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What is Landscape Architecture

(2008-11-26 12:37:59)


分类: 建筑特色

quote from Microsoft software Encarta Reference Library
translated by buZz


■ Introduction

Landscape Architecture, the science and art of modifying land areas by organizing natural, cultivated, or constructed elements according to a comprehensive, aesthetic plan. These elements include topographical features such as hills, valleys, rivers, and ponds; growing things such as trees, shrubbery, grass, and flowers; and constructions such as buildings, terraces, roads, bridges, fountains, and statuary. No unalterable rules exist in landscape architecture because each plot of ground offers unique problems caused by variation in contour, climate, and surrounding areas.


Landscape architecture was formerly called landscape gardening and was limited to the creation of gardens around private dwellings. Today landscape architecture covers a much wider area of concerns, ranging from the setting out of small gardens to the ordering of parks, malls, and highways. It includes landscape gardening, which is now understood as the work done by commercial gardeners, who install and care for flowers and greenery according to the design of landscape architects. The landscape architect, who usually holds an academic degree in this field, has the same professional standing as an architect or engineer and receives a fee directly from the client. The landscape gardener may be a commercial contractor or an amateur, who landscapes the grounds of a private home. Most large-scale gardens are planned by landscape architects, who provide for grading and drainage as well as for decorative design. Small gardens usually do not require the services of a landscape architect.

景观设计在以前被称为Landscape Gardening,并且被局限在了对私人住宅庭院的建造。但是当前景观设计已经覆盖了相当广的领域,包括从一个小花园的建造到对公园、街区、高速路周边的治理。Landscape Gardening目前已经属于景观设计的范畴之内,不过它的含义已经改变为在景观设计师的设计的基础之上,由职业的园艺师完成的对花卉草木的种植与养护。景观设计师,一般会拥有专业的学位,与建筑师和工程师具有同样的职业身份,并且直接从客户手中获得报酬。园艺师则可能是一个将私人住宅景观化的职业承包商或是园艺爱好者。几乎所有的大尺度的园林都由景观设计师来进行规划,他们能在做好地形与排水的同时还能兼顾美化装饰。小的花园一般不需要景观设计师的参与。

Whatever the scale of the project, the landscape architect first studies the site. Working alone or with a town planner, traffic engineer, or building architect, as the project requires, the landscape architect considers the proposed use for the site. Other considerations are the layout of the terrain, climate and soil conditions, and costs. Once this information is known, the landscape architect proceeds to actual design.


An overall plan is established, which might be a formal garden based on a symmetrical arrangement of geometric beds or an informal arrangement of planting to make as much use as possible of the natural characteristics of the site. A plan might also be for a Japanese garden emphasizing asymmetrical placement of rocks and sand, for a desert garden, or for a simplified massing of naturalistic shrubbery.


The landscape architect's plan takes into account proportion and scale. A small walled garden, for example, is scaled to the close-range view of its occupant; a large park, however, benefits from spacious vistas and massive groupings of trees. The plan also takes advantage of natural land formations, such as hills or pools, or alters them. The plan may provide for subdivisions of space, whether these are a series of enclosures containing different colors or other variations or are loosely defined areas that flow into one another.


The landscape architect also considers contrasts in shady masses and open, sunny spaces, especially in relation to the climate. Contrasts in the size, color, and texture of plant material are also important. Planting may be designed according to season so that different parts of a garden bloom at different times. A successful plan also requires knowledge of plant characteristics, needs, and limitations. Other elements in a landscape architect's plan may be fountains, streams, and pools; sculpture and benches; walls, walks, and terraces; and small structures such as gazebos, kiosks, and trellises.


■ Ancient World

As early as the 3rd millennium bc, the Egyptians planted gardens within the walled enclosures surrounding their homes. In time these gardens came to be formally laid out around a rectangular fish pond flanked by orderly rows of fruit trees and ornamental plants, as seen in tomb paintings.


In Mesopotamia, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They included full-size trees planted on earth-covered terraces raised on stone vaults in a corner of the palace complex of Nebuchadnezzar II. In the highlands to the north, the Assyrians and Persians developed great tree-filled parks for hunting on horseback. They also planned rectangular walled formal gardens, irrigated by pools and canals and shaded by trees, usually set in vast barren plains. These gardens symbolized paradise and inspired Persian carpet designs.

