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学习资料(形容词和副词)

(2008-11-02 12:57:50)
标签:

教育

形容词和副词
考 点 分 析
1.形容词和副词的基本用法;
2.形容词和副词的位置;
3.形容词和副词的级别;
4.常见形容词和副词的用法比较。
形容词的基本用法
1.形容词的词义
问题1:
- I’m very ________ with my own cooking. It looks nice
  and smells delicious.
- Mm, it does have a ________ smell.   (2002北京)
A. pleasant, pleased
B. pleased, pleased 
C. pleasant, pleasant
D. pleased, pleasant
高考中关于形容词的词义的题考得不少,复习时需密切关注。
该句中 pleased  表示“感到满意(高兴)的”;
pleasant 表示“令人满意(高兴)的”。根据句意不难发现答案为D。
2、后置定语问题
问题4:
All the people _____ at the party were his supporters. (02北京)
A. present
B. thankful
C. interested
D. important
解析:形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是下列情况要后置:
proper (本身), 
present (在场的,出席的), 
involved(有关的), ?
concerned (相关的), 
left (剩下的), ?
mentioned  (提及的),
 selected (当选的)等。
如the students present (出席的学生)
the cost involved  (所需费用)
下列情况也要后置:a.  some, any, no, every 构成的复合不定代词的修饰语要后置.如:something new;    nothing serious;     anything interesting? b?  不定式短语,动名词短语,分词短语,介词短语做定语要后置。如:
Do you still remember the afternoon in the first year at college when the professor gave us a chemistry lesson?c 以 a- 开头的形容词做定语要后置.如:alike, alive,  alone, asleep, afraid, awake…
如:He is the only man awake at that time.
3、以-ly 结尾的形容词
问题5:
What he said sounds ________. (1993上海)
A.nicely
B. pleasantly
C. friendly
D. wonderfully
解析:1) 大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。
但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,
lively,ugly,brotherly,manly,   timely,  
worldly (老于世故的) 仍为形容词。
改错:(F) She sang lovely.
(T) Her singing was lovely.  
(F) He spoke to me very friendly.  
(T) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.
 (2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。  
daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early  
The Times is a daily paper. 
It is published daily.?
多个形容词修饰名词的顺序
好 美 小 高 状 其 新
彩 色 国 料 特 别 亲
问题1
John Smith, a successful businessman, has a()car.  (04辽宁)
A.large German white
B.large white German
C.white large German
D.German large white
问题2:This _______ girl is Lind’s cousin.  (05北京卷)
A. pretty little Spanish
B. Spanish little pretty
C. Spanish pretty little
D. little pretty Spanish

