的吗?
 When the logical subject is a long noun phrase, the common case is generally used.
The leader insisted on Li Ming, Wang Hai and Zhang Fan attending the meeting.
Is there any chance of the people in the back of the room talking a little louder? 屋子后边的人讲话声能大一点吗?
 Note that in SVOC structure, when –ing participle is used as the complement, its logical subject is the object of the main clause, so the logical subject of course is in the objective or common case.
The teacher caught the students smoking in the classroom.
We saw him walking in the street.
b. Absolute construction:
The last bus having gone, we had to walk home.
The report having been read, a lively discussion began.
So many members being absent, the meeting adjourned.
2. Syntactic functions:
1) Subject
Reading French is easier than speaking it.
Seeing is believing.
☻不定式与-ing分词作主语一般来说差别不大,有时两者可以互换,但按照传统语法来说,-ing分词表示一般性的习惯、爱好或抽象动作,动词不定式表示具体的、一次性的动作。
Smoking is prohibited here.
It’s not very good for you to smoke so much.
A postman’s duty is delivering mails.
Your task this morning is to deliver the papers to Professor Smith.
2) Object
He admitted taking the money.
I don’t anticipate meeting any opposition.
3) Complement
The only thing that interests him is dancing.
I saw flames rising and heard people shouting.
4) Modifier
Don’t disturb the sleeping child.
You may ask the lady sitting at the desk.
5) Adverbial
Hearing the knock on the door, they stopped talking. (time)
Having worked hard all day, I was ready for bed by eight o’clock. (cause)
The hunters fired, wounding one of the wolves. (result)
Studying hard, you will pass the exam. (condition)
Knowing all this, they still insisted on my paying for the damage. (concession)
They stood there waiting for the bus. (accompanying circumstances)
§3. –ed Participle
I. Forms:

Passive
Simple done
Progressive  being done
Perfect having been done
II. Premodifier in the NP
1. –ed participle derived from transitive verbs:
denote: 1) a passive meaning / passiveness
      2) a sense of completion / completeness
 frozen food,  a bored traveler,  a lost cause
2. –ed participle derived from intransitive verbs ( only a few)
retired, escaped, faded, withered, fallen, expired, risen, returned, vanished, grown
denote: the sense of completion / completeness
 a retired worker     an escaped prisoner
3. compound participles
Some –ed participles can not be used alone as premodifiers unless they are combined with “un-“ or when they are combined with an adverb to form a compound.
1) un-+ -ed participle
uninvited, untold, unheard-of, undetermined, unedited, unexpected,
2) adv. + -ed participle
badly-built, far-fetched,, highly-developed, newly-born, half-baked, properly-started, well-behaved, widely-travelled, newly-arrived
4. –ing participle vs. –ed participle
-ing -ed
activeness passiveness
incompleteness completeness


III. Complement
1. Subject complement
SVC: vi. + -ed participle
appear, be, become, feel, get, go, grow, keep, look
2. object complement
SVOC: vt. + obj. + -ed participle
1) causative verb:
have, get, keep, leave, make
 I have my hair cut every ten days.
 He was trying to make himself understood.
2) perceptive verb:
see, hear, feel, fink, think, etc.
  I saw the students assembled in the hall.
  He felt his eyes dazzled by the bright light.
3) order, like, want, wish
I don’t want any of you (to be) involved in the scandal.
He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting.
IV. Different forms as premodifier and complement
Original form -ed participle premodifier complement
bend bent bent, bended bent
bless blessed /blest/ blessed /blesid/ blessed, blest
bind bound bounden bound
drink drunk drunken drunk
light lit lighted lit
melt melted molten melted
rot rotted rotten rotten
shave shaved shaven shaved
shrink shrunk shrunken shrunk
sink sunk sunken sunk
  beloved beloved

§4. Non-finite Clause
I. Types:
1. without an expressed subj. or a subordinator
1) The logical subject is only implied but can be inferred from the context
I hope to be able to come.
One of my bad habits is biting nails.
Beating a child will do more harm than good.
The castle, burnt down in 1485, was never rebuilt.
2) Disjunct: Attitudinal participle clauses have become set expressions, whose logical subject may be identified as the speaker himself or people in general.
to be frank, to begin with, to tell the truth, to put it bluntly, to be sure
judging from, generally speaking
3) Participle + that: introduce an adverbial clause, indicating cause, concession, condition, etc.
considering that 因为,考虑到
seeing that 因为,既然
notwithstanding that 尽管
admitting / allowing / assuming / granting that 即使,尽管
granted that 即使   
provided that 如果,只要
They started their trip notwithstanding that it rained heavily. 尽管天下了大雨,他们还是动身去旅行了。
He knows much of the world seeing that he is only twelve years old. 他对人生世事知道得相当多了,因为他才12岁。
Admitting that she has made a mistake, you should forgive her. 即使她犯了错误,你也应原谅她。
Granted that he is drunk, that is no excuse. 即使他醉酒了,那也不是借口。
Provided that one is diligent and patient, one can achieve something. 一个人只要勤奋有耐心,就能干成一番事业。
2. with an expressed subj.
1) In infinitive clauses, the logical subj. may be introduced by “for”, “with”, or “rather than”, etc.
The best thing would be for you to tell everybody.
He knew that with him to help, she could and would succeed.
Rather than you do the job, I’d prefer to finish it myself.
2) In –ing participle clauses, common case or genitive noun an pronoun can be used as logical subj.
3) Absolute Construction: when used as adverbial, the subj. appears before the non-finite clause without any introductory word
We shall assemble at ten forty-five, the procession to start moving at precisely eleven.
The last bus having gone, we had to walk home.
The job finished, we went home straight away.
3. with a subordinator
I don’t know what to do?
He opened his lips as if to say something.
When sleeping, I never hear a thing.
Even if invited, I won’t go.
II. Syntactic functions
 infinitive -ing participle -ed participle
subject specific act general, abstract act /
object   /
complement completeness
nonrecurring act progressive
repeated act
active completeness
passive
modifier only postmodifier
future act progressive
active completeness
passive
adverbial future act
purpose
result
cause active
time
result
cause
accompanying passive
time
cause
accompanying
1. As complements
I saw a soldier getting on the train.我看见士兵在上火车。
I saw a soldier get on the train and disappeared.我看见士兵登上了火车,消失了。
Do you hear door bell ringing?门铃在响你听见了吗?
Yes, I did. I heard it ring three times.是的,我听见门铃响了三下。
She heard the door slamming.她听见门在砰砰作响。
She heard the door slam.她听见门砰的一声关上了。
2. As modifiers
the house to be built
the house being built
the house built last year
3. As adverbials
不定式 v.s. 分词 作状语:
一般来说,不定式分句作状语表示目的或结果,而分词分句却很少有这种用法。
I have to come back before five to drive her to the airport.
He went to the United States to further his study of economic management.
She risked her life to find nothing.
I waited for two hours only to be told to come the next day.
在表示心情和运气好坏的动词和形容词之后,一般用不定时分句作表示原因的状语;而分词短语表示原因时,常常位于句首,并用逗号与句子隔开。
I am very sorry to hear the bad news.
We were surprised to find her still here.
Born and bred a countryman, he is not used to the city life.
Having no interesting American literature, he didn’t go to the lecture.
一般用分词分句做状语表示时间、让步、方式、条件等意义,不定式作状语不能表示这些意义。
-ing v.s. -ed 作状语:
Seen from the top of the hill, the lake is very beautiful.
Seeing this picture, he felt very happy.