在美索不达米亚,则有世界七大奇迹之一的巴比伦空中花园。在尼布甲尼撒二世(Nebuchadnezzar II,古巴比伦国王)的宫殿之内,人们将全高的树木种植在覆土的由石拱支撑的平台上。在北方的高地上,亚述人和波斯人则发展了用于狩猎的密林园。他们同样也建造规则的有围墙的传统庭院,里面由水池和沟渠灌溉,树荫遮阳,这样的庭院一般都建造在广阔的贫瘠的平原上。这些庭院象征着人们心中向往的天堂的景象,同时也为波斯地毯的设计提供了大量的灵感。

In ancient Greece, sacred groves were preserved as the habitats of divinities. Greek houses included a walled court or garden usually surrounded by a colonnade. In 5th-century bc Athens public gardens and colonnaded walks attached to the Academy (“school”) and the Lyceum (“gymnasium”) were much frequented by philosophers and their disciples.

在古希腊,人们将庄严的小树林奉为神的住所。希腊的住宅包括一个一般由柱廊围合的有围墙的庭院或花园。公元前5世纪的雅典,依附于学院与讲堂(Academy and Lyceum)的公共花园与柱廊步道更多的是被哲学家与他们的弟子们光顾。

Roman houses, similar to Greek houses, included a colonnaded garden, as depicted in wall paintings at Pompeii and as described by Pliny the Elder. Villas on the hilly terrain near Rome were designed with terraced gardens. Rich Romans, such as Lucullus, Maecenas, and Sallust, laid out lavish pleasure grounds including porticoes, banqueting halls, and sculpture. The vast grounds of the Emperor Hadrian's villa near Tivoli (2nd century ad) were magnificently landscaped. The Roman populace enjoyed gardens attached to the public baths.

罗马的住宅,与希腊的一样,包括一个柱廊围合的花园,就像在庞贝发现的壁画以及老普林尼(Pliny the Elder,罗马学者)描绘的那样。罗马附近山丘地带的别墅被设计成了台地园。罗马的富豪,比如卢库勒斯(Lucullus,古罗马将军兼执政官, 以巨富和举办豪华大宴著名)、米西奈斯(Maecenas,著名的文学艺术资助者)、撒拉斯特(Sallust,罗马历史学家)等,投资建设了大量奢华的场所包括柱廊、宴会厅以及雕塑。广阔的哈德良行宫(Emperor Hadrian's villa)拥有宏伟壮丽的景观。罗马的公众则很喜欢公共浴室附带的庭院花园。

The Muslims, living where the climate is generally hot and dry, were inspired by the desert oasis and the ancient Persian paradise garden centered on water. Muslim gardens were usually one or more enclosed courts surrounded by cool arcades and planted with trees and shrubs. They were enlivened with colored tilework, fountains and pools, and the interplay of light and shade. Before the 15th century, the Moors in Spain built such gardens at Córdoba, Toledo, and especially at the Alhambra in Granada. Similar gardens, in which flowers, fruit trees, water, and shade were arranged in a unified composition, were built by the Mughals in 17th- and 18th-century India. The most notable examples are the Taj Mahal gardens in Agra and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore.

居住在炎热干旱地区的穆斯林人民,从沙漠绿洲以及古波斯人的以水为中心的天堂花园获得了灵感。穆斯林的庭院一般是一面或多面封闭的,四周是凉爽的拱廊,多种植乔灌木。绚丽的砖瓦,水池和喷泉,以及变幻莫测的光影使穆斯林的庭院充满了生气。15世纪之前,摩尔人在西班牙建造了大量穆斯林风格的园林,比如科尔多瓦(Córdoba)、托莱多(Toledo),其中最著名的当属格拉纳达(Granada)的阿尔罕布拉宫(Alhambra)。同样的植物,同样的水池,同样的光影变换,莫卧尔帝国在在17-18世纪的印度以同样的手法建造了同样的园林。其中最负盛名的是位于阿格拉的泰姬陵(Taj Mahal gardens)以及位于拉合尔的夏利马庭院(Shalimar Gardens)。
In China, palaces, temples, and houses were built around a series of courtyards, which might include trees and plants often in pots that could be changed with the seasons, and pools. The Imperial City in Beijing contained elaborate pleasure gardens with trees, artificial lakes and hillocks, bridges, and pavilions.


