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英语基本句型----英语句子成分、种类、结构

(2012-09-03 13:42:39)
标签:

英语基本句型----英语

杂谈

分类: 句型写作

 

句法基础知识系统学习

目录:

一、英语句子的成分

二、英语句子的种类

三、英语简单句的结构


一、英语句子的成分

 

 


Book 1 Unit 2   P.16

         组成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分包括:

        主语、谓语、表语、宾语、补足语、状语、定语、同位语等。

 

英语词类与句子成分关系图

 

  句子成分  词类或短语

主语*

谓语

宾语*

表语*

定语*

状语*

宾语  

补足语

名词

√√√

×

√√√

√√

×

代词

√√√

×

√√√

√√

√√

×

×

形容词

×

×

×

√√√

√√√

×

√√

数词

×

√√√

×

 

 

时态语态形式

×

√√√

×

×

×

×

×

动词不定式

√√

×

√√

√√

√√√

动名词

√√

×

√√√

×

×

动词现在分词

×

×

×

√√

√√√

动词过去分词

×

×

×

√√

√√

副词

×

×

×

√√√

介词短语

×

×

×

√√

 √√

  [注释]

 1、“√”表示某种词类可以充当某个成分, “√√”表示某种词类经常充当某个成分, “√√√”表示某种词类最经常充当某个成分。 “×”表示某种词类不能充当某个成分。

 2、“ * ”表示该成分可以由从句充当,如主语从句、宾语从句、状语从句等。


一、主语
   主语(subject)是一个句子的主题,是句子所描述的主体,它的位置一般在句首。可用作主语的有名词、代词、数词、名词化的形容词、不定式、动名词或从句等。

  1. A tree has fallen across the road.
    一棵树倒下横在路上。(名词)
  2. You’re not far wrong.你差不多对了。(代词)
  3. Three is enough.三个就够了。(数词)
  4. There is a heated debate about the most effective way for students to study. 
  5. There is a heated discussion among students on whether middle school students should take part in after-school activities. (extracurriculum)
  6. They are forced to work.他们被迫劳动。(名词化的形容词)
  7. To find your way can be a problem.你能否找到路可能是一个问题。(不定式)
  8. Watching a film is on Saturday makes us feel happy.星期六看电影让我们感觉非常幸福。(动名词)
  9. Studying alone is the most effective way to learn new knowledge .
  10. Whenever you are ready will be fine.
    你无论什么时候准备好都行。(从句)
    二、谓语
         谓语(predicate)或谓语动词(predicate verb)的位置一般在主语之后。谓语由简单动词或动词短语(助动词或情态动词+主要动词)构成。
    1.由简单的动词构成。如:
    He worked hard all day today.他今天苦干了一天。
    2.由动词短语构成的谓语。如:
    Great changes have taken place in China since 1980.自从1980年中国发生了很大变化。
    3.英语中常用某些动作名词代替表动态的谓语动词。这种动作名词之前常用没有多大意义的动词 have,get,take,give等。如:

 


  1. I had a swim yesterday.我昨天游了一次泳。(had a swim代替了swam)

    三、表语
           表语的功能是表述主语的特征、状态、身份等,位于连系动词 be,become,get,look,grow,turn,seem等之后,与之构成系表结构。可以作表语的词有:名词、代词、数词、形容词、副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语、从句等。
    The wedding took place on  Sunday.婚礼是在星期天举行的。(名词)
    We are busy in preparing for the college entrance examinations.我们在忙着备考。(形容词)
    All I could do was to wait.我只能等待。(不定式)
    The most effective study way  is studying in groups.(动名词)
    I’m very pleased with what he has done.我对他所做的很满意。(过去分词)
    She is in good health.她很健康。(介词短语)
    Is that why you were angry?这就是你发怒的原因吗?(从句)
  2. I believe the most effective way to learn new knowledge is studying alone
    四、宾语
           宾语(object)表示动作的对象或承受者,一般位于及物动词或介词之后。
           可以用作宾语的有:名词、代词、数词、名词化的形容词、副词、不定式、动名词、名词化的分词、从句等。
    You also have the freedom to choose what topic to study. (名词)
    Students that prefer to study alone often say that when they study with their classmates they waste a lot of time  (不定式、宾语从句、介词宾语、名词短语)
    If you add 5 to 5,you get 10. 5加5等于10。(数词)
    Does she really mean to leave home?
    她真的要离开家吗?(不定式)
    He never did the unexpected.他从不做使人感到意外的事。(名词化的分词)
    Do you understand what I mean?你明白我的意思吗?(从句)
  3. In the last few years, however, more and more students have started studying in groups(动名词)
  4. The article compares the benefits of studying alone with those of studying in groups.
  5. It is good for students to focus what they are doing by studying alone .
  6. They can avoid interruption.
  7. group study creates a more enjoyable learning environment.   