问题3:One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.
A. old Chinese stone
B. Chinese old stone  
C. old stone Chinese
D. Chinese stone old
常见形容词的比较
1).worth - worthy -worthwhile
2) alike -like -likely
3) dead -deadly
4) historic -historical
5) live -lively -alive -living
6) possible -probable-likely
7) valueless -priceless
8) respectable (可敬的、高尚的) --respectful (表示敬意的)    
A respectable man is respectful to others.
9) healthy (健康的) --- healthful (有益于健康的)
   The air at seaside is healthful to us. So all of us are healthy.
巩固练习:
1.The World Cup in France was the biggest _____ football match in the world.
A. alive
B. live
C. lively
D. living
2. Anyone who has spent time with children knows the difference in the way boys and girls respond (反应) to the _____ situation.
A. likely
B. same
C. alike
D. similar
3. It’s _____ to rain but not _____ before evening.
A. possible … probable
B. probable … possible
C. possibly … probably
D. probably … possibly
副词的基本用法
问题1:__, some famous scientists have the qualities of being both careful and careless. (04上海春季)
A. Strangely enough
B. Enough strangely  
C. Strange enough
D. Enough strange
副词 enough 要放在形容词和副词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。
问题2
Can you believe that in _____ a rich country there should  be _____ many poor people?  (1995 N)
A. such, such
B. such, so
C. so, so
D. so, such
A: 基本句型:such + (a) + adj. + n. ;so + adj. + a + n.
B: such 后可加各种名词,而so后面只能加单数名词;
C: so 可加 many, much, few, little 等,而such不能。
问题3
We don’t care if a hunting dog smells ____, but we really don’t want him to smell _____. (1995上海)
A. well, well
B. bad, bad
C. well, badly
D. badly, bad
smell 有双重词性,作“闻起来”解是系动词,
后接形容词作表语;作“嗅”解是形为动词,后接副词。
该题的干扰项是B,“smells bad” 表示闻起来很臭,不可能同时放入两个空格。
问题4
Allen had to call a taxi because the box was _____  
     to carry all the way home.  (03全国卷)
A.much too heavy
B.too much heavy 
C.heavy too much
D.too heavy much
much too 是副词,用来修饰形容词或副词;
too much 是名词或形容词,可单独使用或修饰名词。
问题5
John is very lazy. He falls ______ behind in his
studies. (05(广东卷)
A. very
B. far
C. more
D. still
副词的修饰关系是现今高考的热点之一,复习中应予以足够的重视。
“far behind …”表示“远远地掉在后面”。
问题6
— Must I turn off the gas after cooking ?
— Of course . You can never be()careful with that .
(05江西卷)
A.enough
B.too
C.so
D.very
“can never be too …”是一种固定的表达方式,意为“越……就越好”
常用副词的比较
问题1
It was raining heavily. Little Mary felt cold, so she
stood __to her mother.( 2002北京)
A. close
B. closely
C. closed
D. closing
close to  离……近,此处 close 是副词;
closely 表示“密切地”,与题意无关。
问题2
We decided not to climb the mountains because it was
raining ___. (1996 N)
A. badly
B. hardly
C. strongly
D. heavily
表示 “雨下得大”可用 rain hard; rain heavily 等,
不用 badly 或 strongly。表示“刮大风”可用 strong wind。
hardly 是否定词,与句意无关。
注意下面兼有两种形式的副词
1) close 与 closely
close意思是“近”; closely 意思是“仔细地”
He is sitting close to me.
Watch him closely.
2) late 与 lately
late意思是“晚”; lately 意思是“最近”
You have come too late.
What have you been doing lately?
3)  deep 与 deeply
deep意思是“深”,表示时间和空间深度;deeply时常
表示感情上的深度,"深深地"
He often works deep into the night.
Even father was deeply moved by the film.
4) high 与 highly
high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much
The plane was flying high.
I think highly of your opinion.
5)  wide 与 widely
wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是“广泛地”,
“在许多地方”
He opened the door wide.
English is widely used in the world.
6)  free 与 freely
free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"
You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.
You may speak freely; say what you like.
另外注意下列各组副词的用法区别
1) just -just now
2) rather -fairly
3) yet -still -already
4) hard -hardly -rarely -scarcely
5) such a + adj. + n. -so + adj. + a + n.
6) most -mostly -almost
7) especially -specially
8) every day -everyday
9) sometime -sometimes -some time
巩固练习:
It’s always difficult being in a foreign country, _____ if you don’t speak the language.
A. Extremely
B. naturally
C. basically
D. especially
2. Would you be _____ do me a favor?
A. kind enough
B. so kind as to
C. so kind to
D. kind as to
3. The guide told us that he would organize some businessmen from abroad to have a tour _____ the next month.
A. some time
B. sometime
C. some times
D. sometimes
4. It is _that his English is __perfect.
A. sure … very
B. right … rather
C. exact … fairly
D. certain … quite
形容词和副词的级别
1、as … as … 结构
问题1
John is the tallest boy in the class, __according to
himself. (05安徽卷) (B)
A. five foot eight as tall as
B. as tall as five foot eight
C. as five foot eight tall as
D. as tall five foot eight as
as tall as “高达…”, five foot eight = five feet eight inches
问题2
What a table! I’ve never seen such a thing before. It is
__it is long. (05湖北卷)
A.half not as wide as
B.wide not as half as
C.not half as wide as
D.as wide as not half
as wide as 是比较,所以倍数词应放在前面。
说明:
1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。
He cannot run so/as fast as you.
2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。
as +形容词+ a +单数名词
as + many/much +名词
This is as good an example as the other is.
I can carry as much paper as you can..
3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的
   前面。
This room is twice as big as that one.
Your room is the same size as mine.
4) 倍数+ the + n + of  <=>倍数+ as + adj. + as  
This bridge is three times as long as that one.
This bridge is three times the length of that one.
Your room is twice as large as mine.
Your room is twice the size of mine.
2、比较级+ than 结构
问题1
-Is your headache getting __?       
- No, it’s worse. (05全国卷3)
A.better
B.bad
C.less
D.well
问题2
Mr. Smith owns ______ collection of coins than
anyone else I have ever met.  (05山东卷)
A. larger
B. a larger
C. the larger
D. a large
问题3
The number of people present at the concert was
___than expected. There were many tickets left. 
(04福建)
A.much smaller
B.much more 
C.much larger
D.many more
)要避免重复使用比较级。
(错) He is more cleverer than his brother.
(对) He is cleverer than his brother.
2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。
(错) China is larger that any country in Asia.
(对) China is larger than any other country in Asia.
3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。
The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.
It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.
4)程度词 a bit, a little, rather, much, far,
by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal,
any, still, even 等词可修饰比较级。除
外,还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。
以上词 (除by far) 外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。
而 by far 一般置于比较级之后和最高级之前。
3、of the two 结构
问题1
Of the two shirts, I’d like to choose __one. (94 上海)
A. the less expensive
B. the most expensive
C. less expensive
D. most expensive
问题2
If the manager had to choose between the two, he would
say John was ___choice. (95 上海)
A. good
B. the best
C. better
D. the better
说明:在 of the two 结构中,比较级前要加 the,
但如果不在 of the two 结构中,要注意冠词的使用。
后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有冠词。比较:
Which is larger, Canada or Australia?
Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?
she is taller than her two sisters.
She is the taller of the two sisters.
4、the + 最高级 + 比较范围
问题1
David has won the first prize in singing; he is still very excited now and feels___desire to go to bed. (05江苏卷)
A. the most
B. more
C. worse
D. the least
问题2
Greenland, __island in the world, covers
over two million square kilometers. (2000  上海)
A. it is the largest
B. that is the largest 
C. is the largest
D. the largest
1)形容词最高级前必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。
  The shortest boy runs fastest in the 100-meter race.
形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示“非常”。
It is a most important problem.
= It is a very important problem.
注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。
(错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.
(对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.
2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost
This hat is nearly / almost the biggest.
注意:
a.  very 可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。
This is the very best.
This is much the best.
b.  序数词通常只修饰最高级。
Africa is the second largest continent.
3) 句型转换:
Mike is the most intelligent in his class.
Mike is more intelligent than any other student in his class.
4) “否定词语 + 比较级”,“否定词语 + so… as” 结构表示最
高级含义。
Nothing is so easy as this.
= Nothing is easier than this.
= This is the easiest thing.
5、和more有关的词组
1)the more… the more… 越……就越……
The harder you work,the greater progress you‘ll make.
 2)more B than A 与其说A不如说B
He is more lazy than slow at his work
3)no more… than… 与……一样(不)……,不比……多
the officials could see no more than the Emperor.
no less… than… 与……一样……
He is no less diligent than you
4)more than 不只是,非常
She is more than kind to us all.
5)Not more than = at most 至多 
not more…than = less..than
not less than= at least  至少
not less….than=more..than

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