Japan has a long tradition of gardens inspired by Chinese and Korean models. In former times, palaces, temples, teahouses, and private houses all had garden settings that were closely integrated with the buildings. Kyōto was especially famous for its gardens. The gardens included pools and waterfalls; rocks, stone, and sand; and evergreens. They might also contain stone lanterns and sculptures and wooden bridges, gates, and pavilions. Every element of a garden was carefully planned, sometimes by Zen monks and painters, to create an effect of restraint, harmony, and peace, which is exemplified by the extant Katsura Detached Palace gardens in Kyōto. Such traditions continue to some extent in modern Japan and have influenced Western landscape architects.

日本的园林有着悠久的历史,当然基本上都是从中国和朝鲜的园林中获得了的灵感。在古代,日本的宫殿,寺庙,茶室以及私人的住宅都拥有与建筑紧密结合的庭院。京都以其优秀的园林而著称。这些园林有湖,有瀑布,有岩石,有沙地,还种植着很多常绿树。石灯笼,石雕,木桥,木门,亭也是其中不可缺少的。禅宗僧侣和画家一般会参与到园林的设计中来,其中每一个元素都被精心放置以达到一种谨慎、和谐、安宁的气氛,现存的最好例子就是位于京都(Kyōto)的桂离宫(Katsura Detached Palace)。某些传统仍然被当今日本的园林所借鉴,并影响着西方的景观设计师们。

In medieval Europe, ravaged by invasions and incessant wars, gardens were generally small and enclosed for protection within the fortified walls of monasteries and castles. At the 9th-century Swiss abbey of St. Gall the large garden was divided into four areas, for herbs, vegetables, fruits, and flowers. The gardens of most monasteries were surrounded by cloistered walks and had a well or fountain at the center, possibly inspired by Persian gardens, which was intended to enhance meditation. Castles might have a kitchen or herb garden, a private ornamental garden for the lord and lady, and a larger grassy area for the pleasure of the court.

中世纪的欧洲,由于连绵不断的战火,花园都建造的很小,而且都造在有着坚实围墙的修道院和城堡中求得保护。公元9世纪,瑞士的圣高尔修道院(abbey of St. Gall)的大花园被分成了四个部分,分别用来种植药草、蔬菜、水果和花卉。大多数的修道院庭院都有围廊式步道环绕,在中心有一口井或者一眼泉,也许为的是营造一种利于冥想的环境吧,这种做法很有可能是从波斯园林那里获得的灵感。在城堡中一般会有一个厨房和药草园,一个主要供城堡及其家室使用的以观赏植物为主的花园,以及使整个庭院生机勃勃的大片绿地。

During the Renaissance in Italy when conditions became more stable, castles gave way to palaces and villas with extensive grounds landscaped in the Roman tradition. The architect of the house usually designed its setting as well, thus ensuring a harmonious relationship between the two. The symmetrical, classically inspired plan of the house was repeated in the grounds. Laid out along a central axis, avenues, walks, and steps led from terrace to terrace, which, wherever possible, afforded fine views of the countryside. Borders of tall, dark cypresses and clipped yew hedges, geometric flower beds, stone balustrades, fountains, and sculptures conformed strictly to the overall plan. Examples from the 15th century include the gardens of the Medici, Palmieri, and La Pietra villas in or near Florence. Among increasingly formal and elaborate villa complexes in the 16th century are the Villa Lante in Bagnaia and the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, both designed by Giacomo da Vignola. Others are the Villa Madama and the Villa Medici in Rome and the Villa d'Este in Tivoli.

文艺复兴时期的意大利,环境相对稳定,宫殿和庄园取代了城堡,它们有着更广阔的场地和罗马传统式的风景。房子的建筑师一般也要考虑庭院的设计,因此他们还要确保建筑与园林两者之间和谐的关系。对称的,有着古典主义灵感的建筑布局就这样被不断的重复下去。中央布置一条轴线,周围是林荫路,步道,台地之间的台阶,这些在可能的情况下都要力求展现优美的田园风光。深绿色的柏树屏障,修建过的紫杉篱,几何形花坛,石栏杆,喷泉以及雕塑都严格得按照总体规划来安排。例如15世纪佛罗伦萨附近的美第奇庄园(Medici),Palmieri别墅,La Pietra别墅。到了16世纪,在不断增多的传统的精美的别墅中,复杂成了主调,比较著名的有维格诺拉(Giacomo da Vignola)设计的位于巴尼亚(Bagnaia)的兰特别墅(Villa Lante)和位于卡普拉罗拉(Caprarola)的法尔纳斯别墅(Villa Farnese)。其他的还有罗马的Villa Madama,美第奇别墅(Villa Medici)以及蒂沃利(Tivoli)的埃斯特别墅(Villa d'Este)。

Italian gardens of the 17th century became even more complex in the dramatic baroque style. They were distinguished by lavish use of serpentine lines, groups of sculptured allegorical figures in violent movement, and a multiplicity of spouting fountains and waterfalls. Examples are the Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati, Villa Garzoni in Collodi, Villa Giovio in Como, and the gardens on the Isola Bella in Lake Maggiore.

