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语法点二

(2011-09-21 19:40:38)
标签:

介词

连词

代词

副词

动词

杂谈

分类: 英语

101for介词。《表代理、代表》代替…;代表….;表示…;

He used an empty can for an ashtray.他用空罐子代替烟灰缸。

He spoke for our clas at the students’ council.他在寻生自治会中代表本班发言。

What do the letters LA stand for?Los Angeles?字母LA代表什么?“洛杉矶、

102but for .介词。如果没有…(without).but for you ,we couldn’t have carried out the plan.要不是你的话,我们(当时)无法实行哪项计划。

103as far as.连词。就….限度,到程度。

As far theeye can reach.就视力所能及。

As far as I know.就我所知。

As far as I am concerned.就我而言,以我所知。

远至程度。(否定句用so far as)

We didn’t go so far as the others(did)我们不像其他人走得那么远。

104so long as.连词只要。

So long as you need,I will stay.只要你需要我,我就留下来。

As long as.连词。只要….,如果的话。(so long as

I will lend it to you as long as you handle it with care.只要你小心使用,我会借给你。

104have.vt.…,喝,吸。

I had just a slice of toast and a cup of coffee for breakfast我早餐只吃了一篇烤面包片,喝一杯咖啡。

What would you like to have for lunch/你午餐想吃什么?

I was having dinner when you called me up.你打电话来时我正在吃晚餐。

105as far as.连词。就的限度,到的程度。

As far as (the )eye can reach.就视力所能及。

As far as I know.就我所知。

As (so)far as I am concerned.就我而言,以我来说。

远至….程度(否定句用so far as.we didn’t go as far as the others(did)我们不像其他人走得那么远。

We didn’t go so far as the others(did).

106as连词。约如…,…(通常用as…as…的句型,第一个as为副词)

She is as tall as her mother(is).她像她母亲一样高。

His brother is as handsome as he(him)他弟弟跟他一样英俊(在as后面连接人称代词,《口语》上,普通用宾格me,him,her,us等)。

The movie was not as(so )good as I had expected.这部电影不如我所预期的好。

(在否定句中not as…..asnot so….as均可使用,但《口语》上so不如as普遍)

Her hand was (as)cold as ice.她的手像冰一样的冷。(《口语》上,尤其在《美口语》最前面的As有时省略不用)

Your bag is twice as expensice as mine.你的袋子比我的贵一倍。

As;副词。和…..一样地,同样程度地,同样地。

He swims fast,but I swim just as fast.他游得很快,但我也游得和他一样快。

I play tennis as well as him (he does)我网球打得和他一样好

(第二个as为连词)

She has a lot of books ,but I don’t have as (so)many.

她有很多书,但我却没有那么多。(在否定句中,as可用so来代替)

107than.连词

(置于形容词、副词的比较级之后)比….;比较….

She is taller than I am.她比我高。(口语)多说成than me;此情形的than也可以视为介词)。

It is more difficult than I thought.那比我所想的还难。

He swims faster than any other students in his class.他游得比他班上的任何同学都要快。

I know you better than she (does)我比她更了解你。

She is brighter than all the rest of us.她比我们任何人都聪明

It ‘s generally more expensive  to travel by plane than by train.

一般来说坐飞机旅行比坐火车贵。

用法(1)在than从句中,与主要从句中的相同部分常被省略。

He is more stingy than (he is ) thrifty.

他与其说是节俭,不如说是吝啬。

2)在than从句中,若有省略时,以留下来的代词之格来区别不同意义。

She respects him more than i

她比我更尊重他。

She respects him more than me

她尊重他甚于尊敬我。

108rest.名词<the rest>其余,其他;剩余部分,其他部分,其余部分(of 名)的)

You can eat up the rest of the meal.你可以把剩余食物吃光

He lived here for the rest of his life.他在此度过他的余年。

Mary and Beth will go to the movies and the rest of the girls are  to go shopping.玛丽和贝思要去看电影,其余的女孩子则要去买东西

The rest of the money was donated to charities.剩余的钱全数捐给慈善机构。

Would you arrange the dishes on the table?i will do the rest.请你把杯盘等摆在桌子上好吗?其余的由我来。

用法(1of 之后如为可数名词的复数,则视为复数,如为不可数名词时,则视为单数。

2)单独使用the rest时,所指的如为复数,则视为复数,指不可数名词时则视为单数。

One of the books is written in Chinese,an and the rest are in English.