§5. Dangling Participle
I. Attachment Rule
When an –ing or –ed participle construction is used as a relative or adverbial clause, its logical subject is usually identifiable with the subject or other element of the main clause. It is through this relationship that the participle construction is “attached” to the main clause.
☻When an –ing or –ed participle construction is used as an adverbial, the logical subj. is usually the subj. of the main clause, and the logical subj. and the verb in participle must be in a correct relationship of either activeness or passiveness.
Climbing to the top of the tower, we saw a magnificent view.
Covered with confusion, she hurriedly left the room.
II. Dangling Participle
Violation of the “attachment rule” will result in a “dangling participle”.
Opening the cupboard, a skeleton fell out.
Grilled on charcoal, we liked the fish much better.
III. The acceptability of “dangling participles”
1. These constructions are frequently found in formal scientific writing, in which it is general practice to avoid using personal subjects.
2. When the subject is vaguely understood to be “one”, “we”, “you”, people in general, it is acceptable.
Looking ahead to the weekend, temperature will be warmer.
Standing on the church tower, the whole village could be seen.
Caught in a traffic jam, it is easy to lose patience.
3. In informal style, so long as they do not cause ambiguity or confusion in meaning, “dangling” constructions should also be viewed as normal and acceptable.
4. Only those “dangling” constructions are objectionable or unacceptable that cause ambiguity or suggest absurd interpretations.
5. From pedagogical point of view, however, beginners in English should not be encouraged to use “dangling” constructions unless in scientific writing

§6. Absolute Construction
1. What is traditionally called “absolute construction” is essentially a non-finite or verbless clause with an expressed subject of its own.
A number of officials followed the emperor, some to hold his robe, others to adjust his girdle, and so on.
The truck finally loaded, they said goodbye to their neighbors and drove off.
He being absent, we could do nothing.
The paint now dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck.
He went off, gun in hand.
2. An “absolute construction” is commonly separated from the main clause by a comma, or occasionally by a dash, and the determiner in the subject noun phrase may sometimes be ellipted.
The manager sat quietly in the office, (his) eyes closed.
3. The position of an “absolute construction” is mobile; it may take an initial, medium or end position.
The boy ran into the room, his face and hands covered with mud.
His face and hands covered with mud, the boy ran into the room.
4.  “Absolute constructions” are usually used as adverbials of time, cause, condition, manner, as well as accompanying circumstances.
His homework done, Jim decided to go and see the play.
Her shirt caught on a nail, she could not move.
Weather permitting, the cricket match will take place on Wednesday.
He put on his socks, wrong side out.
5. “Absolute constructions” are commonly used in formal literary language as a sort of rhetorical device which helps to achieve concision in wording and vividness in description.
6. There are, however, many fixed absolute constructions that occur frequently in speech:
  The picnic is scheduled for Saturday, weather permitting.
  All things considered, it’s not a bad idea.
7. with (without) + absolute construction
He fell asleep with the window (being) open.
They traveled a whole day, without any food eaten.
Specialized knowledge in one’s field is the second most common trait, with three-fourths giving themselves an A for this trait.
☻Verbless clauses
A verbless clause is a clause without any form of verb element as predicator. It is just an SVC construction with its subject and predicator ellipted.
Right or wrong, I have given him a piece of mind.
An excellent speaker, he was never at a loss for a word.
Whatever the reason, his cordiality has won him a friend.
Although very helpful, he was not much liked by people.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
He spoke ungraciously, if not rudely.
Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children.
There he stood, a try in hand.
Breakfast over, he went to his counting house.
Miriam looked at Harry, his eyes full of doubt and discomfort.
Verbless clauses can be used as postmodifiers in a noun phrase and as adverbials.
His hands, numb from the cold, could not find the key.
You must eat it when fresh.
The cardboard is light-proof where thick.

 