              扩展      
    宾语中有些动词需要两个同等的宾语,即直接宾语(direct object)与间接宾语(indirect object)。直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,间接宾语指动作所指向的或所为的人和物(多指人),后接双宾语的及物动词常用的有:bring,buy,find,get,give,lend,make,offer等,间接宾语一般与直接宾语连用,通常放在直接宾语之前。
    五、补足语
            补足语(complement)是一种补足主语和宾语意义的句子成分。名词、形容词、副词、不定式、现在分词、过去分词、介词短语等皆可作补足语。
    He was elected chairman of the company.他当选为公司主席。(名词作主语补足语)
    He was once again found wandering along the city street.有人再次发现他流浪在城市街头。(现在分词作主语补足语)
    I found the book very interesting.我发现那本书很有趣。(形容词作宾语补足语)
    Studying alone can help me concentrate on my work. (不定式作宾语补足语)
  8. Studying alone also allows me to develop independent thinking.
  9. Our teachers often encourage us to study in groups.
    六、定语
            定语(attribute)是用来说明名词(代词)的品质与特征的词或一组词。可用作定语的有:形容词、名词、代词、数词、副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语和从句等。
  10. I believe the most effective way to learn new knowledge is studying alone. 
    She is a natural musician.她是一位天生的音乐家。(形容词作定语)
    girl student 女生(名词用作定语)
    Your hair needs cutting.你该理发了。(代词用作定语)
    There’s only one way to do it.做此事只有一个办法。(数词用作定语)
    the room above楼上的房间(副词作定语)
    a walking stick拐杖(动名词用作定语)
    a sleeping child正在睡觉的小孩;a retired worker一个退休工人(分词充当定语)
    The wild look in his eyes spoke plainer than words.他那凶狠的目光说得再清楚不过了。(介词短语用作定语)(wild野的; 野生的, 野性的;荒野的; 荒凉的; 无人居住的;未经过训练的;野蛮的, 未开化的;易受惊的; 怕人的; 难接近的;放荡的; 放肆的;狂暴的; 激动的, 狂热的, 激烈的, 愤怒的;暴风雨的;狂乱的; 草率的)

