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必修一 Unit 4 Earthquakes 单元词句语法第一轮复习要点

(2011-07-15 09:45:58)
标签:

必修一

unit

4

earthquakes

单元词句语法

第一轮复习要点

杂谈

分类: 课文词句

必修一 Unit 4 Earthquakes

单元词句语法第一轮复习要点

 

必修一   Unit 4
1. arthquake n. 地震
2. quake n. 地震
3. right away 立刻;马上
4. well n. 井
5. △crack n. 裂缝;噼啪声;  vt. & vi. (使)开裂;破裂
6. △smelly adj. 发臭的;有臭味的
7. △farmyard n. 农场;农家
8. pipe n. 管;导管
9. burst vi. (burst, burst) 爆裂;爆发; n. 突然破裂;爆发. burst with anger勃然大怒;burst into tears放声大哭;burst into the room闯入房间
10. million n. 百万
11. event n. 事件;大事
12. as if 仿佛;好像
13. at an end 结束;终结
14. nation n. 民族;国家;国民
15. canal n. 运河;水道
16. steam n. 蒸汽;水汽
17. dirt n. 污垢;泥土
18. ruin n. 废墟;毁灭;vt. 毁灭;使破产
19. in ruins 严重受损;破败不堪
20. suffering n. 苦难;痛苦
21. extreme adj. 极度的
22. injure vt. 损害;伤害
23. △survivor n. 幸存者;生还者;残存物
24. destroy vt. 破坏;毁坏;消灭
25. brick n. 砖;砖块
26. dam n. 水坝;堰堤
27. track n. 轨道;足迹;痕迹
28. useless adj. 无用的;无效的;无益的
29. shock vt. & vi. (使)震惊;震动;  n. 休克;打击;震惊
30. rescue n. & vt. 援救;营救
31. trap vt. 使陷入困境n. 陷阱;困境
32. electricity n. 电;电流;电学
33. disaster n. 灾难;灾祸
34. dig out 掘出;发现
35. bury vt. 埋葬;掩埋;隐藏
36. mine n. 矿;矿山;矿井
37. miner n. 矿工
38. shelter n. 掩蔽;掩蔽处;避身处
39. a (great) number of 许多;大量的
40. title n. 标题;头衔;资格
41. reporter n. 记者
42. bar n. 条;棒;条状物
43. damage n. & vt. 损失;损害
44. frighten vt. 使惊吓;吓唬
45. frightened adj. 受惊的;受恐吓的
46. frightening adj. 令人恐惧的
47. congratulation n. 祝贺;(复数)贺词
48. judge n. 裁判员;法官;  vt. 断定;判断;判决judge by [from] appearances由外观上判断;
judge from the fact由事实上推测;
judge between right and wrong判断是非;
so far as I can judge据我判断, 我认为
49. sincerely adv. 真诚地;真挚地
50. express vt. 表示;表达;  n. 快车;速递
51. outline n. 要点;大纲;轮廓
52. headline n. 报刊的大字标题
53. cyclist n. 骑自行车的人

 

 

课文回顾  考点提炼

      Unit 4

Earthquakes
A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN'T SLEEP
     Strange things were happening in the countryside of northeast Hebei.For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell, rose and fell. Farmers noticed that the well walls had deep cracks in them. A smelly gas came out of the cracks. In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide. Fish jumped out of their bowls and ponds. At about 3:00 am on July 28,1976,some people saw bright lights in the sky. The sound of planes could be heard outside the city of Tangshan even when no planes were in the sky. In the city, the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst. but the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, were asleep as usual that night.
    At 3:42 am everything began to shake. It seemed as if the world was at an end!  Eleven kilometers directly below the city the greatest earthquake of the 20th century had begun. It was felt in Beijing,  which is more than two hundred kilometers away. One-third of the nation felt it.  A huge crack that was eight kilometres long and thirty metres wide cut across houses, roads and canals. Steam burst from holes in the ground. Hard hills of rock became rivers of dir. In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. The suffering of the people was extreme. Two-thirds of them died or were left without parents. The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400,000.
   But how could the survivors believe it was natural? Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed. All of the city's hospitals,75%of its factories and buildings and 90% of its homes were gone Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves. No wind, however, could blow them away.  Two dams fell and most of the bridges also fell or were not safe for travelling.  The railway tracks were now useless pieces of steel. Tens of thousands of cows would never give milk again.  Half a million pigs and millions of chickens were dead. Sand now filled the wells instead of water. People were shocked. Then,later that afternoon, another big quake which was almost as strong as the first one shook Tangshan. Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins.  More buildings fell down. Water,food,and electricity were hard to get. people began to wonder how long the disaster would last.
    All hope was not lost.  Soon after the quakes, the army sent 150,000 soldiers to Tangshan to help the rescue workers. Hundreds of thousands of people were helped. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. To the north of the city, most of the 10,000 miners were rescued from the coal mines there. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed. Fresh water was taken to the city by train,truck and plane. Slowly,the city began to breathe again.