17世纪意大利的花园变得越来越复杂化了,呈现出一种戏剧化的巴洛克风格。他们的特征是,大量的使用蜿蜒的曲线,具有强烈动感的寓言雕塑,各式各样的喷泉和跌水。比如弗拉斯卡蒂(Frascati)的阿尔多布兰迪尼别墅(Villa Aldobrandini),Villa Garzoni in Collodi,科莫(Como)的乔维奥别墅(Villa Giovio),还有马乔列湖(Lake Maggiore)的伊索拉贝拉别墅(Isola Bella)的花园。

In the late 18th century the rise of romanticism, with its emphasis on untamed nature, the picturesque, the past, and the exotic, led to important changes in landscape architecture as well as in other arts. The shift began in England. In place of the patterned formality of Le N?tre's designs, architects such as Capability Brown preferred a new, softer romantic style that imitated rather than disciplined nature. At such great houses as Blenheim Palace and Chatsworth, Brown replaced the parterres of symmetrically arranged flower beds and straight walks with sweeping lawns, sloping hills with curving paths, and rivers and ponds punctuated by informally planted groups of trees and shrubbery, to achieve the effect of a wilderness. The English landscape architect Humphry Repton modified the style, believing that a house was best set off by formal flower beds that merged by subtle degrees into a naturalistic background. These so-called English gardens often incorporated “follies,” fake medieval ruins and Roman temples, inspired by the 17th-century paintings of the Roman countryside by Claude Lorrain and his followers. Chinese pavilions and other exotica were inspired by engravings of Chinese gardens in travel books by such travelers as the architect Sir William Chambers.

18世纪末,浪漫主义之风盛行,它推崇未被改造的自然,如画的风景,强调历史和异国风情,使不光在景观设计方面,在其他艺术领域也都产生重大的变革。改变首先从英国开始。在勒诺特设计的传统的图案式的园林中,像能人布朗(Capability Brown)这样的建筑师更倾向于一种新的,柔性的浪漫主义风格。在布伦海姆宫(Blenheim Palace)和查兹沃斯(Chatsworth)这样大规模的园林中,布朗拆毁了几何式的花坛和笔直的步道,取而代之的是开阔的草坪,连绵的小丘上曲折的山路,点缀着自然种植的树木的溪流和池塘,以这种方式来到达一种野趣。英国造园家雷普顿(Humphry Repton)改变了这个状况,他认为最佳的布局应该是一座建筑周围有规则的花坛,然后逐渐的过渡到周边自然的环境中去。这些被称为英国式园林的也会发生一些荒唐事,由于受到17世纪著名的风景画家洛兰(Claude Lorrain)及其追随者的影响,出现了一些仿造的中世纪废墟和罗马的古庙。出现在像钱伯斯爵士(Sir William Chambers)这样的旅行家的游记中的中国园林的版画使得中国式的亭和其他异国风景也出现在英国园林之中。

The English romantic style spread to the rest of Europe by way of France, where a notable example of the style was created at Ermenonville. As late as the reign of Napoleon the English romantic style was employed by the engineer Jean Charles Adolphe Alphandin laying out the great parks of Paris, which exerted an immediate international influence. In Germany and Austria, the romantic style was enthusiastically endorsed by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau, who created a romantic park on his estate near Berlin and published the influential Hints on Landscape Gardening (1835).