 
Lecture 14  Adjective and Adjective Phrase
An adjective is a word that modifies / describes a noun or a pronoun.
I. Classification:
1. Word formation:
1) One-word adjectives:
a. consist of only one free morpheme: big, small, bad, good, hot, cold
b. consist of a free morpheme as root plus a prefix or a suffix or both
unkind, impossible, lovely, voiceless, monolingual, unthinkable
2) Compound adjectives:
a. adjective + adjective: bitter-sweet, deaf-mute
b. adjective / adverb + -ing participle: good-looking, hard-working
c. adjective / adverb + -ed participle: new-fangled, well-meant
d. noun + adjective: grass-green, duty-free,
e. noun + -ing participle: ocean-going, law-abiding
f. noun + -ed participle: hand-made, sun-tanned
g. adjective + noun + -ed: kind-hearted, absent-minded
2. Syntactic function
1) Central adjectives: can be used both as modifier in a noun phrase and as complement
2) Peripheral adjectives: can be used only as modifier in a noun phrase or only as complement
a. Predicative adjective: cannot be placed before a noun as premodifier
a) adjectives denoting health conditions:
well, ill, poorly, faint, sick
b) adjectives expressing feelings:
pleased, glad, content, upset, fond
c) adjectives with a- as prefix:
alike, alone, alive, afraid, ablaze, asleep, aware, awake, akin, adrift, afire, aflame, afloat, afoot, aground, ajar, askew, athirst, abloom, agape, aghast, aglow, agog, alone, amiss, ashamed, aslant, alight, akimbo, astir, astray, averse, awry, awash, alert
☻They can be used as premodifiers when they are themselves modified by adverbs.
a fast asleep child
b. attributive adjectives:
a) adjectives ending in –er which denote relationships
elder, former, inner, latter, outer, upper
b) intensifying adjectives including emphasizers, amplifiers, and downtoners
certain, definite, plain, pure, sheer,
absolute, entire, extreme, perfect, total
feeble, slight
c) adjectives that limit the scope of reference
chief, joint, lone, main, only, principle, sole, very
d) technical adjectives
chemical, coastal, earthen, hydroelectric, maritime, nuclear, solar, wooden, woolen,
e) adjectives with –ly denoting time:
weekly magazine,  daily paper,  daily life
f) adjectives related to adverbs which denote locations:
downstairs, downtown, indoor, inside, outdoor, outside, upstairs,
c. Some adjectives can be used as both predicative and attributive but with different meaning:
The medicine has ill effect on children.
He was so ill that he could not work.
I know the teacher did that for a certain reason.
He’s certain to do well in the examination.
They built the monument in memory of the late explorer.
The plane was late and my mother was waiting at the airport all morning.
He is ready to go.
That was a ready answer.
3. Semantically:
1) Dynamic adjectives: describe the dynamic properties of people or things
Ambitious, careful, generous, helpful, patient, witty
2) Stative adjectives: describe the static characteristics of animate or inanimate objects
tall, short, big, small
3) Usage:
a. Dynamic adjectives can go with the progressive aspect of the verb be, while stative adjectives cannot.
b. Dynamic adjectives can co-occur with imperative be, while stative adjectives cannot.
c. Dynamic adjectives can occur in causative constructions in which it is impossible to use stative adjectives.
She is being witty.
Be patient / careful.
I persuaded her to be generous.
4. Morphologically:
1) Gradable adjectives:
a. the gradability is manifested through the forms of comparison and through modification by intensifiers
b. All dynamic and most stative adjectives are gradable adjectives
2) Non-gradable adjectives:
a. Denomial adjectives that denote classification or provenance
atomic, Chinese
b. Some adjectives whose lexical meanings have already denoted a high or extreme degree.
perfect, excellent, extreme,
II. Adjectives with active or passive meaning
Active Passive
-ing -ed
-ous -ible
-ful -able
-ory 
-some 
exciting     excited
surprising    surprised
respectful    respectable
tiresome     tired
credulous    credible
satisfactory   satisfied
III. Modifier in NP
1. Place: post- or pre-?
1) As modifiers in the noun phrase, adjectives usu. appear after the determiner and before the headword.
2) Some adjectives can be used before or after a noun without any change in meaning.
affected, available, required, suggested
available information / information available
suggested improvements / improvements suggested
the affected population / the population affected
3) Some adjectives have different meanings in premodification and postmodification
the mother concerned   (mentioned)
the concerned mother   (anxious)
the members present   (being in the place understood)
the present members   (existing now)
the issures involved   (concerned)
an involved style      (complicated)
the man responsible   (holding the responsibility)
the responsible man   (with a sense of responsibility)
the dictionary proper  字典正文
the proper order      适当的顺序
4) Premodification:
a. –most:
utmost, foremost, innermost
b. –er:
elder, inner, other, upper, lower, latter, former, outer, hinder, utter, lesser,
c. –en:
wooden, leaden, golden , silken, earthen, woolen, brazen, ashen, flaxen
d. daily, weekly
5) Postmodification:
a. When the headword is a some- / any- / no- compound
I’d like something cheaper.
b. When the adjective is with a prepositional phrase or an infinitive as complementation
It was a conference fruitful of results.
Students brave enough to take this course deserve to succeed.
☻It is common that an adjective is separated from its complementation by the noun it modifies, that is, the adjective precedes the headword, while the complementation follows it: difficult, different, similar, easy, impossible, adj.-er /-est
It is a different book from that one.
That is a difficult problem to solve.
c. Adjectives with a-
d. 在一些头衔和固定词组中形容词须跟在名词之后
the minister designate 未到任的部长
the president elect 当选总统
Attorney General 检察总长
heir apparent  法定继承人
Sergeant Major  军士长
Postmaster General 邮政总局局长
Poet Laureate 桂冠诗人
governor general 总督
court martial 军事法庭
hope eternal  永恒的希望
sum total  总计
time immemorial 史前时期
body politic  政治统一体
e. broad, deep, high, long, old, tall, thick, wide, etc. used immediately after measurement nouns when giving the size, duration, or age of a thing or person
three metres wide,    six feet tall,    twenty five years old
2. Order
1) When two or more premodifying adjectives appear on different levels, their normal order is:
(determiner) --- evaluation --- size, shape, age --- colour --- nationality, origin, material --- use purpose, classifier --- (noun head)
2) When two or more premodifying adjectives co-occur on the same level, they are usually coordinated in the normal order of shorter members preceding the longer.
IV. Complement of adjective
1. adjective + prepositional phrase
1) Adjectives can have different prepositional complement. Usually a particular adjective requires a particular preposition.
2) Some adjective + preposition combinations
absent from, accustomed to, afraid of, amazed at / by, annoyed at, ashamed of, astonished at, aware of, blind to, bored with, busy with, capable of, close to, confident of, content with, dear to, dependent on, different from, disappointed with / about, eager for, equal to, excited about, experienced in, faithful to, famous for, fed up with, fit for, fond of, full of, guilty of, happy with / about, inferior to, interested in, keen on, keen on, late for, nervous of, pleased with / about, proud of, ready for, responsible for, satisfied with, surprised at / by, shocked at / by, sick of, superior to, surer of, tired of, true to, used to, weak in, worthy of, worried about,
3) Some adjectives meaning “good” or “bad”:
a. good at, bad at, brilliant at, clever at, quick at :  talk about a person’s ability
He is very good at tennis.
She’s awfully bad at mathematics.
Susan used to be brilliant at crosswords.
b. good for, bad for: talk about whether something makes you healthy or ill
Smoking and drinking is bad for you.
Apples are good for you.
c. good to, nice to, kind to, polite to, rude to, cruel to: talk about how we behave towards another person.
Chris and Stephanie have been good to me since we came to know each other.
Don’t be cruel to animals.
2. adjective + to-infinitive
3. adjective + that-clause
alarmed, amazed, annoyed, astonished, certain, confident, disappointed, glad, pleased, proud, sad, shocked, sure, surprised,
I’m sure that you’ll succeed.
I’m glad that you like it.
She was amazed that he should arrive so soon.
He is confident that he will be able to pass the exam.
This kind of that-clause can sometimes be replaced by a corresponding prepositional phrase or a to-infinitive.
I’m sure that you will get success.
= You are sure of success.
= You are sure to get success.
I’m certain that he will come.
= He is certain to come.
V. Uses of some adjectives
1. different meaning of adjectives
1) childish  孩子气的、幼稚的 (贬)   childlike 天真的,诚实的
The man is rather childish.
She has a childlike love for a doll.
2) comparable 可比较的,比得上的   comparative 比较的
Our college is not comparable with yours.
He is an expert on comparative literature.
3) contemptible 可鄙视的,可轻视的,contemptuous轻视的,蔑视的
The contemptible man is selfish and vain.
There is a contemptuous look on his face.
4) considerate  体贴人的,体谅的; considerable 应考虑的;相当大的
5) continuous 不间断的,连续的   continual  频繁的,不时的
The brain needs a continuous supply of blood.
This continuous hot weather is oppressive.
A continuous beach is exposed to the continual beating of the waves.
Continual interruptions impede continuous work.
6) dead 死的  deadly 致命的   deathly  死一般的
dead animal
deadly poison/weapon
deathly silence
7) desirable 称心合意的   desirous 渴望的,希望的
He is the desirable man for the position.
She is desirous of seeing him again.
8) economic 经济学的,经济上的   economical 节俭的,节省的
They are discussing economic problems.
We should be economical of our money and time.
9) efficient  效率高的;能干的   effective  有作用的
10) hard  艰苦的, 困难的    hardy  能吃苦耐劳的
She found it hard to decide. 她感到难以决定.
It's hard work shifting snow. 清除积雪是很吃力的工作.
A few hardy people swam in the icy water. 有几个不怕冷的人在冰冷的水里游泳.
11) healthy 健康的   healthful 有益于健康的
The children are healthy though they all have slight colds at the moment.
The air at seaside is healthful to us.
12) imaginative 富于想象力的  imaginary 想象中的,虚构的  imaginable 可以想象得到的
She is an imaginative musician.
That is an imaginary character in a tale.
This is the best means imaginable.
13) immortal 不朽的   immoral 不道德的
14) industrial  工业的   industrious 勤劳的
15) ingenious 灵巧的,机敏的 ingenuous坦率的,天真的
An ingenious mind can work wonders.
An ingenuous smile brightened her lovely face.
16) intelligent 聪明的,有才智的   intelligible 可被理解的,易被领悟的
Human beings are much more intelligent than animals.
The book is hardly intelligible to beginners.
17) intense 强烈的   intensive 集中的,加强的
intense pain  剧痛
The heat was intense.天气酷热。
A one-week intensive course in English 为期一周的英语强化课
18) later 较迟的   latter  后面的   last 最后的
a later edition 较近的版本
the latter part of the book 书的后半部分
the last train末班火车
19) practical 实用的,实际的    practicable 可实行的,可用的
This is a very practical tool.
Do you think the plan practicable?
20) regretful 后悔的,抱歉的    regrettable 可后悔的,不幸的
I am regretful for what I have said.
His decision to marry her is most regrettable.
21) respectable 令人尊敬的,高尚的 
respectful 表示尊敬的,有礼貌的 
respective 各个的,个别的
The respectable old gentleman has contributed a lot to the building of his hometown.
A respectable man is respectful toward others.
The delegates went back to their respective rooms after the meeting.
22) successful 成功的,  successive 连续的
23) sensible 明智的,可觉察的,知道的
sensitive 敏感的,易受影响的
sensual 肉体上的
It is sensible of him to seize the opportunity.
A sensitive woman is quick at understanding.
My skin is sensitive to cold.
Don’t indulge yourself in sensual pleasure.
24) uninterested  不感兴趣的    disinterested  无私的
25) valueless   无价值的    worthless
valuable   有价值的   
invaluable  无法估价的    priceless
26) historical 历史的    historic 有历史意义的
It's a historical fact. 这是历史事实
This is a historic occasion, ie will be regarded as a significant event in history. 这是具有重大历史意义的
27) like  相像的(attributive adj.) 
likely可能的  
alike  相像的 (predicative adj.)
They understand each other because they are of like mind.
Snow showers are likely in the next 24 hours.
My mother and I are alike in many ways.
28) distinct  清晰的    distinctive 有特色的
29) popular 流行的  populous人口稠密的
30) honorary  名誉上的   honourable  可尊敬的
2. too…to…:
1) 否定意义,太……不能,太……不会
She is too careless to have noticed it.
The man is too selfish to help others.
2) not too…to; too… not to… 肯定意义
The book is not too difficult to read.这本书并不太难读懂。
She is not too angry to speak up.她不太生气,能够说出话来。
The man is too ambitious not to make another try. 那人雄心勃勃,不会不再作努力。
She is too careful not to have noticed it.她那么细心,不会没注意到那个。
3) too前面有only, all, not, but, never, simply, just 等词,too后面是eager, anxious, pleased, kind, willing, apt, ready, inclined, glad, quick 等词,too…to 句型表示肯定概念。
He is too ready to promise.他总是轻易许诺。
She is only too glad to help you. 她非常乐意帮助你。
You know but too well to hold your tongue.你深知少说为妙。
One is too apt to overlook one’s own mistakes. 人们总是很容易忽视自己的缺点。
3. worth, worthy, worthwhile
1) worth: predicate adj., + n./ pron. / -ing
It was worth ten dollars.
They’re expensive, but they are worth it.
The book is worth reading.
The book is worth being read. (X)
The book is worth reading it. (X)
2) worthy: attributive adj., 有价值的,可敬的
predicate adj., be worthy of +n./being done; be worthy to be done
The book is worthy of careful study.
The book is worthy of being studied carefully.
The book is worthy to be studied carefully.
3) worthwhile: +-ing / to do
It is worthwhile reading the novel.
It is worthwhile to consider the plan.
Reading the novel is worthwhile.
To consider the plan is worthwhile.
The novel is worthwhile reading. (X)
The plan is worthwhile to be considered. (X)
4. alive, live, living
1) alive: predicate adj. /post modifier, living; not dead “活的,在世的”, 多用于人,与dead相对
Who is the greatest writer alive?
The old man is still very much alive.
2) live: attributive adj. 修饰物,不修饰人,“活的,现场的”
He caught a live fish bare-handed.
It was a live broadcast, not a recording.
3) living: predicate / attributive, alive, esp now “活着的,现世的,现存的” 可指人或物
Is your father still living?
Is your father still alive? (X)
No man living can write better poetry than he did.
5. alone, lonely
1) alone: predicate adj. 独自一人的
2) lonely: predicate / attributive, 寂寞的,孤独的,荒凉的,无人居住的
I am anxious about leaving Jim alone in the house.
She was really alone in the world except for an invalid aunt.
At heart, he is a lonely man.
He felt extremely lonely in those lonely years.
That is a lonely mountain village.
The ship sailed by a lonely island.
 