Office of the City Government
Tangshan,Hebei
China
July5,2007


Dear____,
     Congratulations! We are pleased to tell you that you have won the high school speaking competition about new Tangshan. Your speech was heard by a group of five judges,  all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year.  Your parents and your school should be very proud of you!
    Next month the city will open a new park to honour those who died in the terrible disaster.  The park will also honour those who helped the survivors. Our office would like to have you speak to the park vistors on July 28 at 11:00 am.  As you know,t his is the day the quake happened thirty-five years ago.
We invite you to bring your family and friends on that special day.

Sincerely,
Zhang Sha

 


一、【重点词汇】

ruin

n.毁灭;毁坏;崩溃;(不可数名词)废墟;遗迹(常用复数

vt.&vi.(使)毁坏;毁灭;成为废墟;使破产

①The castle has fallen into rain.那城堡已破败不堪。

②An earthquake left the whole town in ruins.那次地震过后,全城到处是残垣断壁。‘

③It poured with rain and my dress got/was mined.大雨倾盆,我的连衣裙已淋得不成样子了。

归纳拓展

  • fall into ruin崩塌  
  • come/go to ruin毁灭,崩溃
  • lie in ruins成为废墟
  • the ruins of Yuanmingyuan圆明园遗迹
  • bring sb.to ruin使某人破产
  • ruin one’s hopes使某人希望破灭
  • ruin oneself自取灭亡
  • ruin one’s health/fame毁坏某人的健康/名誉

辨析活用

damage/destroy/ruin/spoil

这三个词都有“损坏,破坏”之意,具体区别如下:

(1)ruin指彻底摧毁一件事物,特别是摧毁美好、珍贵的事物,并使其无法修复,其主语多为天灾人祸等无形的力量。有时可用于借喻中,泛指一般的“弄坏了”。

He has ruined his health through drinking.

他饮酒过度,把身体搞坏了。

(2)damage指“损坏”,表示不彻底的破坏,一般是部分性的,只是使其不能发挥正常作用,意味损坏后价值或效率降低,宾语一般是物。

I damaged my shoes in football practice today.今天练习踢足球时我把鞋弄坏了。

(3)destroy指十分彻底的“破坏”,常含有不能或很难修复的意思,也可以用作比喻意义,指希望、梦想等的破灭;主语可以是人,也可以是物;后接人或物都可以。

The building was completely destroyed by fire. 那栋房子被火烧得一干二净。

On hearing the news,all my hopes were destroyed. 一听到这个消息,我所有的希望都破灭了。

(4)spoil有“损坏,搞糟”之意,指不仅造成价值、精力、兴致等方面的影响,还意味着可能造成某种毁灭或彻底破坏;也可作“宠坏”解。

Quarreling completely spoiled the dinner,which broke up in discord.争吵完全破坏了宴会的气氛,结果宴会不欢而散。

I do hate to spoil your fun,but I’ve got something urgent to tell you.我真不愿扫了你的兴,但我有紧急的事必须告诉你。

shock  vt.&vi.(使)震动,震惊;(使)受电击n.打击;震惊;震动[C]令人震惊的人或事

People were shocked.(回归课本)

①1 was shocked to see him alone.我很吃惊地发现他独自一人。

②I felt the shock as the aircraft hit the ground.飞机着陆时我感觉到震了一下。

③If you touch this live wire,you’11 get a shock.如果触摸这条带电的电线,你就会遭到电击。

归纳拓展

  • shocked口办震惊的,震撼的 shocking adj.令人震惊的
  • with/from shock由于震惊
  • a shocking accident令人吃惊的事故
  • be shocked at对……感到吃惊
  • be shocked to do深感意外地去做

特别提示

(1)shocked/surprised/amazed等的主语多为人,而shocking/surprising/amazing等的主语多为物。这两种形式的形容词辨析常在高考题中出现。如:

①They were shocked by her rudeness.他们对她的无礼感到震惊。

②What a shocking waste of time!时间的浪费多么惊人呀!