    Your car,which I noticed outside,has been hit by another one.我在外面看见你的汽车了,它被另一辆车撞了。(从句用作定语,即定语从句)
    七、同位语
           对句子中某一成分作进一步解释、说明,与前面名词在语法上处于同等地位的句子成分叫做同位语。同位语常常置于被说明的词之后。可以作同位语的有名词、代词、数词和从句等。
    We have two children,a boy and a girl.我们有两个孩子,一男一女。(名词用作同位语)
    They all wanted to see him.他们都想见他。(代词用作同位语)
    Are you two ready?你们俩准备好了吗?(数词用作同位语)
    The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true.明天放假的消息不确切。(从句用作同位语,即同位语从句)
    八、状语
    1.状语(adverbial)是修饰动词、形容词、副词以及全句的句子成分。可用作状语的有副词、名词、代词、数词、形容词、不定式、分词、介词短语、从句等。副词最常用作状语,位置比较灵活,可置于句末、句首和句中。
    He speaks the language badly but reads it well.这种语言,他讲得不好,但读的不错。
    Naturally we expect hotel guests to lock their doors.当然我们期望旅馆的旅客把房门锁上。
    2.状语按用途来分,可以分为时间、地点、方式、原因、结果、目的、条件、让步、程度、伴随等。
    (1)时间状语,多位于句末和句首,有时亦可置于句中。
    Shall we do the shopping today or tomorrow?
    (2)地点状语,多置于句末,有时也位于句首和句中。
    There are plenty of fish in the sea.
    (3)原因状语,包括表示理由的状语,多置于句末,有时亦可置于句首。
    Because he was ill,Tom lost his job.
    (4)结果状语,多由不定式、分词和从句表示,常位于句末。
    She woke suddenly to find someone standing in the doorway.
    (5)目的状语,多由不定式、介词短语和从句等表示,常位于句末,强调时可以置于句首。
    In order to get into a good school,I must study even harder.
    (6)条件状语,多由短语和从句表示,常置于句末和句首。
    If he were to come,what should we say to him?
    (7)让步状语,由短语和从句表示,常置于句末和句首。
    He helped me although he didn’t know me.
    (8)程度状语,常由副词、介词短语及从句等表示。
    The lecture is very interesting.
    (9)伴随状语,常由短语和独立主格等表示。常置于句末和句首。
    My train starts at six,arriving at Chicago at ten.


Book 1 Unit 4   P.32

 

二、英语句子的种类

 


         英语句子分为简单句,并列句和复合句。简单句就是一个句子中只包含一个主谓结构的句子。复合句又分成并列句和复杂句,下面我们分别对这三种情况加以分析。

一、简单句
       目前很多语法书都把英语的简单句归纳为五种基本句型。实际上,英语简单句还可以简化为三种形式:
主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语,如:

I hate grammar.
主语+谓语(不及物动词),如:

They left.
主语+系动词+表语,如:

Grammar is difficult.

二、并列句
        并列句就是两个或两个以上的简单句,由表示并列关系的连词或标点符号连接而成。

 

常见的连词:

and, orso, but,while,not only...but also,

neither...nor...,either...or...,otherwise,yet,for等。 

       阅读中遇到并列关系的句子,一般情况下是以连词为界限,将句子分成前、后部分,并分别来分析,各句的意思一般可以单独理解,最后将各句合并即可。
I hate grammar while he loves it.(以while为界,可分为前后两个小句子)

三、主从复合句
         英语中的三大从句:名词性从句、形容词性从句和副词性从句。三大从句之下又包括纷繁复杂的从句形式:

名词性从句:主语从句,宾语从句,

                        表语从句,同位语从句

形容词性从句(定语从句):

                      限制性,非限制性

副词性从句(状语从句):

时间从句,地点从句,原因从句,

条件从句,目的从句,让步从句,

方式从句,结果从句, 比较从句
     

The sad thing is that the ugly man with a lot of money chooses to live alone.(表语从句)
What the ugly man with a lot of money chooses is  living alone.(主语从句)
We all know that the ugly man with a lot of money chooses to live alone.(宾语从句)
The fact that the ugly man with a lot of money chooses to live alone  is known to everyone.(同位语从句)
The ugly man who has a lot of money chooses to live alone.(定语从句)
     在阅读这样的复杂句的时候,首先要找出主句或从句从哪儿开始,到哪儿结束,先理解主句的意思,最后再把从句的内容与主句综合起来。
      介绍完句子结构,就该说说复杂句子的解决方法了,那就是优先提取主干法。这种方法顾名思义就是先提取句子的主干,因为主干是句子的精髓所在,然后再看其他补充或修饰的成分。
    One of the results of the conflict between the two factions was 【that [what in previous years had been referred to as the “American”,“native”,or,occasionally,“New York” school (—the most representative school of American art in any genre—)主语从句] (by 1890) was firmly established in the minds of critics and public alike as the Hudson River school.表语从句】
首先找到句子主干成分,“One of the results was...”是很明显的主系表结构,that引导的显然是个表语从句,表语从句中又有一个由what引导的主语从句,主干结构是“...was firmly established...”,最后再加上修饰成分,句子就很容易分析了,也可以轻而易举地翻译并理解了:两个派别斗争的结果之一是:直到1890年,这个曾经被称作“美国的”、“本土的”、或者偶尔被称作是“纽约的”美国艺术题材中最有代表性的学派,以哈德逊河学派命名被稳固地建立在批评家和公众的思想之中了。
         优先提取主干是一个很有效的方法,如果我们具备了基本的句子结构知识,了解了句子的成分构成,先提取主干,抓住句子精髓,再看从句和其他部分,理清各个部分之间的关系,任何复杂的句子都能迎刃而解了。