那些书中有一本是中文的,其余都是英文。

And the rest=and(all)the rest of it其他,等等,以及其他一切。

vi.<文语>保持(…)状态,依然是(….)+()remain

he rested contented.他已经心满意足。

Rest assured .vi安心,放心+that…….一事。

109up副词。《与动词连用》完全地,彻底地。(use,end,eat连用)I used up all the meney.我花光了所有的钱。

Eat your vegetables up.把你的青菜都吃掉吧。

Finish it up!完成它吧!

Stingy.形容词。<口语》吝啬的,小气的,舍不得的,微小的。

Thrifty形容词。节约的。节俭的。Thrifty;thrifty.

109the副词。<the+比较级,the+比较级..>

….…,….

The more I knew her ,the more I liked her.我越了解他,就越加喜欢。

The sooner,the better.越快越好。

《加在比较级前》更加(为了强调,多吧all,none放在前面)all惯用语,none惯用语。

I slept badly and I feel (all) the worse for it .我没睡好,所以更加觉得不舒服。

I love my children none the less for their defects.我的孩子虽然有缺点,我仍然爱他们。

110little.副词。A little.少许,稍微。

It has got a little warmer,天气变得稍微暖和些了。

She felt a little tired.她感到有点疲倦。

They arrived a little before noon.他们在快到中午时到达了。

This skirt is a little too large for me.这件衬衫对我而言太大了一点。

He was asked to say something and spoke a little.人家要他说几句话,他就讲了一点。

111little.副词《用little》几乎没有

She ate very little.她几乎没吃东西(吃很少)

I see him very little.我很少见到他

He is little known to the villagers.村里的人几乎没有人认识他。

112when.《关系副词》。《限定用法》….的时候

I first met hhim the day (when) I arrived here.我到达这里的那一天初次见到他。

I thought of the happy days when I was in France.我想到了在法国时的那段快乐日子。

I believe the time will soon come when there will be no weapons in the world.我相信世界上没有武器的日子不就就会来临。

(先行词the timewhen分开使用)

113while.虽然虽则….;但,却,然而,(但)另一方面

While I understand your viewpoint ,I don’t agree with you .

虽然我了解你的见解,我还是不同意你的

I earn only 50 dollars a week ,while she earns 80 dollars.我一个星期只赚50美元,她却赚80美元。

114right.形容词。(判断、想法、回答)正确的,无误的,准确的(wrong

A right answer.正确答案;is this your right address?这是你的正确住址吗?what’s the right time ?现在的正确时间是几点:?

That’s right=right.对了,就是这样。You are right(there)(在哪一点上)你说对了。

115late.副词。(时刻)晚,直到深夜;在深夜;(时期)晚,后期地(early.

Late in the afternoon.于下午较晚时间(傍晚)

Sit up (till)late.熬夜。

The writer became famous late in life.那位作家到了晚年才出名。

116till.介词。迄(为止)(until

I will wait till six o’clock.我会等到6点。

She works from morning till night.她从早工作到晚。

My son often sits up listening to disk jockeys till late at night.我儿子听流行唱片节目主持人的广播,常常很晚才睡觉。

用法(1)通常与stay,wait,work等表示动作继续的动作连用

2till.until是表示“动作继续到…”,by 是表示”动作在到之间发生(完成)。

I will be here till 10 o’clock tomorrow.

我一直到明天10点都会在这里

Please be here by 10 o’clock tomorrow.

请在明天10点前到这里来。

117appreciate.vt.感激,感谢(某行为)

I greatly appreciate your help.我很感激你的帮助(appreciate 不可以“人“为宾语)。

118though.连词。虽然尽管。(although

119though.连词。虽然….,尽管although.

We went out ,though it was raining .虽然下着雨,我们仍然出去了。

She passed the examination  though she had not studied very hard她虽然不是很用功读书,却考上了。

Though they are poor,they buy a great many books.尽管他们穷,他们还是买很多书;

Strange though it may seem(though it may seem strange),he remained single all his life他终生未娶,(尽管)此事似乎令人觉得奇怪)。

用法

(1)                   though从句的位置可在主句的前、后、中之任一部分。

(2)                   形容词、名词等为表语时,有时为加强语气而置于though 前面,形成倒装句。

(3)                   Though从句之动词与主句为同一动词,则有时省略主语与动词。

He was happy ,though poor.

他虽然穷,却很幸福(快乐)

纵然….也是(even if).