(2)当表示具体的令人震惊的人或事的时候,shock是可数名词,这一点常和冠词一起考查。如:

The news of his mother’s death was a terrible shock to him.他母亲去世的噩耗使他非常震惊。

3 Trap

vt.(trapped,trapped)使陷入困境;设陷阱捕 n.陷阱;困境;捕捉(动物的)夹子

①I told him how Heathcliff had trapped US,and that Cathy was probably married to Linton by now.我告诉他希斯克利夫是如何骗我们入了圈套,还有凯茜很可能已嫁给了林顿。

②The thieves were caught in a police trap.窃贼落人警方设的陷阱而被捕。

③The lift broke down and we were trapped inside(it).电梯出了故障,我们被困在里面了。

归纳拓展

(1)fall into a trap:be caught in a trap掉人陷阱;落人圈套

lay/set a trap(for)安装捕捉机;设陷阱,设圈套

(2)trap sb into doing sth诱使某人做某事

By clever questioning they trapped him into making a confession.他们用巧妙的提问诱使他招认了。

It’S cruel to trap birds.诱捕乌是很残忍的。

4教材原句P26:Two­thirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake.他们中有2/3在地震中伤亡

①While crossing the road,an old man was knocked down by a car and badly injured.过马路时,一位老人被汽车撞倒且严重受伤。

②Your words may injure her pride.你的话也许会伤她的自尊。

③The injured were taken to the hospital.受伤者被送进了医院。

5 judge  n.法官,审判员;鉴赏家vt.审理;鉴定;判断;认为   vt判断;评价

Your speech was heard by a group of five judges,all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year.(回归课本P30)

归纳拓展

  • judgement n.审判,判决;判断力;意见,看法,评价
  • judge sb./sth.from/by...从……来判断
  • judge between right and wrong判断是非
  • as far as I can judge据我判断,我认为
  • judging by/from从……上看;根据……判断
  • don’t judge a book by its cover勿以貌取人;勿只凭外表判断

①I can’t judge whether he is right or wrong.我不能断定他是对还是错。

②Judging from his expression,he was satisfied with my work.

从他的表情判断,他对我的工作很满意。

③As far as I can judge,it is he rather than you is to blame.据我判断,是他而不是你该受责备。

④In my judgement,it is necessary to pay him a visit.在我看来,有必要去拜访一下他。

 

特别提示

 

judging from/by….置于句首作状语,v-ing形式不受主语的限制,构成独立成分。类似的用法还有: generally speaking一般来说    frankly speaking坦白地说   considering考虑到……

to tell you the truth说实话

congratulationn.祝贺,庆贺;贺词(复数)

①I show the congratulation to Mrs Jones because her son won in the high jump match.我向琼斯夫人表示祝贺,因为她的儿子在跳高比赛中获胜了。

②Congratulations on winning the football game.祝贺赢得这场足球赛。

归纳拓展

  • congratulations(to sb)on/upon(doing)sth祝贺(某人)在某方面取得成就
  • offer/send sb’S congratulations to sb向某人致以祝贺
  • congratulate yt.恭喜,向……表示祝贺
  • congratulate sb on(doing)sth就某事向某人表示祝贺

辨析活用

congratulate/celebrate

(1)congratulate表示”祝贺”,后接表示人的名词或代词,用于congratulate sb on(doing)sth结构。如:

I congratulate you on the birth of your daughter.我祝贺你喜得千金。

(2)celebrate表示”庆祝,庆贺”,常指庆祝或纪念有意义的日子或时刻,可直接跟表示节日、胜利、成功等的名词或代词作宾语。如:

①we celebrated the New Year with a big party.我们举行了一场盛大的晚会来庆祝新年。

②He held a dance party to celebrate his daughter’S birthday.他举行了一个舞会以庆祝他女儿的生日。

7 honour

vt.尊敬;给以荣誉(鼓励、头衔、称号)

(1)honour sb.(with sth.) 给予某人荣誉,使某人感到荣幸

The president honoured us with a visit? 总统光临,十分荣幸

(2) be/feel honoured (to do sth.) 对---感到荣幸。

I was honoured to have been mentioned in his speech.

