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虚拟语气系统学习方法(三)

(2008-08-09 10:55:21)
标签:

英语

高三

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语法

虚拟语气

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分类: 语法专家

虚拟语气系统学习方法(三)

一、语气的种类:英语句子中谓语动词的语气有四种:

1. 直陈语气(The Indicative Mood)直陈语气用于直截了当地陈述事实、描述状态:
   e.g. He has published quite a number of essays this year .他今年已发表了好几篇论文。
2. 祈使语气(The Imperative Mood)祈使语气用于提出请求、命令、建议或是劝告等:
   e.g. Wait outside until you are asked . 请在外面等候,请你进再进去。
        Let's just take a break, shall we ? 我们休息一会儿,好吗?
3. 疑问语气( the interrogative mood ) :用来提出问题

       e.g.  Where are from ?

4.      虚拟语气(The Subjunctive Mood)虚拟语气用于表示主观愿望和假设的虚拟情况。虚拟语气不太顾及事实的存在,它表现出说话人的主观因素比较多。所以说话人所讲的内容往往是与事实相反的;或是其实现的可能性微乎其微,甚至于没有实现的可能性。当然,有时为了使说话的语气客气、缓和、委婉,也使用虚拟语气。

e.g.  I wish you were more careful .但愿你更细心一些。
If I had more money, I would buy a bigger apartment.
我要是有再多一点钱,我就买一套更大一些房子。
Would you mind shutting the door ? 劳驾您把门关上。

二、            虚拟语气的种类:虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。虚拟语气在条件句中应用比较多;条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

三、            真实性条件句

真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况有可能发生,各种结构如下:

   条件从句          主句

一般现在时    shall/will + 动词原形

祈使句        情态动词一般现在时

e.g.  If he comes, he will bring his violin. 如果他来,会带小提琴来的。

典型例题:The volleyball match will be put off if it___.

A. will rain  B. rains  C. rained  D. is rained

答案B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

注意:1. 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will.

(错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.

(对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.

2. 表示真理时,主句谓语动词不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式

四、            非真实条件句

1.      虚拟语气可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况,时态的基本特点是时态往后推移

2.      虚拟语气表

时间

从句

主句

例句

与现在事实相反的假设

一般过去时( be 用were)

Would / should / could / might / ought to  + 动词原形

1.      If they werehere, they would help you.

2.      if we had enough money , we would buy a computer .

3.      if I were you , I wouldn’t do it .

4.      if it rained tomorrow , we’d stay at home .

5.      it would be odd if she were awarded the first prize .

与过去事实相反的假设

过去完成时

Should / would / could / might + have+ 过去分词

1.      If he had come yesterday, I should have told him about it.

2.      if I had been in her position I’d have quit .

3.      if the weather hadn’t been so bad , we might have gone out .

4.      if he had apologized , you should have done so too.

5.      I should never have done it if I hadn’t been so hard up .

与将来不大可能发生的事情的假想

一般过去时 / should/would

  + 动词原形

Should / would  / could / might / ought to + 动词原形

1.      If you succeeded, everything would be all right.

2.      If they invited me , I would certainly attend it .

3.      if he went , would you go too ?

与将来事实相反的假设

were+ 不定式

Should / would  / could / might / ought to + 动词原形

1.      if she were to lose her place they would be ruined .

2.      if you were to speak to him , it would carry more weight .

五、            混合条件句(也叫:错综时间条件句)

有时,主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,主句从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同,这种条件句叫做混合条件句

e.g.  f you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. 如果你昨天问过他,今天就知道做什么了。(从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)

1.      If it had rained last night(过去), it would be very cold today (现在).如果昨晚下过雨,今天就会很冷了。

2.      if you’d listened to me , you wouldn’t be in such trouble now . 如果你听了我的话,你现在也不会这样麻烦了

3.      if it hadn’t been for her care , I should not be speaking to you now. 如果不是她照顾我,我也不会在这里和你讲话

4.      If the doctor had come in time , any would still be alive . 如果医生及时赶到,AMY现在还活着。

六、            含蓄条件句:含蓄条件句是指非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中。含蓄条件句常见的表达方式有:

1.      定语从句和状语从句

e.g.  anyone who had married such a girl as she would have been regretful . 谁娶了像她这样的姑娘都会后悔的

help was promised where it should become necessary . 要是需要的话就答应给予帮助

2.      介词及介词短语but that, as though, once , but for, without , with , under , under…condition , supposing , suppose , as if , on condition that , in the past 等

e.g.  but for his pension , he would starve .要不是有养老金,他都要饿死了

without your help , I couldn’t have achieved all this . 要不是有你帮助我不会取得这些成就

with his aid , you would succeed . 如果有了他的帮助,你就会成功。

plants would die without water on the earth . 地球上如果没有水,植物就会死的

but for the fog we would have reached our destination long ago . 要是没有雾的话,我们很早就到目的地了

under more favourable conditions we could have finished the task . 如果条件对我们更有利,我们就会把工作完成得更好