I won’t hire him though he is quite a capable man.他纵然是个很能干的人,我也不想雇佣他。

Even though I fail,I will keep on trying.我纵然失败,仍会继续尝试下去。

(even though大多置于句首,动词常用现在式)

话虽这样说,但是(置于主句之后,起补充、说明作用)。

As though连词 好像…as if  as惯用语。

120although.连词。尽管….;虽然….;虽则……

Although it was snowing.it was not very cold.虽然下着雪,但并不很冷。

Although (he is )quite cold ,he still jods every day.他虽然年纪相当大,仍然每天慢跑。

I was late for the last train although I hurried.虽然我拼命赶路,还是没搭上最后一班火车。

用法(1althoughthough意思大致相同,但是《口语》上though较常使用。

2although用于陈述“事实”而不用与假设;因此不可把As thoughEven thoughthough替换成although

(3)although用于句首的情况较多,而且though可当副词置于句尾,作“但是,不过“解,但although则不能置于句末。

121though.副词。《口语》可是,但是,还是(置于句尾或插入句中)。

it was hard work,I enjoyed it though.那工作很辛苦,但是我却做得很愉快。

There’s no excuse,though for hurting her feelings.伤到她感情一事,还是不可原谅。

121while.连词。虽然…,虽则…,但,却,然而,(但)另一方面。

While I understand your viewpoint ,I don’t agree with you .虽然我了解你的见解,我还是不能同意(你)

I earn only 50 dollars a week ,while she earns 80 dollars.我一个星期只赚50美元,她却赚80美元。

122as.连词。虽然….但是,纵使。(形容词,副词,动词等在句首,而as置于其后)。

(though)/strange as it may seem ,nobody was injured in the accident.这次意外显然显得令人不可思议,却没有人受伤。

Much as I would like to help ,I have a lot to do.虽然我很想帮助你,但是我有很多事情要做。

Object as you may,I will go .纵使你反对,我也要去。

123even if 连词。即使…,纵使

Even if I have to sell my house,I will keep my business going.即使要卖掉我的房子,我还是要继续我的事业。

用法,even if even though-even if 的从句中含有强烈的假定性,而even though则多以此从句之内容为前提。

Even if he is poor,she loves him.(he may be poor,yet she loves him)

即使他很穷,她还是爱他。

Even though he is poor,she loves him.

he is poor,yet she loves hime)尽管他很穷,但她还是爱他。

124no matter what(which,who,where,when,how)不论什么(哪一个,谁,哪里,何时,如何)。

No matter what happens (may happen),don’t be discouraged.无论发生什么事,都不要气馁。

125whatever ,《关系代词》《引导表示让步的状语从句》无论何事(何物)。(no matte what.whatever happens (may happen)don’t be surprised.无论发生什么事,都别惊讶。

《关系形容词》《引导表示让步的状语从句》无论怎样都(no matter what..>whatever reasons you (may)have,you should carry out a promise.无论你有什么理由,你都应当遵守诺言。

126whoever.代词。(所有格whosever,宾格whomever.

《无先行词的关系代词》任何的人都,凡是,.,,,的人都(anyone who

(在whoever所引导的从句中做为主语)

Whoever walks around in such a heavy rain will catch a cold.人何在这种大雨中行走的人都会患感冒。

<引导表示让步的状语从句》不管谁…,无论谁no matter who

Whoever says (may say)so ,it is wrong.不管谁这样说,那是错误的。

<疑问代词》究竟是谁(who的强调形式,一般拼写为who ever.

Whoever told you such a stupid story?究竟(到底)是谁告诉你一件这么愚蠢的事?

127whenever.连词。….的时候一定,每次总是。

Come to see me whenever you like /不论何时只要你高兴就可以来见我。

Whenever I go out on a date ,it begins to rain.每次我要出去约会,天就开始下雨。

<引导表示让步的状语从句》无论何时(no matter when

Whenever you (may )call,you will find her sitting by the window.无论什么时候你去找她,你都会看见她坐在窗边

副词《疑问副词》究竟何时(when 的强调形式;一般多写成when ever

Whenever  can I find the time to enjoy a long journey.?究竟什么时候我才能找出时间享受长途旅行呢?