Lecture 15  Adverb and Adverb Phrase
I. Classification
1. Word formation
1) Simple adverbs: consist of only one free morpheme
2) Derivative adverbs: derived from adjectives by adding a suffix –ly
2. Semantically:
1) Adverbs of manner
2) Adverbs of degree
3) Adverbs of time
4) Adverbs of frequency
5) Adverbs of place
6) Conjunctive adverbs
7) Explanatory adverbs
II. Function
1. modifier in phrases
1) modifier of verbs
2) modifier of adjectives
3) modifier of adverbs
4) modifier of prepositions or conjunctions
5) modifier of determiners
6) modifier of nouns or whole noun phrases:
2. adverbial in clauses or sentences
2) adjunts:
a. describe the time, place, or manner concerned with the action, process or state denoted by the verb
b. place: mobile, initial, medial, end posision
3) disjuncts
4) conjuncts
3. Position of adverbs
1) Adverbs of time and place
表示时间和地点的副词一般放在句末。如果这两种副词同时出现,通常地点副词放在时间副词的前面。如果有两个以上表示时间、地点的副词时,按先小后大的顺序排列。
I played bowling yesterday.
I played bowling in a club at three o’clock yesterday afternoon.
要强调时间或地点时,时间、地点副词可放在句首。
Yesterday afternoon I saw some boys swimming in the river.
Indoors it was nice and warm.
Recently, I went to Chongqing.
2) Adverbs of manner
修饰不及物动词时,方式副词放在动词的后面。有时由于修饰的需要,也可放在句首。
This car drives well.
She spoke angrily.
Quietly she walked on and on.
修饰及物动词的方式副词可放在动词之前或宾语之后,如果宾语较长,也可放在动词和宾语之间。
He slowly drove the car.
He drove the car slowly.
3) Adverbs of degree
程度副词通常放在所修饰的形容词或副词前面。
She is quite pretty, but unhealthy-looking.
She speaks Spanish fairly well.
☻enough:放在所修饰的形容词、副词或动词的后面。
It’s warm enough to swim.
He didn’t run fast enough to catch the train.
The meat is not cooked enough.
You don’t practice enough at the piano.
4) Adverbs of frequency
always, often, usually, sometimes, ever, seldom, occasionally, rarely, hardly, never, just, etc.
一般位于行为动词之前,be动词、助动词和情态动词之后。
He always takes my pen by mistake.
My father usually goes to work by bike.
I will never forget you.
You are always late for work.
Have you ever been to Shanghai.
III. Adverbs with or without –ly
1. two forms with no difference in basic meaning
1) slow / slowly
2) quick / quickly
3) right / rightly
4) loud / loudly
5) high / highly
6) fair / fairly
7) easy / easily
8) clear / clearly
9) firm / firmly
10) direct / directly
11) sure / surely
2. two forms different or slightly different in meaning
1) dead / deadly
2) close / closely
3) clean / cleanly
4) pretty / prettily
5) sharp / sharply
3. two forms entirely different in meaning
1) hard / hardly
2) just / justly
3) late / lately
4) most / mostly