他在讲话中提到了我,真是荣幸。

归纳拓展

honour [U]尊敬,敬意,荣誉;[C]引以为荣的人或事物(与to搭配)

  • do sb. an/ the honour(of doing sth.) (通过做某事)使某人增光,给某人带来荣誉
  • give/ show honour to sb.尊敬,敬重-----
  • have the honour to do sth./ of doing sth   .荣幸地做某事
  • in honour of sb./ sth.= in one’s honour   为了纪念------;为向----表示敬意;祝贺----;

I gave him a special present in honour of him. 我给了他一件特殊的礼物,为向他表示敬意

 

8. burst vt.& vi.(使)爆裂;(使)裂开;(使)炸开;突然出现;爆发;n.突然破裂;爆发

• 教材原句:In the city,the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.在市内,有些建筑物的水管爆裂开来。

•  归纳总结

突然哭起来/笑起来

(2)burst in/into闯入,突然破门而入

(3)burst with anger/grief/joy勃然大怒/悲痛欲绝/乐不可支

 ①He couldn’t help bursting into tears when he heard the bad news.当他听到这个坏消息时情不自禁泪流满面。

②We all thought his heart would burst with happiness.我们都认为他心中的快乐快要爆发出来了。

③He burst into the room without knocking at the door.他没敲门就闯进房间。

   bury vt.埋葬,掩埋;隐藏;使沉浸,使专心;插入,刺入

教材原句:The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.救援部队组成小分队,将受困的人们挖出来,并掩埋死者。

归纳总结

(1)bury...in...把……埋到……里    be buried alive被活埋

(2) 埋头于;专心于

(3)bury one’s face in one’s hands双手掩面

①Their ambitions were finally dead and buried.他们的雄心壮志最终被埋葬了。

②Since she left,he’s buried himself in his work.自从她走后,他全心扑在工作上。

③Buried/Absorbed in his study,he didn’t know that all the others had left.他埋头学习,不知道其他人都早已离开了。

④She sat there,buried in thought. 她坐在那儿,陷入了沉思。

 

二、【重点词组】

 

1 right away 立刻,马上

1).I’ll return the book to you right away.  我会马上还书给你。

2). If war breaks out, we shall be called up right away. 如果战争爆发,我们将立即被征召服役。

归纳拓展 “立刻,马上”的表达方式:

right away,right now,at once,immediately, in no time

2 at an end   结束,终结(= finished)

教材原句:It seemed as if the world was at an end!   好像世界末日到了。

 

归纳拓展

(1)make (both) ends meet使收支相抵,量入为出;靠微;薄收入为生

①The meeting was nearly at an end when I got to the meeting room.我到达会议室时,会议快要结束了。

②By the end of last year,he had learned two thousand English words.到去年底为止,他已学了2 000个英语单词。

③They decided to put an end to the quarrel.他们决定结束争吵。

④Being out of work and having two young children,they found it impossible to make ends meet.他们失业了,还要养活两个小孩,他们发现无法维持起码的生活

 

①A large number of people applied for the job.许多人申请了这份工作。

It seemed as if the world was at an end!似乎世界末日来临了!

 

as if是连词词组,意为“好像、好似”,相当于as though,一般用于句型It looks/seems as if...中,其意思是“看起来好像……”。如果所引导的从句表示的情况接近事实,句子要用陈述语气。

①He acts (acted) as if (as though) he were an expert.他表现得就像个专家。

②They talked as if (as though) they had been friends for years.他们谈起话来就像多年的老朋友。

③He treats me as if I were a stranger.他待我如同陌生人。

 ④Look at the clouds in the sky!It looks as if it is going to rain.Let’s hurry up.看看天上的云彩!看起来要下雨,咱们快一点。

如果as if引导的从句中的主语和主句的主语相同,且含有be动词,可省略主语和be动词,这样as if后就只剩下名词、不定式、形容词(短语)、介词短语或分词。

⑤She walked here and there on the playground as if (she was) looking for something.她在操场上来回走,好像在找什么东西。

⑥The old man was lying on the ground as if (he was) hurt badly.老人躺在地上,好像伤得很厉害。

⑦He opened his mouth as if to say something.他张开嘴好像要说什么。

 

基础词汇巩固练习

一词性转换

1. nation .n ________ adj                 

2. dirt  vt __________adj

3. extreme adj _________ adv              

4.  injure vt. __________ adj __________n

5. use vt __________adj ___________adj     

6.  electricity  n. ___________adj.

7. frighten vt___________adj               

express  vt___________n __________adj 

 

9 . judge  vt. ____________ n               

10  suffer  vt____________ n

 

national ,  dirty,  extremely,  injured , injury,   useful, useless,  electric,  frightened  expression, expressive,  judgment,   suffering

 

二.短语翻译

1. 数以万计的______________________ 

2. 掉下,倒塌_______________________

3.大量的,许多的__________________  

4.在---的北边________________________

5.搭起,建造______________________  

6.由---来判断______________________  

7.作为---而闻名_____________________ 

8.被困在废墟中____________________ 

9.分发,发出(气味等)____________   10.结 束____________________________

三  单词填空

It is an area where natural __________(灾难)often happen.