128wherever..连词。无论何处。

Wherever I went,the dog followed me.无论我走到哪里,这只狗总是跟着我。

<引导表示让步的状语从句》无论在(到)哪里(no matter where

Wherever he hides(may hide),I will find him out.无论他躲到哪里,我都要把他找出来。

副词《疑问副词》究竟在(到)哪里。(where的强调形式,一般多写成where ever)

Where ever did you leave your umbrella/你究竟把伞遗忘在哪里了、

129however.连词。然而,可是,但是,不过。

Certainly he apologized ,however I won’t forgive him.他的确道歉了,然而我不会原谅他。

You have not told us your opinion ,you can however ,make it clear now.你还没有告诉我们你的意见,但是现在你可以明白告诉我们。

用法(1)与but的意义相同,但however是较正式说法。

(1)                but置于句首,但however则可以置于句首、句末或句中,而以置于句中,前后用分号隔开之情形较多。

副词。<引导让步状语从句>(文语)无论如何也,不管怎样也。(no matter how)

However hot it is,he will not take off his coat.无论多热,他也不会脱掉外套。

You cannot catch up with a car,however fast you run.无论你跑得多块,也赶不上汽车。

The program,however popular ,should be discontinue right now.无论这个节目多收欢迎,还是必须立刻停止。

用法(1however 从句中的may在《口语》中不使用

2)最后一个例子,使用Be动词时,主语与be动词(it is)常被省略。

(3)however…替换成no matter how.是比较《口语》化的用法

不论用任何方法however you use it,it won’t break.不论你怎么使用,它都不会破(出毛病)。

<口语》到底如何,究竟怎样(是how的强调形式,一般认为要分成how ever两词才正确)however did you raise this much money>你究竟是如何筹措到这一大笔钱的?

130whether《引导表示让步的状语从句》不论是否…,不管是还是

Whether my parents agree or not,I will study abroad.不论父母是否同意,我都要出国留学。

You will have to attend the ceremony whether you are free or busy.不管你忙不忙,你都要参加这个典礼。

是否用<whether…or>抑或….

131that.连词。引导状语从句《表示目的》以便…;为使…;

(通常使用so that…;in order that….的形式)

I took a taxi  so that I would be in time for the appointment.我坐出租车去,以便赶上约会。

Come closer in order that you may see the screen better.靠近一点,以便你能更清楚地看到银幕。

用法(1)在that 从句,与may,can ,will,should等连用

2in order that…是比较正式的表示法。

3)《口语》中多省略掉that.

so …that…;such…that…表示结果、程度》很…/所以….,那么….以致

I was so tired that I couldn’t keep awake.我太疲倦了,因此不能保持清醒。

She was such an excellent secretary that her boss tried to dissuade her from resigning.她是个非常优秀的秘书,所以她的上司设法劝她不要辞职。

《以so that…表示结果》所以…(口语中)that常被省略)。

I slept well, so that I felt much better afterward.我睡了一个好觉,随后感觉舒服多了。

132such that…/.因为非常以致于…(such偶被倒装而致于句首)The shock was such that she was almost driven mad.因为打击太大了,她差点发疯。

Such was the force of the eruption that the whole town was covered with ash.火山爆发的威力大得使整个城镇都被灰掩埋了。

Such ….that….非常地….以致….….的地步。

It was such a cold day that there was nobody no the street.天气非常寒冷,致于街上没有任何人。

133many.形容词。(反义词few

多的;许多的;多数的。

Many cats.许多猫;many complaints.许多抱怨。;does the singer have many fans?>那个歌手有许多歌迷吗?

Lots of women rushed to see the movie.许多妇女赶着去看那部电影吗?

How many letters are there in the alphabet?字母表中有几个字母?

Were there a lot of shoppers in the department store?Not very many.来这家百货公司买东西的人多吗?不很多。

Not many high school students can study abroad.高中生能去留学的不多。

用法(1many连接可数名次的复数形式,以表示数量多

2)《口语》中,many主要用于否定句、疑问句和if 从句中,在肯定句中置于做主语的名词前面时,多与so,as,how,too等连用,其他情形则用a lot of ,lots of,plenty of ,a good (a great) many, a large number of.等。

(3)many很少单独用做表语。

134much.形容词。多的,许多的,大量的。(通常置于名词之前)

Do you have much money with you /no I never carry much money with me.你身上带很多钱吗。没有,我身上从不带很多钱。

How much sugar  do you want in your coffee.你的咖啡要加多少糖呢。

It won’t take too much time.那不会花太多时间的。

There was so much food and we couldn’t eat it all食物有很多,我们无法全部吃完。

You take too much  interest in what you wear.你太过于关心穿着了。

用法(1)与不可数名词连用,与可数名词连用many.

2<口语)用于疑问句、否定句。肯定句普通与sotoo连用。除此之外,可用a lot of ,lots of,plenty of ,a great (good)deal of.