3.      连词otherwise, or, but

e.g.  he would have given you more help , but he has been so busy . 他本来要多给你一些帮助,只是他太忙了

seize the chance , otherwise you would regret it . 如果不抓住这个机会,你会后悔的

he felt very tired yesterday , or he would have helped you . 他昨天觉得很累,不然会帮你的

4.      通过分词短语表示条件

e.g.  Given more time, we could have done it better.

Legalizing this drug would have disastrous consequence . 使毒品合法化会有灾难性的后果

5.      用动词不定式表示条件

e.g.  It would be a mistake not to help him.

     She would have done anyghing to make amends . 她会做任何事来弥补

特殊情况:情态动词在日常用语中用得很多,使句子显得比较委婉;这类谓语算不算虚拟语气很难说,但有两点是肯定的:

一是它们不受时态的影响,虽然形式接近过去式,却常指现在的情况,而且和虚拟语气在形式上一致,在不少情况下几乎可以说是一种含蓄的虚拟条件句;

二是它们不表示事实,常带有主观色彩,因而使句子显得很委婉。

e.g.  I should think that might be a good solution .

could I trouble you with a question ?

could you lend me some money ?

would you mind taking part ?

would you like some tea ?

七、            虚拟语气在宾语从句中的运用

1.      虚拟语气用在would rather,would(just)as soon,would sooner,would prefer(希望)等后接的宾语从句中。意指某人宁愿让另一个人做某事,其后的宾语从句的谓语动词需用虚拟语气。若表示现在或将来要做某事,从句谓语动词需用一般过去时,表示过去已经做的事,从句谓语动词用过去完成时。

e.g.  The manager would rather his daughter did not work in the same office.经理宁愿她女儿不与他在同一间办公室工作。

To be frank,I'd rather you were not involved in the case.坦率地说,我希望你不要卷入这件事。

You don't have to be in such a hurry.I would rather you went on business first.你没有必要这么着急,我宁愿你先去上班。

I'd rather you didn't make any comment on the issue for the time being.我倒希望你暂时先不要就此事发表意见。

Frankly speaking ,I'd rather you didn't do anything about it for the time being.坦白地说我宁愿你现在对此事什么也不做。

Wouldn't you rather your child went to bed early?为什么你不愿让你的孩子早点上床呢?

注:①若某人愿自己做某事, would rather后用动词原形   e.g.  I would rather stay at home today.

② would rather...than...中用动词原形            e.g.  I would rather stay at home than go out today.

2.      在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中,像order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command,

insist + (should) do

e.g.  I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week. 我建议下周召开个会议。

He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.他要求被派到那儿去。

注意:如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。

判断改错:  (错) You pale face suggests that you(should)be ill.

(对) Your pale face suggests that you are ill.

(错) I insisted that you(should)be wrong.

(对) I insisted that you were wrong.

3.      wish的用法

1)wish后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词形式为:

主句              从句

从句动作先于主句动词动作(be的过去式为 were)          现在时            过去时

从句动作与主句动作同时发生(had + 过去分词)           过去时/现在时     过去完成时

将来不大可能实现的愿望                                 将来时/现在时     would/could +动词原形

e.g. I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高

He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲过那样的话

I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了

I wish that he weren’t so lazy . 但愿他不那么懒

He wishes that he were a teacher .  他希望他是个老师就好了

I wish that he had not made so much fuss about it . 但愿那时他对这事不那么大惊小怪

I wish that the rain would stop . 要是雨停就好了

2)在‘it is wished that’句型以及作名词所引起的表语和同位语从句中也要求使用虚拟语气,用法同上。

3)  wish to do;wish sb / sth to do

e.g.  I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager. 我希望见一见经理。

I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)我希望经理能马上得到消息

八、            虚拟语气用在表语从句或同位语从句中

当某些表示建议、请求、命令等主观意向的名词作主语时,其后的表语从句或同位语从句需用虚拟语气,其表达形式为should +动词原形或直接用动词原形。这类名词常见的有:advice,suggestion,proposal,order, demand,desire,request,requirement,recommendation , aim , wish , necessity , preference , motion , plan,idea,resolution等。

e.g.  We are all for your proposal that the discussion be put off.我们都赞成你提出的将讨论延期的建议。

The suggestion that the mayor present the prizes was accepted by everyone.由市长颁发奖金的建议被每个人接受。