Note: 形容词与副词误用
1) 系动词及半系动词之后应接形容词作补语,切勿误用副词。
The flower smells well. (X)
The flower smells good.
2) –ly是常见的副词词尾,但有些形容词也以-ly结尾,应避免误用。
lovely, fatherly, costly, cowardly, earthly, lonely, ugly, silly, friendly
He treats me friendly. (X)
He treats me in a friendly way.
3) 有些形容词加-ly构成的副词与原形容词意义大相径庭。
hard 坚硬的   hardly 几乎不
like 相像的     likely 很可能的
bare 赤裸的     barely 仅仅,勉强
bad 坏的       badly 非常,很
practical 实际的  practically 事实上,几乎
scarce 稀少      scarcely 几乎不
 
Lecture 16  Comparison and Comparative Constructions
§1. Comparison
With gradable adjectives and adverbs, there are three degrees of comparison:
Positive / absolute degree
Comparative degree
Superlative degree
I. Regular Comparison
1. synthetic form: adj. / adv. + -er, -est
a) mono-syllabic adjectives / adverbs except participles (eg. bored, drunk)
b) disyllabic adjectives ending in –y and –ow
easy, happy, lucky, pretty, heavy, dirty, tidy, funny, narrow, shallow
2. analytic form: more, most + adj. / adv.
a) disyllabic adjectives ending in –ful, -less, -ing, -ed
useful, boring, annoyed,
b) disyllabic adverbs ending in –ly which are derived from corresponding adjectives
quickly, clearly, wisely
c) three-syllable or longer adjectives / adverbs
II. Irregular Comparison
bad          worse             worst
good / well    better             best
old          older /elder         oldest / eldest
far          farther / further      farthest / furthest
much /many   more              most
badly         worse             worst
well          better             best
little          less              least
Usage notes:
1) older and elder
a) older / oldest are used for reference to both people and things.
b) elder / eldest are used only in the attributive position, and for reference to family relationships.
She is my elder sister.
They live in an older house than any other I have ever seen.
She is older than her husband.
My car is even older than I am.
☻elderly: adj. (of people) used as a polite word for old
an elderly couple, elderly relatives
2) farther and further
a) Either farther / farthest or further / furthest can be used to refer to physical distance.
b) further / furthest are normally used to refer to an abstract sense
I’m tired. I can’t walk any farther / further.
If there are no further questions, I declare the meeting closed.
3) little 表示“大小”时,没有比较级和最高级
4) poor 表示“差”时,其比较级最高级变化形式是不规则的:poor, worse, worst; 作其他含义讲时,变化形式是规则的。
5) 英语中并不是所有的形容词和副词都有比较级和最高级,只有表示等级关系的形容词和副词才有比较级和最高级,表示绝对意义的形容词和副词只有原级。
right, wrong, left, hourly daily, weekly, round, square, dead, perfect, excellent, infinite, extreme, average, equal, identical, false, unique, complete, sheer, mere, only, empty, favorite, full, super, etc.

§2. Comparative Construction
 Positive Comparative Superlative
Basic form as + adj. /adv. + as comparative adj./adv. + than the + superlative adj./adv.  + scope
Negative form 1. not so / as …as
2. less … than… 1. not more/-er than
2. less… than…
3. not so/as…as
4. antonymous adj. / adv. –er + than-clause 1. not most/-er
2. the least …
3. the superlative degree of antonymous adjectives or adverbs
Intensifiers just about,  very much, much, many, far, even, still, a little, no, by far, rather, hardly, slightly, (quite) a lot, (just) a bit, a great deal, etc. (example)
much, by far, easily, nearly, almost, yet, ever, far and away, out and away, the very(example)