3)在正式的表达中,肯定句也大多用much .

After much discussion the company decided to invest in Germany.经过热烈的讨论之后,那家公司决定在德国投资。

135should动词。虚拟式。《用于表目的的状语从句》

用于lest,for fear that,in case.起首的状语从句中。以免…;唯恐

She gave me a list just in case  I should forget what to buy.她给了我一张清单,以免我忘记要买些什么。

《用于so that起首的状语从句中》会…he hid his diary so that his mother should not read it.他把日记藏起来,以免被母亲看到。

136might.助动词。

虚拟式《might have done>或许(已)了,说不定(已)了。

He might have been in time.他说不定及时赶上了。

You might have left it in your house.说不定你把它留在家里了。

137could助动词。虚拟式《表可能性,推测.

could have done.(如果)说不定会…;(用否定句)不应该是..;

《用疑问句》(究竟)是呢。

She could have gone on vacation already.说不定她已经去度假了。

He couldn’t have said such a  thing.他应该不会说不出这种话。

138how.副词。《引导名词从句》做….的方法;由于的缘故。(通常视为关系副词的用法)。。

This is how they built the bridge.他们就是这样造桥的。

How he escaped still puzzles us.他究竟如何逃脱至今仍令我们百思不解。(使用关系副词the way how这句法的先行词the way可视为包含在how之中,现代英语中只使用the wayhow的其中一个)。

139when.连词。倘若。

He will likely recover when he undergoes the operation.倘若动手术的话,他可能会复元。

140over.介词。《表示理由、关系》与….有关,关于

They argued over money matters.他们为钱的问题而争论。

Don not concern yourself over such trivialities.不要为这芝麻小事操心。

141that.连词。《引导主语从句》的事。

It is surprising that she is (should be) so angry她那么生气,令人惊讶。

It is natural that she should cry.她大哭是人之常情。

That he is a doctor is true-it is true that he is a doctor.千真万确,他是医生。

用法(1)此用法的that被省略的情形很少,尤其that在句首时绝对不可省略(2)通常是把形式主语it置于句首,而将that从句置于后面。

142should.动词。虚拟式

《用于表示感情、意志等句中的that从句》竟然…;居然….(在《美》通常不用should,而用虚拟现在时。

I am surprised(shocked) that you  should speak in such a way.我很惊异(震惊)你居然用那种口气说话。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize.我很高兴你的小说居然赢得头奖。

It is strange (surprising,disappointing) that she shouldn’t have been invited.她竟然没被邀请,真是奇怪(令人惊异、令人失望)。

143whether.连词。(引导名词性从句)。《作为主语》

It is doubtful whether the President knew the details of the plan.总统是否知道这个计划的细节这一点颇有疑问。

it whether从句形式上的主语)

It matters little whether he likes or not他喜不喜欢并没有什么关系。

144 a shame.太过分的事,令人难堪的事;令人惋惜的事,遗憾的事。

What a shame!真丢脸(真可惜);it is a shame to treat animals like that那样对待小动物真是太过分了。

What a shame (that) you have to leave so soon!你必须这么早离开,真遗憾!

 145occur.vi.

It occurs +to名(人)+that…/to do

的念头浮现于(某人)脑海。

It occurred to me that I would travel Europe.我突然想到要旅游欧洲。

146、只能接不定式to do的动词。

1afford.vt.有足够的(金钱、时间)做….(通常与can \could\be able to do连用,多用于否定、疑问句)

Afford +/to do.

We can not afford (to buy ) a new car.我们买不起新车。

How can you afford (to spend )so much money for a bicycle?你怎么付得起这么多钱买一部自行车呢?

I will be able to  afford (to take) a week’s vacation this summer.今年夏天我可腾出一个星期的时间去度假。

I can’t afford to neglect my boss’ instruction我无法无视我老板的命令。

Vt(文语)给与,供给(+1+2=+2+to 1

Music affords us pleasure

Music affords pleasure to us .音乐给我们快乐。

2agree 动词。意见一致,赞成,同意,允诺(通常不用进行时)。

Agree+ to do.同意

We all agreed to start at once=we all agreed that we (should) start at once.我们全都同意我们应该立刻出发。

Agree+to 名同意(某提议)(可用被动语态)

I agreed to his proposal(plan)我同意他的提议(计划)

Agree+on名决定…(可用被动语态)

We agreed on a plan我们商量后决定某一计划(由于意为“商量后决定某些计划”,通常主语用复数,on后的名词须加上a/an;on不能用about代替)。

Agree+(that)…….事见解一致;承认

I Agree with you that he needs a rest.我同意你的说法:他需要休息。

He agreed that he should have been more careful.他承认他当初应该更审慎一些。

Agree+with名与(人、想法)意见一致

I agree with you =I agree with what you say.