 

Book 2 Unit   P.47

 

 

三、英语简单句的结构

如何扩展句子

读写任务议论文写作高分技巧

高考必背句型词组100个

句型写作(103)

  1. S+V
  2. S+V+Cs
  3. S+V+O
  4. S+V+Oi+Od
  5. S+V+Od+Co
           其共有特征是主谓结构(S+V)。
    一、(S+V)主谓结构(主语+不及物动词)
    1.此句型中,“V”是不及物动词,后面无宾语,如:My right arm hurts.。但通常有后续成分或称状语(A),即 S+V+A,如:
  6. She lived happily.
    The sun rises every morning.
    2.在有些句子中,主语或谓语或某一部分可以省略,如:
    Hope to see you again soon.(省略主语)
    —Who called?
    —Jane (did).(省略谓语)

二、(S+V+Cs)主系表结构(主语+系动词+主语补足语)
1.此句型中的“V”是连系动词,“Cs”是主语补足语,或称表语。充当主语补足语的有名词、代词、形容词、副词、数词、介词短语、动词­ing形式或­ed形式、不定式及名词性从句等,如:

My first name is Bill.

Life is colorful.

Seeing is believing.

Our belief is that things will improve.

2.常见的连系动词有下列几类:

(1)表示“判断”:be;

(2)表示“变得”、“成为”:become,come,go,fall,get,grow,prove,turn等;

(3)表示“保持着某一状态”:hold,keep,lie,remain,rest,sit,stay等;

(4)表示“看起来”、“好像”:appear,look,seem等;

(5)表示“实感”:feel,sound,taste,smell等。

She is a teacher and I am a doctor.
Spring comes and all trees turn green.
He stayed awake all night.
You don’t look happy.What’s the matter?
Their plan sounds wonderful.


 

三、(S+V+O)主谓宾结构(主语+及物动词+宾语)
1.“V”是及物动词,后面需跟一个宾语,可充当宾语的有名词、代词、数词、不定式、doing结构及名词性从句等,如:


I understand the program.
She asked to see the manager.

2.这种结构有时必须跟状语,意义才完整(即S+V+O+A),如:
We accepted their advice in buying a new car.
She completed the assignment just as the bell was ringing.


四、(S+V+Oi+Od)双宾语结构(主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语)
1.此句型中的“V”称为双宾及物动词,其后需跟间接宾语“Oi”(通常指人)和直接宾语“Od”(通常指物或事)。
2.此类动词大都具有给予的意义,常见的有:

allow,tell, bring,buy,choose,fetch,find,get,give,hand,leave,lend,offer,owe,pass,pay,promise,recommend,refuse,render,return,sell,send,show,take,award,等,如:


I gave him the book.
I’ll return you the dictionary soon.


3.有时间接宾语可移至直接宾语之后,但要加相应的介词,如 to,for,of等,试比较:Betty gave her daughter an apple.
→Betty gave an apple to her daughter.

Father bought him a bike.
→Father bought a bike for him.

He asked me a question.
→He asked a question of me.

五、(S+V+Od+Co)复合宾语结构(主语+宾补动词+宾语+宾语补语)
       该句型中,谓语动词虽有宾语,但句子意义仍不完整,需加补语“Co”补足其意义。充当宾语补语的有名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式短语及分词等,如:
We found the house empty.
Our neighbors built their wall high.

常用的这类动词有:

keep,make,call,find,see,feel,name,consider,appoint,believe,catch,choose,elect,fancy,hear,imagine,judge,leave,need,prefer,prove,think,vote等。

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