英国的浪漫主义风格通过法国影响到了欧洲的其他各国,其中在法国一个比较著名的例子是在阿尔门维尔烈(Ermenonville)的园林。到了拿破仑统治的时期,浪漫主义风格在工程师Jean Charles Adolphe Alphandin的手中产生了巴黎的许多大型园林,并立即造成了国际性的影响。在德国和奥地利,这种浪漫主义风格被庇乌克勒·穆斯考(Hermann von Puckler-Muskau)极力推崇,他在他柏林附近的地产上建造了极富浪漫色彩的穆斯考林苑,并且还在1835年出版了颇具影响力的《造园指南》(《Hints on Landscape Gardening》)一书。

The romantic style was introduced in North America by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, his Virginia estate. The most important example of this style is Central Park, New York City, designed in 1857 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. It was the first major public example of landscape architecture in the U.S. and was so successful both as a municipal enterprise and as a work of art that by 1870 it had influenced the creation of public parks, many of them designed by Olmsted and Vaux, all over the nation. The profession of landscape architecture, as distinct from architecture and horticulture, was established largely through the success of Olmsted and Vaux, who also worked at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. At about the same time, the Boston landscape architect Charles Eliot did much to further interest in metropolitan landscape parks as recreational areas that could relieve city congestion.

托马斯?杰佛逊(Thomas Jefferson)通过他在弗吉尼亚的地产中的造园将浪漫主义风格引入北美。最著名的例子便是1857年由奥姆斯特德(Frederick Law Olmsted)和沃克斯(Calvert Vaux)联手设计的纽约中央公园。这是在美国的第一个主要的公共的景观设计的例子,中央公园的成功在于它是市政建设与艺术成果的完美结合。1870年城市公园概念的形成也于中央公园有关,奥姆斯特德和沃克斯还设计了遍布全美的大部分城市公园。为了与建筑学与园艺学区别开,景观设计学科的设立也和奥姆斯特德和沃克斯的成功有着很大的联系,此二人还参与了1893年在芝加哥举行的哥伦比亚世界博览会。与此同时,波士顿的景观设计师查尔斯?埃利奥特(Charles Eliot did)提出了更加前瞻的大都市公园系统的设想,他将城市公园做为一种休闲的地域来减轻城市臃肿的负担。

Domestic architecture in the first half of the 20th century attempted to achieve a closer integration of the house with its surroundings, as seen in the works of Sven Markelius in Sweden, Alvar Aalto in Finland, and Frank Lloyd Wright in the U.S. In areas with mild climates, such as California, a garden might be continued within the house. The worldwide economic depression between the two world wars, however, forced a shift from domestic settings to large-scale public works, in which landscape architects and planners worked together on entire communities, regional areas, and vast state and national projects. The rising costs of labor and materials after World War II made careful planning imperative, especially in Europe and Asia, where entire cities had to be rebuilt within tightly restricted areas. In England, for example, the wholesale creation of new towns necessitated plans for the preservation of remaining open space, in which landscape architects played a significant role. In Canada and the U.S., landscape architects were far less constrained, although they shared the concerns of their European counterparts, such as the need for greenbelts around cities, for scenic preservation, and for low-cost maintenance. The proliferation of shopping malls, new suburbs, cultural centers, revitalized urban cores, and new educational facilities has given landscape architects in the later decades of this century unparalleled opportunities to refine their art and to create new forms. They have become, in conjunction with their colleagues in architecture, engineering, planning, and public office, the shapers of both the future and the present physical environment.

20世纪上半叶,民居建筑尝试使建筑与其环境达到更加紧密的结合,瑞典的马克利乌斯(Sven Markelius),芬兰的阿尔瓦·阿尔托(Alvar Aalto),美国的赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)都在自己的作品中体现了这一点。类似加利福尼亚这样气候温和的地区,庭院从建筑中延伸出来(加州花园)。然而,两次世界大战之间的全球范围的经济大萧条迫使设计的主流从宅院转移到了大尺度的公共建设,景观设计师与规划师协同工作,完成社区、城区乃至州省、全国性的项目。二战之后劳动力与原材料价格的上升使得规划与设计必须谨慎小心,尤其是在欧亚两洲,几乎所有的城市都要在严格限制的范围内重建。例如在英国,大量的新城的建设使得对现有的开放空间的保护成为必要,景观设计师在其中扮演着重要的角色。在加拿大和美国,尽管和他们欧洲的同行们有着共同的观点,景观设计师却要相对自由得多,比如对城市周边的绿带的需求,在满足保障景观效果的同时尽量降低维护的费用。到了本世纪后期,购物中心的扩张,市郊的建设,文化中心,城市核心地区的复苏,更多的教育机构的建立都给了景观设计师们空前的良机,他们不断完善着手法并创造出新的形式。他们在与建筑师,工程师,规划师以及市政官员的合作中不断进步,已经成为当前和未来良好环境的塑造者。


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