我赞同你(我和你的意见相同)。

Do you agree with him about (on)that matter.?关于那件事,你同意他的看法吗?

Agree+about{on}名)(关于)意见一致。

We agree about(on )that.关于那件事,我们的意见一致。

They didn’t agree (about) how to do it.关于如何做,他们的意见不一致。

(带有wh-从句、短语时,介词有时省略不用。

It is hot, I agree.好热,我有同感。

147why.副词。

《疑问副词》为什么

Why are you absent yesterday? Because I had a stomachache?你昨天为什么缺席?因为我胃疼。

Why do you think he burst into tears/你认为他为什么突然哭了起来。

I don’t know why she did such a thing.我不知道她为什么做了这件事。

They asked me why I had hit the boy.他们问我为什么打那个孩子。

Why is it that my mother is always so cheerful?

为什么我母亲老师那么爽朗呢》

用法(1)对why…?的问句通常以because回答,但有时可以不定式回答。

Why did you go to France/ to study French.

你为什么去法国呢。去学法语。

(1)                从语句的上下文已知主语和动词时,有时省略主句和动词。

Why so?怎么会这样?

(3)中文的(怎么)在英语中有时不是why而是how.

How did you come to know the actor?你是怎么认识那个演员的?

《关系副词》所的。(常省略先行词the reason或省略why

The reason why he was late is that his mother was ill他迟到的理由是他母亲生病

Is that(the reason) why your team was defeated?那就是贵队败北的原因吗?

用法(1)常省略先行词the reason或省略why

(2)why只有《限定用法》,而《非限定用法》则用for which reason.

Why don’t you do….?=why not do..?

(1)你为什么不….(?)

(2)….怎么样?(表示提议、诱劝)

Why don’t you introduce her to your parents?

你为什么不介绍她给你父母认识?

Why not come and see me tomorrow?

明天来找我怎么样(好吗)?

Why not?(1)为什么不…?为什么不行?

I won’t go on a picnic why not.我不去野餐,为什么不去。

You shouldn’t go out with him.why not.你不应该跟他出去,为什么不行。

2)当然,好啊;请(客气)

Let’s go to the movies why not.我们去看电影吧,好啊。

名词《通常用复数形式whys》理由,原因。

The whys and wherefores.名词理由,原因(of名)的。

叹词。咦,哎呀!哦(表示惊讶);当然(表示承认);唔,嗯(表示踌躇、思考);可是,什么()!(表示反对);那么,那就(表示当然)

Why ,here comes jane咦,简来啦!

Why,I will go if you wish.当然,如果你希望我去,我就去。

Why,what’s the harm?可是,这有什么伤害?

148how副词《表状况、情况》怎样的情形,怎样的状况

How is your mother?令堂近况如何?(令堂好吗?

How are you getting along?你近来好吗?

How do you feel ?你感觉怎么样?

How is the weather there?那里的天气如何?

How would like your steak?请问牛排要几分熟?

How do you find your new house.你觉得新家如何

Tell me how she looked after her operation.

告诉我她手术后的情况如何?

149when.副词《关系副词》的时候

I first met him the day (when )I arrived here.我到达这里的那一天初次见到他。

I thought of the happy days when I was in france.我想到了在法国时的那段快乐日子。

I believe the time will soon come when there will be no weapons in the world.我相信世界上没有武器的日子不久就会来临(先行词the timewhen分开使用)。

150where.副词。《疑问副词》在哪里,向何处,在何处。

Where is he?他在哪里?

Where do you live?你住在哪里?

Where can I check my baggage?我可以在哪里寄存行李?

Where are you going for the summer vacation.暑假你要去哪里?

I don’t know where to go.我不晓得要去哪里?

She asked me where the nearest bus stop was/她问我最近的公共汽车站在哪里?