Variant form 1. as + adj. + NP + as
2. as much / many + noun + as 1. comparative degree + n. + than-clause
2. the + comparative degree + of –phrase
3. more / less of a + noun + than-clause
4. more / less / fewer + n. + than-clause 1) more …than…
2) as… as…
3) negative word + comparative degree
I. Positive degree: as …as…
1. as + adjective / adverb + as
1) type:
a. different subjects but identical comparative elements: sth. omitted in as-clause
John is as bright as Bob.
b. identical subjects but different comparative elements
The girl was as brilliant as she was beautiful.
c. different subjects and comparative elements
His uncle was as base and unworthy as his father had been upright and honourable.
2) negative: 
a. not as / so … as…
John is not as / so bright as Bob.
b. less … than…
John is less bright than Bob.
2. as much / many + noun + as
You can take as much butter as you need.
She wrote as many essays as her brother .
He didn’t drink as / so much wine as his roommate.
3. as + adjective + NP+ as = NP + as … as…
George is as efficient a worker as Jack.
=George is a worker as efficient as Jack.
I can’t drink as sweet coffee as this.
= I cant’ drink coffee as sweet as this.
☻In this variant pattern the embedded noun phrase is usually “a / an + singular count noun” or “zero + non-count noun”
I don’t smoke as expensive cigarettes as these. (?)
I don’t smoke cigarettes as expensive as these.
II. Comparative degree: more… than…
1. comparative degree + than-clause
The parcel is heavier than that one.
Negative:
1) less… than
This parcel is less heavy than that one.
2) not so / as …as
This parcel is not so / as heavy as that one.
3) antonymous adj. / adv. –er + than-clause
This parcel is lighter than that one.
☻compare:
Bill speaks French less well than he writes it. ( Bill writes well, but doesn’t speak as well as he writes.)
Bill speaks French worse than he writes it. ( Bill writes bad, and speaks even worse.)
2. more / less / fewer + n. + than-clause
I have done more work than he.
You have made fewer mistakes than I have.
3. comparative degree + n. + than-clause = n. + comparative degree + than-clause
John is a more efficient worker than Jack.
= John is a worker more efficient than Jack.
4. the + comparative degree + of –phrase
John is the brighter of the two boys.
=John is brighter than the other boy.
5. more / less of a + noun + than-clause
He is more / less of a sportsman than his brother.
=He is more / less sportsmanlike than his brother.
III. Superlative degree: the + superlative adjective / adverb + scope of comparison
1. used when three or more than three people or things are compared.
2. there is usually a scope of comparison which may be expressed by a prepositional phrase, a relative clause , or a non-finite clause. Sometimes the scope of comparison is understood in the context and need not be expressed, and sometimes unnecessary in some set expressions
The Sahara is the largest desert in the world.
This is the most interesting book I have ever read.
Shakespeare was the greatest dramatist ever known.
I will do it with the greatest pleasure.
3. negative:
1) the least…
2) the superlative degree of antonymous adjectives or adverbs
This is the least difficult book I have ever read.
This is the easiest book I have ever read.
4. other construction expressing the superlative degree
1) more …than…
George did more work than anyone else.
=George did the most work.
2) as… as…
Nothing in my life shook me so deeply as my first visit to China.
=My first visit to China shook me the most deeply
3) negative word + comparative degree
I like nothing better.
=It’s the best thing I like.
It can’t be worse.
=It’s the worst thing I’ve ever know.
Notes:
☻Five Unacceptable Structures:
1. n.+ as+ much/many + as
2. as + a +adj. +n.(可数名词单数) +as
3. as + adj. +n(pl.) +as…
4. n.+ more/less/fewer +than…
5. more/fewer + adj.+ a + n.
☻Common mistakes:
1. 比较级的重叠
It is less colder today than the day before. (X)
It is less cold today than the day before.
2. 比较对象的重叠
Mary is more beautiful than any girl in the class. (X)
Mary is more beautiful than any other girl in the class.
3. 不合逻辑的比较
The climate of Japan is milder than Canada. (X)
The climate of Japan is milder than that of Canada.
☻Ellipsis and substitution in comparative sentences:
Ellipsis and substitution often occur when there is a repetition of two parallel items, which is also true of comparative sentences.
Tom teaches better than Jack teaches.
Tom teaches better than Jack does.
Tom teaches better than Jack.
一般来说,可用one(s), that, those, do来代替重复的名词或动词。
This novel is as interesting as the ones we have read.
TV sets made this year are of better quality than those last year.
He reads better than I do.
I speak English more fluently than I did in the past.
that可用来代替可数或不可数名词,其复数形式为those.
one(s)只代替单个名词,that/those可替代一个词组。
The steel output of this year will be bigger than that of last year.
The white dresses go with the hat better than the blue ones.
Our rules are quite different from/than those of other organizations.
But when there is an object after the verb, the ellipsis may cause ambiguity.
Tom likes pop music more than his 18-year-old daughter likes pop music. (clumsiness)
Tom likes pop music more than his 18-year-old daughter likes it.
Tom likes pop music more than his 18-year-old daughter does.
Tom likes pop music more than his 18-year-old daughter. (ambiguity)
☻senior, junior, superior, inferior, prior, previous, subsequent, posterior, anterior, + to
We are inferior to others in many respects.
The engine is superior to that one.
Her arrival at the town is posterior to that of others.
That was an event anterior to the outbreak of the war.
☻形容词最高级不表示和其他事物相比较时不用定冠词
1)用作补语强调事物品质:
Compare:
This is where the river is deepest.
Put the picture where light is best.
He is the busiest worker in the factory.
He is busiest in December.
2)用作前置修饰语表示very
This book is the most difficult that I have ever read.
It is a most useful book. (very)
☻倍数表达
A is      times the size (height, width, depth, etc) of B
A is      times as big (large, high, wide, deep, etc.) as B
A is      times bigger (larger, higher, wider, deeper, etc.) than B
Cotton output was 2 percent higher than in the previous year.
The balloon Li Ming’s father has just bought him is three times the size of mine.
☻intensifiers 例句
Iron is hard, but steel is still harder.
His car runs a little faster.
The job is so much harder than my last one that I’ve decided to quit.
Milk is a lot more nutritious than beer.
We need many more books than you have bought us these.
They have much more milk than we.
Honey is just about as sweet as sugar.
He is by far the biggest wrestler.
Professor Smith is easily the most interesting lecturer of all.
This city is nearly the most beautiful city I have ever been to.
IV. Other usages of comparative constructions
1. more / less… than… 与其说…,不如说…
He is more good than bad.
=He is good rather than bad.
The present crisis is much more a political than an economic crisis.
2. not so much …as… 与其说…, 不如说…
It wasn’t so much his appearance I liked as his personality.
=I liked his personality rather than his appearance.
Compare:
not so … as…
3. no more /-er than = both are not…
John is no better than Tom.
Compare:
not more / -er than
John is not better than Tom.
 ☻no more…than = not… any more than
A whale is nt more a fish than a horse is.
A whale is not a fish any more than a horse is.
no less… than: both are…
He speaks French no less clearly than Mr Chen.
(He speaks French as clearly as Mr Chen.)
no more than + 数字: only 仅仅,只不过,强调“少”
not more than +数字:at most, 最多,至多,不超过
She read no more than five books this week. 她这个星期才读了5本书。
She read not more than five books this week. 她这个星期最多读了5本书。
no less than + 数字:有…之多,多大…强调“多”
not less than + 数字:不少于,至少
She spent no less than 1000 dollars for the coat. 她花了多达1000美元买了这件外套。
She spent not less than 1000 dollars for the coat. 她花了至少1000美元 买了这件外套。
4. more than:
1) not only
My trip to Beijing is more than sightseeing.
2) 超过,否定意义
The terrible heat was more than the old people could bear.
I love you more than I can say.
3) very
They were more than satisfied with our gift.
5. the more /-er… the more/-er: 越…, 越…
The older I get, the happier I am.
6. more / -er and more /-er 越来越
The car was running faster and faster.
His health is getting better and better.
 
Lecture 17  Preposition and Prepositional Phrase
English has a large number of prepositions as compared with pronouns, conjunctions, and determiners; yet they are still a closed word class. Their major function is to connect nouns, verbs and adjectives to other parts of the sentence. A preposition is typically followed by a noun or a noun equivalent to introduce a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase can perform the following syntactic functions: a post modifier in the noun phrase, an adverbial, and a complement.
a woman in white
I get up early in the morning.
I’m very grateful for your help.
I. Forms:
1. simple prepositions:
a. Prep. only: 
against, amid, among, at, bar, barring, concerning, considering, despite, during, except, excepting, failing, following, from, including, into, like, minus, of, pending, per, plus, regarding, respecting, to, times, toward, towards, unlike, upon, via, with, worth
b. Prep./ Conj.:
after, as, but, for, save, than, till, until
c. Prep. / Adv.:
aboard, about, above, across, along, alongside, around, behind, below, beneath, besides, between, beyond, by, down, in, inside, less, near, off, on, opposite, over, outside, past, round, through, throughout, under, underneath, up, within, without
d. Prep. / Conj. / Adv.:
before, since
2. complex prepositions
a. two-word prep.: 
as for, but for, except for, apart from, away from, ahead of, because of, instead of, out of, outside of, regardless of, according to, as to, due to, near to, next to, on to, owing to, prior to, up to, along with, together with,
b. three-word prep.:
in case of, in charge of, in consequence of, in favour of, in front of, in lieu of, in need of, in place of, in quest of, in respect of, in search of, in terms of, in spite of, in view of, in accordance with, in common with, in comparison with, in compliance with, in conformity with, in connection with, in contact with, in line with, by means of, by virtue of, by way of, on account of, on behalf of, on top of, as far as, at variance with, in exchange for, in return for, in addition to, in relation to, with / in regard to, with / in reference to, with / in respect to,
c. four-word prep:
in (the) face of, in (the) light of, on the part of, on the strength of, as a / the result of, at the expense of, at the hands of, for (the) sake of, with the exception of,
II. Uses
1. Prepositions of spatial relations
the stative use: indicates a static location
the dynamic use: indicates the direction of a movement
Meaning Prepositions
Location (stative) aboard, about, across, against, along, alongside, around, at, away from, beside, down, near, off, on, out of, past, round, through, up, upon above, ahead of, amid(st), among, before, behind, below, beneath, between, beyond, by, in, in front of, inside, on top of, opposite, under, underneath, with, within
Direction (dynamic)  from, into, onto, to, toward(s)
a. at, on, in
a) at: associated with a point
b) on: associated with a line or the surface of sth.
c) in: associated with an area or the volume of sth.
Our train arrived at New York at midnight. (a spot on a map)
She has lived in New York for twenty years. ( a city with houses, streets, etc.)
London is situated on the River Thames. (a line)
You may hang the picture on this wall. (surface)
There is a hole in the wall.
in China / Europe / the world
I’d prefer to put my desk at the window. (similar to by, beside, near, etc. indicate the intention to use the window for purpose)
A face appeared in the window.        (a framed area)
The boy pressed his face on the window  (the glass surface)
He came in a car.  (closed vehicles)
Did you come on foot or on a horse?
He was in the house yesterday afternoon. 他昨天下午在屋内。
He was at the house yesterday afternoon. 他昨天下午在家。
☻ When used with the following nouns: bank, church, cinema, hotel, office, school, theatre, university, etc., at shows some kind of connection with an institution in its functional aspect, while in indicates a mere geographical position.
Peter is at Cambridge. ( as a student)
Peter is in Cambridge. (as a resident, a visitor, etc.)
☻road, way 之前用on, street之前用in 或on.
on the road,
on my way home,  (比较:in the way: 挡路,妨碍交通)
in / on the street
☻ in the fields
on the farm
on the ground
on the playground
☻at the top / on top
There is a church at the top of the hill.
Put this record on top of the others. 把这张唱片放在其他唱片的上面。
☻in the distance: far away but still able to be seen or heard
at a distance: from a place or time that is not near; from far away
We saw a light in the distance. 我们看到远处有灯光。
The picture looks better at a distance. 这幅画远看更好一些。
☻at / in / on the corner

