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【名师支招】2015年高考英语课标卷真题语篇填空批注

(2015-12-18 20:29:18)
分类: 【复习备考】高考*中考
【名师支招】2015年高考英语课标卷真题语篇填空批注

针对单项填空考查的弊端:1.单句小语境;2.点位设计单一;3.综合程度不高;4.动手能力弱;5.思维空间小;6.思维时间少等,很多地方卷种很早就已经注意到并进行了在语篇环境下对语法知识、词汇知识及语言交际等方面的有益的探索与尝试:把语法或词汇的测试关进语篇的笼子(听上去好正能量啊)。

一、地方卷语法或词汇测试在语篇环境下的探索历程

1. 广东卷的探索与福建卷的跟进

广东省在2007年取消单项填空题,改用在语篇或文段下的“语法填空”,主测考生对语法意识(如何在形式变化中掌握异族语言的语法特点)。同年,湖北卷也将单项填空题进行缩水(由15小题缩减为10小题)并调整测试范围(由三项知识调整为一项知识:词汇)。2009年,福建也投放了在语篇环境下两种提示(汉语提示、首字母提示)的“短文填词”(该题型的目的是用来取代短文改错)。

2. 上海卷的努力探索

特别值得一提的是上海卷,尤其是上海卷语篇考查的量度与力度。

2004年上海卷对语法、词汇进行分类考查:即. Grammar(共20小题)和. Vocabulary(共10题),且俱为单项填空题。

2005-2007年上海卷对语法、词汇进行联合考查(只是题型板块意义上的合成,并非测试内容上的整合),即. Grammar and Vocabulary(共20小题)。

2008-2013年虽然也用了II. Grammar and Vocabulary的形式,但分成了section A(共16小题)和section B(共9小题)两部分,其中section A仍然为传统的multiple choice(只考查语法),section B则为选词填空(该题型名称为笔者所加,为表述方便)。

Section B

Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.

A. alert          B. classify      C. commit             D. delicately          E. gentle        F. impose

G. labels         H. moderation        I. relieve              J. signals               K. simply

笔者注:2008-2013年,上海卷该题框格内提供的词汇为10个(到J),试题为9个,自2014年起,增加至11个,试题为10个。

以语篇或文段的形式考查词汇用法,但对形式变化没有考查,因为命题者已经提供了正确的形式在框格内。因此,如果考生认为词义符合题意,词性或语法形式即已正确。上海卷的“选词填空”主要涉及词法考点(实词类:动、名、形、副)及文段考点部分(上下文理解与搭配或结构)。上海卷该题的选文体裁主要是记叙文和说明文。

2014年起,上海卷将Section A部分的multiple choice终于剔除了,彻底告别了利用multiple choice进行语法和词汇方面的测试的传统做法,改为在语篇环境下的语法测试(语篇填词)。上海卷最终实现了一切以语篇或文段性测试为旨归做法,让语法与词汇测试在语篇或文段中综合起来、鲜活起来与灵动起来。而且试题量不减。Section A投放两篇文章,共16小题。Section B投放一篇文章,共10小题,比之前多1小题。除题量略增外,基本上保持了2008年以来的形式与风格。注意,有一点必须说明,上海卷自始至终并未给这个题型一个正式的名称,仅以试题指导语说明之,估计一名之立,大不易也,算是一种无奈的模糊。

II. Grammar and Vocabulary

Section A

Directions:  After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.

3. 课标卷的正式引进

随后,2014年,教育部考试中心命制的课标卷也实行了去单项填空,改用语篇填空。随着课标卷参考范围的不断扩大(2016年将有25个省份采用教育部考试中心提供的课标卷),这一语篇大语境取代单句小语境进行知识点测试的一股细浪逐渐演变成了一股洪流,且势不可挡。实际上,课标卷也未给这一题型一个具体的题型名称,也只给了一个题型导语性说明:“阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。”做法颇类上海,但没有像广东、福建等卷种给了清晰的题型名称:语法填空、短文填词。