Any proposals that john should be dismissed must be resisted . 必须抵制任何开除JOHN的提议

His idea that we should take up the matter with a special board is fairly resonable . 他建议我们以一个专门委员会处理这件事,这的确有道理

Our suggestion is that we should put on a play at the english evening . 我们建议在英语晚会上演一个剧

九、            在主语从句中的应用

It is / was  + necessary + that + 主语 + should + 加动词原形,should 可省略,表示建议、命令、请求、道歉、怀疑、惊奇等

可用的词有:suggested, ordered, required, proposed, demanded , requested, insisted , important, necessary, natural, imperative, strange , a pity, a shame, no wonder , essential , advisable , mandatory , obligatory , vital , compulsory , crucial , fitting , better , best , appropriate , recommended …

十、            虚拟语气在其他状语从句中的使用

1.      虚拟语气用在目的状语从句中

在由lest , for fear that , in order that , so that , in case of 等引导的目的状语从句中需用虚拟语气,表示“以防,以免”等意思,其谓语动词多由should / could / might + 动词原形构成,should也可省略。

e.g.  He was punished lest he should make the same mistake again.他被处以惩罚以免他再犯。

I reminded her twice of it lest she should forget . 我提醒她两次,怕她忘记

I will not make a noise for fear that I should disturb him . 我不会出声的,以免打扰他

I have come all the way here in order that you should understand me . 我到这里来为的是你能理解我

He put his coat over his son in case he should catch cold . 他把大衣盖在儿子身上以免他着凉

注意:如果 in order that 和 so that 前的主句是现在时,其后的从句有时也可用 can , may + 动词原形。

e.g.   ask him to hurry up with the letters so that I can sign them . 让他带着信赶快来以便我签字

      在以lest 和in case 引导的目的状语从句中谓语动词若属于过去时,一般要用虚拟语气,‘should + 动词原形’,若谓语动词不是过去时,也可以用成述语气。

e.g.   take warm clothes in case the weather is cold . 带上厚衣服以防天变冷。

2.      虚拟语气在方式状语从句中

在as if(as though)引导的方式状语从句中,常用虚拟语气,表示‘似乎,好象’的意思,其动词形式与wish后接宾语从句中的形式相同。

e.g.  Alan talked about Rome as if he were a Roman.艾伦谈起罗马来好像他是个罗马人一样。

I feel as if I were ten years younger . 我觉得我仿佛年轻了10岁

He talks about pyramids as though he had seen them himself . 他谈起金字塔来,就好象亲眼见过似的

I feel as if we had known each other for years . 我感到我们好象已经认识多年了

It looks as if it might rain . 看上去好象要下雨

十一、    虚拟语气的倒装形式

在书面语中,如果条件从句含有 were, had, should,可将连词 if 省略,再将 were, had 或 should 移至句首,构成非真实条件句的倒装语序

e.g.   Were they here now, they could help us. =If they were here now, they could help us.他们现在在的话,就会帮助我们了。

Had you come earlier, you would have met him. =If you had come earlier, you would have met him.

你来得早一点,就碰到他了。

Should it rain, the crops would be saved. =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.假如下雨,庄稼就有救了。

 

典型例题

_____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.    A. If were I   B. I were C. Were I D. Was I

答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说Were I not to do, 而不能说 Weren't I to do.

e.g.  Had you been here just now, you would have met her. 你要是刚才在这儿,就见到她了。

Were I not busy, I would have come. 假如我不忙,我就会来了。

十二、    其他句型

1.      虚拟语气用在It is +形容词+that的主语从句中

在某些表示愿望、建议、请求、命令等形容词后的主语从句中,需用虚拟语气。其表达形式为should +动词原形或省略should直接用动词原形。这类形容词有 advisable(合理的),appropriate(适当的),compulsory(必须的),crucial(紧急的),desirable(理想的),essential(必要的),imperative(迫切的),important(重要的),incredible(惊人的),natural(自然的),necessary(必要的),possible(可能的),preferable(更好的), probable(可能的),strange(奇怪的),urgent(紧迫的), vital(极为重要的)。

e.g.  It is essential that these application forms be sent back as early as possible.这些申请表应尽早地寄回,这是很重要的。

It is vital that enough money be collected to fund the project.重要的是募集足够的钱,为这个项目提供资金。

2.      虚拟语气用在It is +过去分词+that的主语从句中

在It is +过去分词+that的主语从句中,常用虚拟语气,表示愿望、建议、请求等主观意向,谓语用 should +动词原形或省略should只用动词原形。这类过去分词有:decided,demanded,desired,insisted,ordered,proposed,suggested,recommended,requested, required等。

e.g.  It is desired that we(should)get everything ready this evening.希望我们今晚一切都准备就绪。

3.      虚拟语气用在It is(about /high)time +that定语从句中

在It is(about/high)time +that定语从句中需用虚拟语气,表示“该做……的时候了”,其动词形式用一般过去时或should +动词原形。

e.g.  It's already 5 o'clock now,Don't you think it's about time we went home?已经5点钟了,你不认为我们应该回家了吗?