 


           
at the corner        in the corner         on the corner

b. over, above, under, below
a) above / below: a higher / lower position or level
b) over / under: a vertical relationship, “directly above” and “directly below”
introduce sth. that covers sth. else
The lamp hung over / above the table.
She leant over the river to see her reflection in the water.
The cat is lying under the table.
He waited below the window until she opened it and spoke to him.
He kept his coat over his shoulders.
He hid his gun under the pillow.
c. in / on / to the east

 

in the east       on the east           to the east
China lies int eh east of Asia.
Anhui lies on the east of Henan.
Taiwan lies to the east of Fujian.
☻The sun rises in the east. (从东方)
  The sun sets in the west.
d. to / on / at the left (right)
a) on /at the left (right) 某一物体左(右)边较近的位置。
b) to the left (right) 某一物体左(右)边较远的位置,有一段距离
 He sat on /at the left of me.
There is a tower to the right of the house.
e. in front of / in the front of

in front of                 in the front of
f. around, round, about 围绕,周围
a) around 在“周围”围着的静止位置
b) round 在“周围”旋转的运动位置
c) about 笼统地表示在某一物的附近或旁边
Children sat around the fire. 孩子们围坐在火的周围。
The earth goes round the sun. 地球围绕太阳转。
Her hair hang about her neck. 她的头发垂在脖子的左右。
g. between, among
a) between: two objects; clear and exact locative positions
b) among: three or more objects; indefinite positions, surrounded by, mixed up with
She sat between the two children.
She sat among the three children.
Our house stands between a school and a supermarket.
Ecuador lies between Colombia, Peru, and the Pacific Ocean.
It is pleasant to walk among the trees in the evening.
He lost his son when the film was over and found him among the people outside the cinema.
A good teacher must neither too strict nor too weak; his manner must lie between these two.
Among his many good qualities, punctuality is the most6 impressive one.
He made a comparison between the major English speaking countries.
I like New Zealand best among all the English speaking countries.
h. aboard
usually used with a noun referring to a form of transport or with the name of a particular vehicle:
bike, boat, bus, coach, ferry, jet, plane, rocket, ship, sledge, space shuttle, train, truck, yacht, etc.
There are too many passengers aboard the train.
Fortunately, she was not aboard the Titanic.
i. from:
a) followed by a noun phrase
b) followed by another preposition or an adverb to indicate a starting point of a movement:
above, abroad, behind, below, beneath, downstairs, here, inside, outside, overseas, there, under, underneath, upstairs, etc.
Leaves kept falling from above our heads when we were walking among the trees.
News came from abroad that the Japanese started attacking the American warships.
I think the noise comes from below the window.
I think the noise comes from below.
j. across, through, over
a) across: related to “on”, the action takes place on the surface of sth. from one end / side to the other. 横过
b) through: related to “in”, the action takes place inside a certain space with things around. 穿过
c) over: 越过,在…之上越过
across the desert
through the woods
He swam across the river.
The train went through a tunnel.
The plane flew over the city.
k. across, over, beyond 在…那边, 在…对过
a) across: 一般的“对过”
b) over: “障碍物”的“对过”
c) beyond: 较远的“对过”
He lives across the street.
town and villages over the mountains
There is a lake beyond this mountain.
l. v. + sb. + prep. + the + a part of the body
on: solid part
in: soft part
by: side part
2. Prepositions relating to time
a. at, on, in
a) at: non-durative, points of time
b) on: days or periods of a specific day
c) in: periods longer or shorter than a day
six o’clock
at    midnight
his uncle’s death
Sunday
Tuesdays and Fridays
on   May 23, 1988
Saturday afternoons
Christmas Day
the morning / the afternoon / the evening
the day / the night
the days / weeks / months /years that followed
in    spring / summer / autumn / winter
1996
the 21st century
the Stone Age
☻Note that “at” can also be used for days, in which case the periods are still conceived as points of time.
We look forward to her arrival at Christmas.
He was murdered at the bank holiday.
b. for, since
a) for + length of time: how long sth. has continued  (perfective)
b) since + a point of time: when sth. began.         (perfective)
We have been waiting for half an hour.
We have been waiting since 6 o’clock.
We haven’t been to the theatre since months ago.
I haven’t seen James for almost one year.
c. ago, before
a) ago: a past time measured from the present  (simple past)
b) before: a past time measured from the more resent past (past perfecitve)
I passed my GRE test six months ago.
They moved to a new house some time ago.
Tom left the company last year. He’d started work there ten years before.
I finally received a reply to the application I had applied for the scholarship weeks before.
d. in, after
a) in + length of time: the time it takes to complete sth. (durative verb)
a future time measured from the present  (non-durative verb)
b) after + a point of time / an event
Columbus crossed the Atlantic in seventy days.
Surely you can change a wheel in fifteen minutes
Your photos will be ready in half an hour.
The exhibition hall will open in six weeks.
The train will be leaving in a few minutes.
e. during, in: the time in which sth. happened
☻With a “time word”, we can use either in or during:
It must have rained in / during the night.
I’ll phone you sometime during / in the afternoon.
☻during 后的名词前必须有限定词,in 后的名词前有限定词表示特指,无限定词表示泛指
She did a lot for the army during / in the war.
What did he say during / in my absence?
Some birds fly to the south in summer.
☻during ,强调动作的连续性,指“在整个过程中”如表示的是习惯性或持续性的动作,或指的是一项活动,如:visit, meal, concert, service, voyage, stay, etc. 只能用during; in 指一时性的动作或短暂动作,强调某事具体发生的时间。
She was in the headquarters during the war.
He worked in a chemical plant during 1988.
The shop was closed during the whole of August.
It was over in the twinkling of an eye.
He left England in 1988.
f. by, till, until
a) by: not later than
b) till / until: how long a situation continues
I posted the letter today, so they should receive it by Monday.
Can you pay me back by Friday?
We sat in the pub until / till closing time.
There will be traffic hold-ups until next summer.
☻Till is more informal than until.
☻Both till and until can be conjunctions.
We walked on and on until / till we came to the cave.
☻We can use not…until / till when sth. is later than expected
Suzie didn’t get up until / till half past ten.
I won’t take another job until / till this one is done.
☻We can also use by the time instead of until:
There was no food left by the time we arrived.
Hurry up! By the time we get to the cinema, the film will already have started.
3. Prepositions relating to tools, means, materials, etc.
a. with “用工具”,可用于主动和被动语态中,其后的名词是可数名词;也可表示用某种材料,特别是材料和工具都使用时。
He wrote a letter with a fountain-pen.
You must write the composition with pen and ink.
b. in 用某种材料和方式
He’s writing a letter in ink.
paint in water-colors
Can you do the experiment in another way?
c. by 手段,多用于主动语态或不及物动词之后,相当于through, by means of
交通工具,泛指意义
By your help, I may succeed.
You have to express the thought by action.
Choose a wife rather by your ear than your eye.
We shall go by car/ train /bus /ship.
Compare:
The cock was killed with a knife.
The cock died by the knife.
by car / aeroplane /taxi /bike
in my car, in his own aeroplane, in a taxi
on his bike
4. Prepositions relating to reasons
a. because of / owing to/ due to/ thanks to 因为,由于,不能接句子
a) because of 作状语
b) owing to 多做状语,有时也可作补语
c) due to 一般只作补语或后置修饰语
d) thanks to 作状语,表达“感激,感谢”,有时也用于讽刺的口吻
She cannot go to school because of sickness.
Because of her carelessness she failed in the examination.
They decided to call off the party, owing to the bad weather.
His death was owing to an accident.
Her absence is due to illness.
The lateness of the ship was due to the storm.
Mistakes due to carelessness may have serious consequences.
Thanks to Tom’s kind help, we finished early.
Thanks to the bad weather, our journey was very uncomfortable.
5. 除了
a. besides: 相当于in addition to, 除…以外,还有… (包括在内)
Besides Chinese, he also studies Maths, Physics, and Chemistry.
b. but / except: 除…之外,没有… (除去,不包括在内)
I know all the students but six.
I looked everywhere except in the bedroom.
Compare:
I have a few dictionaries besides this one.
I have few dictionaries except this one.
c. except for: 引述一个相反的原因或细节,部分的修正了句中的主要意思
Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.
In our school most of the teachers were fairly young except for a few older teachers.
d. except that: 后接从句
I knew nothing except that Xiao Li was there.
Your composition is good except that there are a few spelling mistakes.
e. apart from: besides, except, except for
Apart from them, I had no one to talk to.
Apart from sport, my other interest outside class is music.
Apart from some spelling mistakes, the composition is fairly good.
 
