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中国“母亲河”的水危机(中英对照)

(2008-12-14 21:55:15)
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中国“母亲河”的水危机(中英对照)

 

星岛环球网 www.stnn.cc 2008-11-27

  根据新的研究,严重的污染令中国黄河有三分之一的水不能使用。

  中国“母亲河”黄河为华北数以百万计的民众供水。但近年来,由于工厂排放以及城市快速扩张带来的污水,水质已经恶化。研究表明,如今很多黄河水甚至不适用于农业或工业。这份调查以去年的数据为基础,覆盖了超过8384英里的黄河河道及其支流。

  隶属于水利部的黄河水利委员会(Yellow River Conservancy Committee)称黄河水系2007年的取样显示,33.8%的水质低于五级水平(level five)。按照联合国环境规划署的标准,这意味着它不适合饮用、水产业、工业利用,甚至不适合农业灌溉。只有16%的水样达到一二级水平(家用安全水平)。

  报告称去年排放到黄河水系的废物和废水达42.9亿吨。工业和制造业占排放的70%,而家庭占23%,只有6%左右来自其他源头。

  美国环保组织太平洋环境的中国项目主任文波(音译,Wen Bo)表示,“这并不奇怪。他们就是把这条河当成垃圾缸。它基本上成了沿河省份的排污渠道。”

  他表示,中上游的许多污染企业回避当地政府的监督,或者因为它们可以提供就业岗位而受到地方政府的保护。而且没有一种机制,促使下游较富裕的省份帮助贫穷的邻近省份搞清洁。

  环保部今夏警告说中国的河道污染仍然严重。对近200条河流进行测试,超过20%的水没法安全使用。

  该部已经试图关闭中国主要河道沿岸的工厂,但由于地方环保局受地方政府控制,它的力量是有限的。

 

(作者 Tania Branigan)

(原题:黄河水三分之一不适宜饮用或农业灌溉)

 

译文为摘译,英文原文

One-third of China's Yellow river 'unfit for drinking or agriculture'

Factory waste and sewage from growing cities has severely polluted major waterway, according to Chinese research

Severe pollution has made one-third of China's Yellow river unusable, according to new research.

Known as the country's "mother river", it supplies water to millions of people in the north of China. But in recent years the quality has deteriorated due to factory discharges and sewage from fast-expanding cities.

Much of it is now unfit even for agricultural or industrial use, the study shows.

The survey, based on data taken last year, covered more than 8,384 miles of the river, one of the longest waterways in the world, and its tributaries.

The Yellow River Conservancy Committee, affiliated to the ministry of water resources, said 33.8% of the river system's water sampled in 2007 registered worse than level five. That means it is unfit for drinking, aquaculture, industrial use and even agriculture, according to criteria used by the UN Environment Programme.

Only 16% of the river samples reached level one or two, the standard considered safe for domestic use.

The Yellow River is China's second-longest after the Yangtze, flowing west to east across the country through areas with high concentrations of factories.

The report said waste and sewage water discharged into the system last year totalled 4.29bn tonnes. Industry and manufacturing made up 70% of the discharge into the river, with households accounting for 23% and just over 6% coming from other sources.

"It's not surprising," said Wen Bo, China programme director of the US-based environmental group, Pacific Environment. "They are just treating the river as a dumping site. It's basically a sewage channel for the provinces that share the river."

He told Associated Press that many polluting firms in the upper and middle reaches of Yellow river have avoided close local government scrutiny or had been protected because they provided jobs. There was no mechanism to allow richer provinces downstream to help poorer, polluting neighbours clean up, he added.

Li Xiaoqiang, publicity chief with the Yellow River Conservancy Committee, told the state news agency, Xinhua, that people needed to become aware of saving and protecting water if the problem was not to spread further.

China's State Council launched a nationwide campaign among industrial enterprises to save energy and slash the discharge of pollutants in the second half of last year.

"I wish a harmony could be achieved between development, utilisation, and protection of the river someday," said Li.

A survey taken the previous year showed that 31.1% of the water was of level five standard, although the area sampled was slightly smaller. The total waste and sewage water discharged into the system was also slightly lower.

The ministry of environmental protection warned this summer that pollution of China's waterways remained "grave". More than 20% of water tested in nearly 200 rivers was not safe to use, it added.

The ministry has tried to shut down polluting factories along China's main waterways, but its power is limited because local environmental protection bureaus are under the control of local governments.

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