语篇填空测试考生的词汇知识、语言知识、语法知识、语篇逻辑等方面由来已久。上海卷不仅用语篇来考查考生的语法知识,也用来考查考生的词汇知识。广东人也用语法填空来考查学生的语篇知识,但说来虽然是语法填空,但并不都是语法。因此,笔者认为,咱不用非内容性表述而用形式性表述“语篇填空”来作为这一类题型的名称似乎更为恰当,更能统括。兹事体大,且按下不表。拟日后专文讨论“英语测试中题型名称那些事儿”。若学术气或迂腐气一点的话,标题可叫“英语题型名称的规范性研究”;若不怕俗气,标题可叫“题型名称,你肿么了”;当然呢,咱也可以“潮”一把,标题索性就叫“题型也要名,然并卵”。看官,您想选哪个玩儿?

二、2015年高考英语课标III卷“语篇填空”两篇联评

要研究一个题型,首先要研究这个题型的指导语。指导语是题型开发者或命题者运用文字对题型特点进行精确描述并指导答题者正确答题的路径说明。既然试题指导语是用文字来描述的,那么,疏漏、模糊、歧义等问题也会随之而来。解决这些问题也不太难,就是看看该试题究竟想干什么?做一下,就知道了。尝一下,也许会发现问题的解决方法。先看导语:阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。那么,什么叫适当的内容?咱们来解剖一下整个试题吧。

原来,本题型共10个小题,有给词,有不给词的。不给词的你就得填入适当的内容,这个唤作无中生有。你得根据文意或上下文的需要来制造或搜索枯肠。幸运的是,这类词汇往往是虚词、小词、也可能是关联上下文或合乎逻辑的关联词。实词的不要。注意,只能“1个单词。给词了的空,你就得用括号内单词的正确形式填入。注意,此处并未说“1个单词在英语的语法形态中,词的语法形式比较复杂,要想正确,谈何容易。但一般入选高考试题的语法形式皆属于基本形式或常规用法,难不到哪里去。比如,非谓语类,无非-ing形式,-ed形式和to do形式。打住!to do可是两个单词!动词不定式的记号to,在英语中叫小品词,虽然没有归类到十大词类中去,也算是一个名头。不过,您可得注意了,这个只不过是动词不定式的一个形式,就好比加载在动词后面的-ing-ed一样,这相当于是前置于动词而已,因此,to do只能算是一个单词!参见2015年课标卷II“语篇填空”第66小题答案(to cool)。又比如,一个动词的被动形式是 be done,因此,可能是was doneis done,这个时候,也只能算做一个单词,因为这是该动词的被动语态形式。它只是形式。你要是在考试中,蒙头蒙脑,本来知道要填被动语态,结果你只填了个done,而没有前面的助动词,那你就冤了。

2015年广东卷语法填空19小题,您就得填两个词:was left。广东人的说法是在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空!您到哪里找碴去!?再说人家课标卷的指导语也依样画葫芦,采用的是或括号内单词的正确形式这样的选择性表述,并未提及此处只能填入一个词!因此无论是从形式来看,还是从指导语角度看,天衣无缝。当然有缝也是您眼神不好,脑洞未开啊。指导语的疏漏也好,模糊也好,歧义也好,反正您找不着人家把柄。

总的说来,课标卷的语篇填空题,在命题形式上,有给词、不给词两种。在填入单词的唯一性上应依据实际形式而论。凡语法,必是形式发生变化。注意,不变也是变化的一种。给词的,一般7个,则必然发生形式变化。不给词的,一般3个,则无所谓变化,只是顺应文意与逻辑的小词。另外,答案的唯一性问题,有时候可能会有两个答案皆为正确的时候。这个时候,你事实上只需要填对一个即可。

细观2015年课标卷两套语篇填空题,虽然将语法或语用测试纳入到语篇之中进行测试,但就每个题而言,语篇的联系性、整体性和综合性还设计得远不如完形填空那般老道、成熟。基本上还处于题在“句”中,形与意也在“句”中的浅层次,还没有“文”什么事。文脉与逻辑的综合性、关联性织体远未形成。作为考点载体的语篇的意义未能得到很好地彰显,可能考虑到尚处于实验性阶段,也可能考虑到难度配置的问题。不过,这些都是托词,命题技术的提高并非旨在增加试题的难度,而是要完美实现检测受试者实际语言能力的功能。