《关系副词》所….的(地方)

That is the building where my father works.那是我父亲工作的大楼。

The town where I was born is declinging我出生的城镇正逐渐没落。

《非限定用法》就在那里(and there

Yesterday I went oto the department store,where I met my teacher.昨天我去百货公司,就在那里遇到了我的老师。

《含先行词》this is where I was born,这就是我出生的地方。

That’s where a change is needed.那就是需要变更的地方。

We could see the runners very well from where we stood.从我们所战的地方能很清楚地看到赛跑的人。

《关系代词》this is the town where he comes from?这就是他出生的城市。

<疑问副词》何处。

Where do you come from?=where are you from?你是哪里人?

Where are you calling from?你从哪里打电话来的?

Where are youy going to ?你要到哪里去?

名词(the where>场所。

151present/形容词。出席的,在场的。(Absent.(不置于名词之前)

A lot of students were present at the meeting.很多学生出席那个会议。

Who else was present on that occasion.那时候还有谁在场?

Present,sir.!(点名时应到声)

All the girls present turned to him.在场的所有女孩都(把注意力)转向他。

152matter. Vi.(对人而言)重要,有重大的关系(用于疑问句,否定句)

Matter+(to)what does it matter(to you)?那(对你)有什么要紧?

It matters +(to )+wh 从句(if从句)。

(对人而言)…(一事)是重要的

It doesn’t matter to me whether she is pleased or not.她满意与否对我而言并不重要。

It matters little if I miss my bus.即使我没搭上公共汽车也没什么大不了。

153doubtful.形容词(某人)在怀疑的,不确知的(about(of))关于…;+whether(if)..是否….

He was doubtful about whether I should tell the story to her.我在犹豫(我不知道)是否该告诉她那番话。

(事物)可疑的,不确定的,含糊的

A doubtful reply.含糊的回答。

It is doubtful, whether the old man will recover from the operation.那老人手术后是否会康复难以确定。

形迹可疑的,有疑问的。

Doubtfully.副词,可疑地;不自信地,含糊地。

154for.介词。《表交换、报酬》。与交换;的代替;对于(物品);以的金额;对于(好意)

I bought this set of coffee cups for $20我花了20美元购买这套咖啡杯。

Thank you very much for your kindness.非常感谢你的好意。

155used.动词。(与不定式to 连接当助动词用)。

vi.从前做…;以前是…(与现在对比,表示过去的事实、情况)

used+to do.this river used to be clean.这条河以前是干净的。

We used to live in the city.我们从前住在城市里。

There used to be a restaurant here.从前这里有一家餐厅。

用法(1)表示过去的习惯、状态,因而常用过去形式,时态不变

2)与一般动词相同,否定句用didn’t used(use to ).但是多数人喜欢用didn’t use to .

He didn’t use(d) to drink.他以前不习惯喝酒。

3)疑问句也跟一般动词相同,常用did….use(d)to …?

Did you use(d) tobe a teacher?

你从前是老师吗?

这个时候did(you)usd to较常用。《英》亦用used (you )to..?

(2)                有时替代前述的动词以避免重复。

I don’t smoke these days ,but I used to .我现在不抽烟,但我以前是抽的。

(5)would意思相同,但是used to较为口语化;同时used to并不要时间的副词或短语从句。,而would 则需要。

形容词。习惯于

(不置于名词之前)(accustomed

Used+to do 名。

He is used to this kind of job.

他习惯于这种工作。

I am not used to getting up early.

我不太习惯与早起。

Get(become)used to vt习惯于..you will soon get used to our way of living.你将很快习惯于我们的生活方式。

156now.副词。《与过去时动词连用》现在,那时,接着(then

The war was now over.战争现在已结束了。

He was now eighteen years old.他那时18岁。

157learn.vt.记忆,熟记,记住。

We had to learn the lines of the play in a week.我们必须在一周内记住该剧的台词。

Vtvi.(看或听)得知,获悉。

Learn++fromwe learned the truth about the matter at last.我们终于得知那件事的真相。

Learn+wh/what…得知是否(为)

I have not yet learned whether he reached there or not.我还不知道他是否已到达那里。

We learned that he had an accident.我们获悉他发生意外。

Learn+(of+from)(从)知道(事)。

I learned of her illness  from him.我从他那里得知她生病了。

Learn…..by heart.vt熟记…;背诵

We all learned the poem by heart.我们都把那首诗背了起来。

Learn one’s lesson vi.(因尝到苦头而)获得教训,学乖。、

158much.代词。许多,大量。

Did you eat much at the party no ,not much.宴会上你吃了很多东西吗。不,不多。

How much of the work did you do today.今天你做了多少工作呢。

I couldn’t write much in today’s exam今天的考试我不太会答。

Do you see much of him.你常遇到他吗。

I have too much to tell you and don’t know what to begin with.