Lecture 18  Statement, Question, Command, Exclamation
The sentence is the highest rank of grammatical construction. In terms of their communicative functions, sentences may be divided into four types:
1. statement
2. question
3. command
4. exclamation

§1. Statements
In communication, statements are chiefly used to state a fact or non-fact, that is, to affirm or negate something. Thus, statements may be divided into positive statements and negative statements.

Positive statements
In a positive statement, there might be different degrees of certainty about the truth of the information imparted.
1. to soften the tone:
I think, I guess, I suppose, I suspect, I’m afraid, if I’m not mistaken, if I might say so, if you please, if you don’t mind
Eg. Teaching 16 hours a week, I’m afraid, is too much for me.
   We have met before, if I’m not mistaken.
2. to reinforce the statement
1) emphasizers
indeed, really, definitely, certainly, for sure, without any question, without doubt, undoubtedly, virtually, surely, actually
eg. Many people will certainly lose their jobs.
   Without any question, his new novel will be the best seller for 2010.
2) reinforcement tags
eg. That was a trap, that was.
   You’ve gone mad, you have.
3) double negatives
eg. That kind of result is not impossibly.
   She went to that place not infrequently
4) rhetorical questions: questions in form but statements in meaning
A negative rhetorical question is equivalent to a reinforced positive statement, while a positive rhetorical question to a reinforced negation.
Eg. Isn’t it lovely weather today?
   Who doesn’t know that?
   Who cares where you slept?
   Can anyone doubt the truth of his statement?
5) the use of a stressed operator (in spoken language)
eg. I `am telling you the truth.
   You need not lie to me. You `did go to that place and many people saw you there.
XII. Negative statements

 
Lecture 19  Relative Clause
I. Restrictive Relative Clause &Non-restrictive Relative Clause
II. Relative words
1. Relative words and their functions
关系代词 who 代替人,作从句的主语
 whom 代替人,作从句的宾语
 which 代替物,作从句的主语、宾语
 that 代替人、物,作从句的主语、宾语,只能引导限制性从句
 whose 代替人或物,从句中作名词的修饰语
 as 代替物,常与same, such连用,引导限制性定语从句
单独使用时引导非限制性从句,在从句中作主语、宾语或宾补
 but 表示否定意义,代替人、物,从句中作主语
 than 有比较意义,修饰带有形容词比较级的名词
关系副词 when 先行词是表示时间的词,从句中作时间状语
 where 先行词是表示地点的词,从句中作地点状语
 why 先行词是reason,从句中作原因状语
 as 先行词是作状语的词组,从句中作方式状语
The pupils who / that had been watching started to applaud.
This is the book that / which I like best.
People whose dogs bite other people should keep them tied up.
She knew he felt just the same as she did.
Such people as you describe are rare nowadays.
The car which / that was stolen has been found.
The house whose windows are broken is unoccupied.
2. Choice of relative pronouns in restrictive clause
1) As the subject in relative clause
2) As the object in relative clause
3) As the complement of the pronoun in the relative clause
4) The case in which only “that” can be used:
3. Choice of relative pronouns in non-restrictive clause
4. but
表示否定意义的关系代词,相当于 “that / which / who …not” 用于no之后
There is no one of us but wishes to help you. 我们当中没有人不想帮你。
There is no man but knows (who doesn’t know) the sun is larger than the moon.没有人不知道太阳比月亮大.
There is nothing born but has to die. 一切事物有生有灭
5. than:
有比较意义,修饰带有形容词比较级的名词
He smoked more expensive cigarettes than I could afford.
There were more casualties than were reported.
6. as
1) 可指人也可指物, 通常与the same, such, so 等连用: the same … as, such … as, so … as
They need such materials as can bear high temperature and pressure.
Mass is not the same thing as weight is.
We have arrived at the same conclusion as they have.
From this library we can borrow as many books as we want to read.
Here is so big a stone as no man can lift.
I shall use the instrument in such a way as he used it yesterday.
2) the same … as vs. the same… that
as 引导的定语从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物相似, 指同类事物; that引导的定语从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物是同一个,指同一事物.
We hope to get such a book that / as he is reading.
This is the same (kind of) pen as I lost yesterday.
This is the same pen (the very pen) that lost yesterday.
3) as还可引导非限制性定语从句, 同which一样,既可指代整个主句,也可指代主句中的部分内容.
He married her, as was natural.
As you can see, we’ve got a problem with the engine.
He was not sick, as some of the other passengers were.
Which引导的非限制性定语从句不能位于句首,而as引导的非限制性定语从句的位置比较灵活,可在句首、句末或句中。
As was usual at the weekend, the club was almost empty.
Her performance was wonderful, as we had expected.
4) As 在起引导得从句中充当主语时,其谓语动词通常是be其他系动词以及被动语态,此时,如果as引导的定语从句不在句首,as和which 可以互换。
She was absent, which / as is often the case.
As was expected, he performed the task with success.
She has remarried, which delighted us.

 

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