1. 2015年高考英语课标卷I

第二节 (共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分)

阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。

Yangshuo, China(160)

It was raining lightly when I__61__(arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. But I didn’t care. A few hours__62__, I’d been at home in Hong Kong, with __63_(it) choking smog. Here, the air was clean and fresh, even with the rain.

I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River_64__are pictured by artists in so many Chinese _65__(painting). Instead, I’d headed straight for Yangshuo. For those who fly to Guilin, it’s only an hour away__66_ car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city.

Yangshuo__67__(be) really beautiful. A study of travelers_ 68__(conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world. And the town is fast becoming a popular weekend destination for people in Asia. Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it_ 69__(regular) arranges quick getaways here for people_ 70__(live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

参考答案:

61 arrived     62 before/ earlier        63 its     64 that/ which            65 paintings 

66 by            67 is              68 conducted      69 regularly         70 living

1. 2015年课标卷I语篇填空考点一览表

项目

数量

词性

变化

特点

备注

给词

7

4个,名1个,代1个,副1个。

动词时态变化3个,非谓语变化1个。名词单复数1个。代词所有格变化1个,形容词+ly变副词1个。

给词则必发生变化。

 

不给词

3

1个,关系代词1个,副1个。

 

不给,不变。

两个答案的有两例,皆为不给词题。

2. 2015年高考英语课标卷II

第二节(共10小题:每小题1.5分,满分15分)

阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。167

The adobe dwellings (土坯房)__61__(build) by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even __62__ most modern of architects and engineers. In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their __63__(able) to “air condition” a house without __64__useelectric equipment. Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat__65__slowduring cool nightsthus warning the house. When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough __66 _ (cool) the house during the hot day: __67__ the same time, they warm up again for the night. This cycle __68 __ (go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and thus always a timely offset(抵消)for the outside temperatures. As __69__(nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly__70__thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.

参考答案:

61.built                62.the                   63. ability            64. using        65. slowly 

66. to cool           67. at                    68. goes.              69. natural       70. How

2. 2015年课标卷II语篇填空考点一览表

项目

数量

词性

变化

特点

备注

给词

7

4,名1,形1,副1

动词时态变化1,非谓语变化3。形容词变名词1。名词变形容词1,形容词+ly变副词1.

给词则必发生变化

“1个单词的说法不靠谱。勉强认定动词不定式的to为小品词,好比后置的-ing-ed

不给词

3

1,冠1,副1

 

不给,不变。

 

三、2015年几个主要地方卷的“语篇填空”题展播

他山之石,或可攻玉,您“攻攻”吧。

1. 2015年上海卷语法试题词汇试题

. Grammar and vocabulary

Section A

Directions:  After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.

(A)

Gift from a stranger

My local supermarket is always busy. The first parking space I found was convenient, but I’d noticed a woman in a blue car circling for a white (25)    I was in a good mood, I left her have it .On the edge of the car park I backed into the next available spot-it was a tight fit.

Pretty soon I’d made my way through the supermarket and was back in the fresh air. Feeling good, I (26)   (empty) my purse change into the heads of a homeless man and helped a struggling woman reverse park.

Just as I approached my car, I saw the woman I’d let have my car spot earlier. She was fiving me (27)   .odd-look half puzzled, half intent(热切的). I smiled and wished her a pleasant day. As I back into my car, I saw the same lady(28)      (look) in at me. “Hello,” she said , hesitantly “This (29)    sound crazy, but I was on my way to drop some of my mother’s thing off at the charity bins. You are just so much (30)     her. You helped those people, I noticed, and you seemed so happy.” She looked at me meaningfully and passed a box in through the window. “I think she would like you to have it.”(31)      (shock), I took it from her automatically. She smiled and walked away.