我有许多话要向你说,却不知从何说起。

用法(1)《口语》中与形容词相同用于疑问句、否定句或与too连用。

2)视为单数

There isn’t much for you to do .你要做的(工作)并不多。

代词,了不起的事(物),重要的事(物)(通常用于否定句当表语)

The actor was not much to look at.那位演员没有什么看头

159be up to.(口语)计谋什么(坏事)

I see what you are up to .我知道你在动什么歪脑筋。

160wonder.vi;vt.想知道到底….

Wonder+wh.

I wonder who he is.我不知道他究竟是谁。

I wonder what happened.我想知道到底发生了什么事。

I wondered why she had been from school.我纳闷她到底为什么不来上课。

I am just wondering how to promote the new product.我心里正在盘算到底要如何推广这个新产品。

I wonder it it will rain tomorrow.不知道明天会不会下雨。

I wonder whether/if you can(could) help me.不知道你能不能帮我。(客气的拜托)

Is it possible,I wonder=I wonder if it is possible.

我想知道到底可能吗。(有时会把I wonder 当作附家句,置于问句之后)

161perhaps.副词。

或许、可能;大概。(比probably事情发生的可能性少;在《口语》中通常用maybe.

Perhaps he will marry her.或许他会娶她。

用法:(1)不能确定时

Perhaps I will be late.或许今晚我会迟到。

Is she absents?Perhaps she has caught a cold.她缺席了吗?或许她感冒了。

2)避免明确回答时。

Will you join us.Perhaps.你要不要一起来,或许吧。

3)恭敬地向人要求、提议时。

Can I offer you something cold to drink –beer ,perhaps?要不要我给你一些冷饮喝?啤酒可以吗。

4)要表示你认为做比较好。

Perhaps we had better go now.

或许我们该走了。

5)预料对方会反驳或使反驳温和时。

This is perhaps the best fish in this restaurant.这也许是这家餐厅最好的菜。

162whether.连词。是否,是….抑或….;无论是….…..

(引导名词性从句(短语))

是否《用whether….or》是….抑或….

a.《作及物动词的宾语》

he asked me whether I would come(he said to me,”will you come?”

他问我来不来。

I don’t know whether it is ture.我不晓得这件事是真是假。

I wonder whether it will be fine tomorrow.我不知道明天天气好不好。

Nobody told me whether he was guilty or innocent.没有人告诉我他是有罪还是无罪。

用法whetherif.

1)在从句中,尤其作为动词的宾语时,whetherif可以替代使用,一般在口语中常用if代替whether.

(2)在句首作宾语的从句中,用whether

Whether she is married I don’t know.我不知道他是否已经结婚。

(3)whether后接to 不定式时,不可用if代替。

I don’t know whether I am to take it.告诉我我该不该把它带去。

Tell me if I am to take it.如果我应该把它带去,就告诉我。

B《作为表语》(不可用if代替)

The question is whether people will buy it.问题是人们会不会买。

163theirs.代词。(they的物主代词)

他(她、它)们的东西(概念)(所指者如为单数则作单数,如为复数则作复数)this house if theirs.这房子是他们的

My dress is old and theirs are new.我的衣服是旧的,而他们的是新的。

用法:不能与a ,this,that,some等一起使用,所以在那种情形要用 a \this\that….of theirs.的双重所有格结构。

I have never seen any photes of theirs.他们的照片我从来未曾看过。

Theist.名词。有神论者。Theism.名词。有神论。

164as if.=as though.连词。似乎是….,好像是….

She always talks to me as if she were (was) sister.她总是以我妹妹的口气跟我说话。

He walked slowly as if he had hurt his leg.他慢慢地走,好像腿受伤的样子。

She looks as if he is going to cry.她看起来似乎要哭了。

It looks as if we will be late.看起来我们似乎会迟到。

(1)用法as ifas though比起来,as though.是较正式指表达法。

(2)描述非现实情况时,在as if(as though)从句,以用假设的过去式或过去完成式为原则,但在《口语》上,第一人称及第三人称单数则以was取代were居多。

3)《口语》中,主句为现在式,而且由内容可清楚判断是表达非现实的意思时,在As if 后的从句有时也用现在式。

He treats me as if I am (were) a stranger.他待我有如陌生人。

4)此外,若使用现在式时则是表达实际的事实关系。

5As if (as though)as if (he wanted )to leave.他站起来似乎要离开。

 

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