The firemen ___________(营救) the boy from the burning house.

Teachers have ___________ (表达) concern about the emphasis on testing.

The hurricane left the whole city in __________(严重受损)

A great many houses were _________(破坏)in the earthquakes and many people became homeless.

The machine is driven by e_______________.

We b_______ into laughter when we heard the funny story.

Many men were b_______ underground when the accident at the mine happened.

The sun r_______ in the east every day.

10 When food goes bad, it becomes s___________.

11 Back from the cinema, the couple were s__________ on seeing their house broken in.

12 They o__________ the youths to form a group to protect the environment.

13 The soldiers t__________ their enemies and forced them to give in.

14 B________ are still a main kind of building material now.

15 When water is heated to 100℃, s________ comes out from it.

三选择词组填空

 

right away,   as if,  in ruins,  dig out ,  be buried in ,  suffer from,  be proud of even if ,  a great number of ,  at an end ,  be trapped in ,  in the end

        She was __________her son.  He did well at university and now is a doctor.

        The house began to shake , so all the students must leave the house __________.

        In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay _____________.

 He acted_________ he was a doctor.

  Since she left, he is ____________ his work.

  My father has _____________ his heart illness for about 20 years.

 The year is ________________.

 Such _______________people died because the quake happened while they were sleeping.

 The soldiers organized teams to ________ those persons who were__________ the danger.

四单项选择

1. The rich_____ not always happy.

  A. is       B. are        C. has        D. have

2. About_______ of workers in that steel works are young people.

  A. third-fifths       B. three-fifths         

  C. three-fives         D. three-fifth

3. I’ve told him____________.

A. a hundred time    

B. hundred times      

C. hundred of times    

D. hundreds of times

4. His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ________ family was poor.

  A. of whom   B. whom  

  C. of whose   D. whose

5. ________from his looks, he is a kind man.

  A. Judging           B. Being Judged       

 C. To judge           D. Judge

6. Instead of ________sights, Edison would spend the time ________in the public library.

A. seeing, to read      B. see, read           

C. to see, to read       D. seeing , reading

7. I work in a business _______ almost everyone is waiting for a great chance.

   A. how                B. which             

   C. where            D. that

8. Hearing the old man’s report, the officer _______ from his seat and said something must be done to ________ people’s living standards.

   A. raised; rise          B. rose; raise         

   C. raised; raise        D. rose; rise

9. __________ have known the results of the exam.

  A. It seemed to     

B. It seemed to him to 

C. He seemed that he   

D. He seemed to

10. There were two buildings, _______ stands nearly a hundred feet high.

   A. the large        

  B. the larger of them   

  C. the larger on that    

  D. the larger of which

11. I’ve never been to Paris, but it is a place__________.

 A. where I’d like to visit   

B. in which I’d like to visit

C. that I want to visit it most     

D. I most want to visit

12. Japan lies _______ the east of China. It is a developed country.

   A. in               B. on     

   C. to                D. from

13. Is this school ________ my father studied in when he was a child.

  A. that   B. which    C. the one    D. /

14.  With income going down and prices ______, it is very hard to make a living nowadays.

A. rising up   B. rising   C. rise   D. rise up 

15.  You could hear water pipes cracking _____ they _____ because of the cold.

A. when; burst 

B. before; were burst  

C. when; were burst 

D. before; burst

 

必修一Unit4基础词汇巩固  答案

national ,  dirty,  extremely,  injured , injury,   useful, useless,  electric,  frightened  expression, expressive,  judgment,   suffering

二.短语翻译

1. tens of thousands of    2. fall down  3. a number of    4. to the north of   5. put up 6. judging from   7.be known as   8. be trapped under the ruins   9.give out      10. at an end

三单词填空

 disasters,   rescued,   expressed,  ruins,   destroyed,  electricity,   burst,  buried  rises,  smelly,  shocked,  organized,  trapped , Bricks,  steam

三选词组填空

 proud of ,  right away,  in ruins,  as if,  buried in,  suffered from

 at an end,  a great number of ,  dig out ,  trapped in

四、单项选择

1-5 BBDDA        6-10   DCBDD       11-15 DCCBD 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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