After a pause, I opened the box. Inside was a beautiful gold necklace with a large grey pearl. It was (32)    nicegift I’d ever received, and I was from a complete stranger. The necklace was around my neck, a warm reminder of human kindness.

(B)

Ask Helpful Hannah

Dear Helpful Hannah,

   I’d got a problem with my husband, Sam. He bought a smartphone a couple of months ago, and he took it on our recent ski vacation to Colorado. It was a great trip except for one problem. He has a constant urge (33)    (check) for text messages, he checks his phone every five minutes! He’s so addicted to it that he just can’t stand the idea(34)      there may be an important text . He can’t help checking even at inappropriate times like when we are eating in a restaurant and I am talking to him! He behaves (35)           any small amount of boredom can make him feel the need to check his phone even when he knows he shouldn’t. The temptation to see36     is connecting him is just too great. When I ask him to please put down the phone and stop (37)     (ignore) me, he says, “In a minute,” but still checks to see if (38)     has posted something new on the internet. Our life (39)     (interrupt). If we go somewhere and I ask him to leave the phone at home, he suffers from withdrawal symptoms. Maybe this dependency on his smartphone has become more than an everyday problem.

   I recently read an article about “nomophobia” (40)      is real illness people can suffer from the feat of being without your phone! I am worried that Sam may be suffering from this illness because he feels anxious if he doesn’t have his phone with him, even for a short time.

   Who would have thought that little devices like these could have brought so much trouble!

Sick and Tired Sadie

参考答案:

2. 2015年广东卷语法填空

第二节  语法填空(共10小题; 每小题1.5分,满分15分)

    阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为16-25的相应位置上。   

Mr. Johnson lived in the woods with his wife and children. He owned   16   farm, which looked almost abandoned.   17    (lucky), he also had a cow which produced milk every day. He sold or exchanged some of the milk in the towns nearly    18    other food and made cheese and butter for the family with what   19    (leave). The cow was their only means of support, in fact. One day, the cow was eating grass    20    it began to rain heavily. While making great efforts to run away, she    21    (fall) over the hill and died. Then the Johnson tried to make a living    22    the cow. In order to support his family, Mr. Johnson began to plant herbs and vegetables. Since the plants took a while to grow, he started cutting down trees    23    (sell) the wood. Thinking about his children’s clothes, he started growing cotton too. When harvest came around, he was already selling herbs, vegetables and cotton in the market    24    people from the town met regularly. Now it occurred to    25 that his farm had much potential and that the death of the cow was a bit of luck.

参考答案:

16. a     17. luckily   18. for   19. was left   20. When  

21. fell    22. without   23. to sell   24. where   25. Him

3. 2015年福建卷短文填词

第一节 短文填词(10小题;每小题1分,满分10)

阅读下面短文,根据以下提示:1)汉语提示,2)首字母提示,在每个空格内填入一个英语单词,所填单词要求意义准确,拼写正确,并将该词完整地写在答题卡中相应横线上。

Sometimes we have disagreements with people. When this (76) h          , the important thing is to try not to let a calm discussion turn into a heated argument. Here (77 )     ______________ my tips for you.

The (78) f         thing I would say is that the way you begin the conversation is very important.

Imagine you are a student and you share a flat (79)             another student who you think isn't doing her share of the housework. If you say, "Look, you never do your share of the housework, (80)        are you going to do about it?" the discussion will very soon turn into an argument. It's much more (81)______  (有帮助)to say something like, "I think we had

(82) b _____have another look about how we divide up the housework. Maybe there is a better way of dealing with it. "

My second piece of (83) a _______ is simple. If you're the person who is in the wrong, just admit it! This is the easiest and best way to avoid an argument. Just make an (84)          (道歉) and move on. The other person will have more respect for you (85)      the future if you do that.

参考答案:

76. happens         77. are      78.first    79.with      80.What

81. helpful/beneficial    82.better   83.advice   84.apology    85.in

(作者:邓北平 )

来源:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_492fa15e0102vmhg.html

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