注:①在this is the first time /second time that...句型中,从句中谓语动词用陈述语气完成时态

e.g.  Is this the first time that you have visited Hongkong?这是你第一次参观香港吗?

②It's time to do something有别于It's timethat...

4.      比较if only与only if

only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果……就好了"。If only引起的句子,一般过去时或would+动词原形表示现在或未来事实相反,过去完成时表示与过去事实相反,也可用于陈述语气

e.g.  I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。

If only the alarm clock had rung.   当时闹钟响就好了。

If only he comes early.       但愿他早点回来。

If only we knew where to look for him . 我们要是知道到哪里去找他就好了

If only I had listened to my parents .    要是我听取了父母的话该多好啊

5.      but 或 but that 表达的含蓄条件的特殊含义

but 或 but that 做‘如果不……’解,意思相当与‘if not ’,其后面不可接虚拟模式,应接陈述式的现在时动词或过去时动词,即‘but that + 主语 + 现在时动词 / 过去式动词’,而主句要用虚拟式。

e.g.  but that you help him , he would fail . 如果没有你的帮助,他会失败的

but that you helped him , he would have failed . 如果没有你的帮助,他早就失败了

6.      need "不必做"和"本不必做"

didn't need to do表示过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做;needn't have done表示过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了

e.g.  John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn't need to walk back home.

约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了

John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn't have walked back home.

约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她本不必步行回家了。 (Mary步行回家了,没有遇上John的车。)

典型例题

There was plenty of time. She ___.A. mustn't have hurriedB. couldn't have hurriedC. must not hurryD. needn't have hurried

答案D。needn't have done. 意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。Mustn't have done 用法不正确,对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。

7.      不定式的完成时用在 intend , mean , plan , suppose 等动词后,表示原打算做而实际未能做而实际未能做成的事,因而含有虚拟的意思

8.      ‘need / needn’t + have done’ 结构也可以表示虚拟语气,作‘本来有/没有必要做某事’

9.      as it were 常插在句子中,表示‘姑且这样说,可说是’这类的意思

e.g.  he is a grown-up baby , as it were . 他可说是一个大孩子了

he became , as it were a kind of hero from a strange land . 他仿佛成了一个来自异乡的英雄

he was , as it were , intoxicated by the soft air and sunshine of spring . 他可说是被春天的和风和阳光陶醉了

10.  would think 本身就是虚拟语气,表示‘会认为,想到’

e.g.  anyone would think you were in love with the girl . 谁都会认为你是爱上了这个姑娘

anyone would think he owns the place , the way he talks . 听他这样谈话谁都会认为他是这里的老板

11.  would have thought 本身也是虚拟语气,表示‘谁会想到,或原本会以为’

e.g.  who would have thought to see you here . 谁会想到在这里碰到你

who would have thought of such a thing . 谁会想到这样的事

who would have thought she’d end up dancing for a living .谁会想到她最后落得靠跳舞谋生

12.  who / what should … that … 表示‘原来是……’

e.g.  who should come in but his first wife . 进来的原来是他的第一任妻子

when I got off the boat whom should I see but ruggles . 我下船的时候我见到一个人,原来是RUGGLES

what should I find but an enormous spider .我看到的原来是一只特大的蜘蛛

13.  would rather / sooner + 不定式

e.g.  I would rather / sooner be a miner than a bank clerk . 我宁愿当矿工,而不愿当银行职员

he’d rather go by car . 他宁愿坐汽车去

if I’d lived in 1400 , I’d rather have been a knight than a monk . 如果我活在1400年,我宁愿当骑士而不当和尚

14.  if need be 如果有必要

e.g.  if need be , help him to do it . 如果有必要,帮他去做

I will come if need be. 如有必要我会来

I’ll work at night if need be . 如果有必要我可以晚上工作

15.  虚拟语气用于表示祝愿的祈使句中,动词一般要使用原形或‘+动词原形’,同时要注意的是句子的主谓要倒装

e.g.  Long live the People’s Republic of China !

May you have a merry Christmas !

God bless you !

May you always be happy !

May you have a long hand happy !

May all your dreams come true !

16.  在表示客气、遗憾以及祝愿等场合中,使用虚拟语气。

e.g.  You shouldn't have been following him so closely; you should have kept your distance.你不应该一直这样紧紧地跟着他,而该和他保持一定的距离

 

 

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