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倒装句学习技巧,寻找倒装句标志

(2010-12-07 11:17:54)
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倒装句学习技巧

寻找倒装句标志

杂谈

分类: 语法专家

倒装句学习技巧,寻找倒装句标志

 

【考点导航】

      请读短文,试找出其中的倒装句。

     Last week, our class went to Fanggan Village — the first ecological village of China, which is located in the northwest of Laiwu. We set off in the early morning. At the entrance of the valley stand two carved stone lions. So absorbed in the fairy stories along the road that we didn’t feel tired at all. Not until we got to the top did we realize it was time for lunch. Not only were the students attracted by the beauty of nature, but we teachers also enjoyed ourselves so much as to forget to go to the hotel. Seldom have I seen such a beautiful scene!

【重点归纳】

           倒装是英语课程标准要求理解和掌握的语法项目。倒装表面看来比较零碎,但是每一种倒装都有其标志。

 

一、全部倒装

         全部谓语动词放在主语之前。

1. There be句型。如:

In winter there are no leaves on the trees. 冬天树上没有树叶。

2. 副词here,there,in,out,down,away等位于句首,且谓语动词是go,come,run,exist,follow等不及物动词或be时,这种情况一般为全部倒装。如:

There comes the train! 火车来了!

 [提醒] 句子的主语应是名词,若主语是代词则不能倒装。如:

Here you are! 给你!

3. 为了强调表地点、方位的状语或表语,或为了保持句子平衡或上下文衔接紧密,可用完全倒装。如:

In front of our house stands a tree.

我们房子前面有一棵树。

Present at the meeting were Professor Smith and many other guests.

到会的有史密斯教授和许多其他客人。

 

二、部分倒装

        把谓语的一部分(助动词或情态动词)放在主语的前面。如果谓语中没有助动词或情态动词,则需加助动词do,does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

1. 以no,not,never,seldom,little,rarely,hardly,scarcely,in no time,in no way,not until 等位于句首时用倒装语序。如:

Not a single word did he say at the meeting. 他在会上一言不发。

Never will I forget your kindness. 我永远忘不了你的好意。

2. only修饰状语位于句首时要倒装。如:

Only in this way can we win the game. 只有这样我们才能获胜。

 [提醒] only虽位于句首,但修饰主语时不倒装。如:

Only those who have received special training can do this job successfully.

只有那些受过专门训练的人才能胜任这工作。

3. so / neither / nor位于句首表示主语与前面句子的主语情况相同。so用于肯定句,意为“也”;neither / nor用在否定句中,意为“也不”。如:

I like dancing; so does my wife. 我喜欢跳舞,我太太也喜欢。

I will never know what was in his mind at the time. Nor will anyone else.

我从来不知道当时他在想什么,任何人也不会知道。

[提醒]so位于句首,若是对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,则不用倒装语序,意为“是的,的确如此”。如:

    — It’s very cold today. 今天天气很冷。

 — So it is. 的确很冷。

4. so / such位于句首,后带表语或状语时,其后所接的主句要倒装。如:

So excited was he that he could not say a word.他如此激动以至于一句话都说不出来。

Such a good person is my English teacher that we all admire her.我们的英语老师是个如此好的人以至于我们都敬佩她。

5. as / though引导的让步从句须将表语、状语或实义动词提前。句首名词不能带任何冠词。如:

Child as he is, he knows what is the right thing to do.尽管还是个孩子,但他知道什么事情该做。

Try hard as he may, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.虽然他尽了努力,但他的工作总是不尽人意。

 

6. 在虚拟语气条件句中,若从句的谓语动词有were,had,should等词,可将if省略,把were,had,should等移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。如:

Had I come here yesterday, I would have seen her.如果我昨天来这里的话,我就见到她了。

Were I you, I shouldn’t do that. 要是我是你的话,我决不会做那件事。 

【点拨】

(1) 当not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。如:

    Not until his friend offered to help could he do it. 他的朋友帮助他,他才有办法做那事。

(2) 当not only置于句首与but also连接两个分句时,not only后面的分句用倒装结构,but also后面的分句不倒装。如:

Not only is she good at mathematics, but she is interested in English as well.

她不但擅长数学,而且对英语也感到兴趣。

 

[提醒] Not only … but also …连接两个并列词语时不用倒装结构。如:

Not only you but (also) I am to blame. 不仅你,连我都要受责难。

 

(3) Hardly / Scarcely … when …或 no sooner … than … 位于句首时,前面主句倒装,后面从句不倒装。如:

Scarcely had he arrived when he had to leave again. 他刚刚到达就不得不又离开。

No sooner had she seen him than she smiled. 她一见到他就笑。

 

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