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今天的笔记和翻译:希坡的奥古斯丁;奥古斯丁论恶与罪

(2006-03-28 23:23:00)

 

 

    先贴一点笔记。是今天下午的基督教伦理学。

[1] Evil good ?

① God=I am. God is existence. => There is no need to proove God.
② God is good. 
①② => Existence is good.
     => Evil does not exist: a. Evil is not a thing. There is not such a thing like evil.
                             b. Evil is a privation/lack of good.
                             c. Only good can be evil.
=> Evil good is possible.
=> Evil comes from good: a. Evil is active, intelligent, excellent, not simple but complex.(eg.Hitler)
                         b. Evil desires aim at harmory.
                         c. Evil comes from free will. ___/ Adam & Eve's case
                                                          \ Devil's case
=>  / heaven: good
    \ hell: evil good, not evil


[2] Present mankind as a half product which needs to be recreated ?

Earth ==========> Man ============> A new world
       (create)        (recreate)


--------------------------我是华丽的分割线--------------------------------------------------------


    再贴今天的翻译。这次好像没什么状态。是用中午一点时间译的讲义里的两篇,最重要的一篇反而没有译。


希坡的奥古斯丁

      奥里利乌斯·奥古斯丁(354-430)是西方世界最重要的教会领袖之一(church father,早期基督教对教会里的领袖、牧师等的称呼),他在理论上和实践上都对罗马天主教和新教具有重要的意义。
      奥古斯丁出生于罗马时代的北非努米底亚塔迦斯特城(今阿尔及利亚,苏克·阿赫拉斯)一个市民阶级(middle class,市民阶级、中产阶级,聚集在新兴城市里、不受封建制度体制限制的阶级,以商人为主)家庭里,他的父亲是异教徒,母亲莫尼卡是基督徒。
      他为了求学去到家乡附近的马都拉,又去迦太基学习修辞学。他放弃了莫尼卡教予他的基督教道德,由阅读西塞罗(Cicero)的作品开始他的精神探索。奥古斯丁学习了圣经,但比起圣经里那些神启的经文(inspired Scriptures),他更喜欢西塞罗身上体现出来的尊贵。接着他开始朝拜摩尼教(Manichaeism, Manicheism, Manichaeanism, 摩尼教,公元三世纪时发源于古代波斯的二元宗教,旧时曾翻译作末尼教、牟尼教、明教、明尊教。),一门杂糅了拜火教、佛教、犹太教和基督教的宗教。公元383年他移居罗马,一年后选择在米兰教修辞学。
      奥古斯丁很快接受了米兰的安布罗斯(Ambrose)主教的布道。这次布道与奥古斯丁自己的神秘体验结合在一起,导致了他的信仰在386年向基督教转化。他成为基督教教旨的初学者,由安布罗斯为他施洗礼。388年他回到塔迦斯特城,再一次专心学习。391年奥古斯丁移居希坡(今阿尔及利亚波那城),在那里成为一名牧师,又于396年成为主教。他在那里成立一座修道院,包括一所后来建立的牧师培养学校。奥古斯丁在430年汪达尔族围攻希坡的时候在那里逝世。
      奥古斯丁写了93部作品。其中《上帝之城》(De civitate Dei)一书花了他13年时间写成。罗马的战败被视为旧罗马诸神的惩罚,因为基督徒并不尊崇罗马的宗教价值。奥古斯丁的朋友邀请他写书,于是有了后来成为老教堂护教书(apology)的《忏悔录》(Confessiones)。还有《论基督教教义》(De Doctrina Christiana)。以及作为奥古斯丁成年之后思想简述的《教义手册》(Enchiridion),这本书的英文和拉丁语版本都能在网络上找到,还有一个中文译本,并准备出第二个中文译本。


奥古斯丁论恶与罪

在成为基督徒之前,奥古斯丁就知道上帝是善的。他也知道在世界上存在恶。自然物质有局限性,而一些人的行为是有害的甚至罪恶的。罪恶的问题在于,鉴于上帝是善的和无所不能的,那么上帝与恶是如何存在的呢?奥古斯丁从摩尼教那里找到了答案。据此世界有两种相反的力量,善和恶。它们互相争斗。上帝尽其所能反对恶。恶与上帝一样强大。上帝是光明而恶是黑暗。双方都是物质的,上帝拥有光明的形体而恶拥有黑暗的形体。
   
奥古斯丁成为基督徒之后拒绝了摩尼教这种关于光明与黑暗的唯物主义教旨,认为上帝是精神的而不是物质的。摩尼教也训导说恶有一种不能征服的来源,它也是非物质的。奥古斯丁拒绝了这一教旨。他说上帝是独立而高于万物的。只要有无法超越的存在,那么其它物体都不能是至高无上的。而上帝是至高无上的,因为从无中创造了有。
   
在柏拉图主义看来,造物主创造的这个世界是所能创造的最好的世界。造物主从存在的物质中使万物成形。奥古斯丁拒绝了这一点,认为上帝是从无中创造有
   
上帝为什么要创造?“因为这是的意愿。”如果上帝的意愿有原因,那么它将先于上帝的意愿——相信这一点就是一种罪恶。所有的原因都先于它的效果。
   
创造是非常好的。除非上帝觉得一个东西是好的,否则不会创造它。上帝不会在任何需要之外去创造。
   
阿奎那说,世界是由最好的、最有可能的部分组成的,并且在这些部分中有着最好的顺序。
   
奥古斯丁说,每一种创造物都是好的,既然它存在着。那么为什么会有恶呢?
   
一些创造物胜过另外一些:一些败坏堕落的物体胜过另外一些未败坏堕落的物体;败坏的金胜过未败坏的银;被恶所败坏的理性精神胜过未败坏的无理性精神;任何精神都胜过未败坏的肉体。
   
上帝是崇高的精神存在,是崇高地简单的。虽然一些创造物比另一些坏,但没有什么创造物是恶的。恶是由于缺乏善。为什么上帝允许这种缺乏的出现呢?一来,因为创造物由无中创造,所以它们倾向于败坏;二来,局部的贫乏会造成整体的善,消逝会带来新的、好的创造物;最后,上帝对谁都不欠什么,相反,存在的物质因其存在而欠上帝的恩惠。
   
以恶的方式使用善,这是罪恶的。罪恶是意志背离上帝。这种对上帝的否决是被行为者的意志自主选择的。这不仅是应被指责的,它也是无理性的,它是可以想象的最坏的做法。
   
造成远离上帝的意志的原因是不可知的非存在。上帝创造的意志没有原因,所以人类的罪恶也没有原因。
   
罪恶的选择有两种情况,它们被奥古斯丁描述为罪恶的纯粹意志。它们就是:一、魔鬼对天使等级的背叛;二、亚当和夏娃在伊甸园里选择吃禁果。魔鬼的情况是一种典型,许多人类罪恶心理与之相一致。要回答为什么魔鬼拒绝那种对所有天使开放的祝福,奥古斯丁说到了被他定义为对自身优点之爱的骄傲动机。骄傲是恶在亚当与夏娃堕落之前的最初推动力。魔鬼的方式是诱惑而不是强迫。如果诱惑是强迫性的,那么惩罚就不正当了。亚当和夏娃自愿接受诱惑,因为他们对他们能像上帝那样的想法充满了骄傲和迷恋。罪恶通过骄傲来到被创造的世界。一些罪恶则属于无知与绝望。
   
亚当和夏娃进入了原罪的世界。这不是一个事件(event)而是一种境况(condition)。这种境况是对他们不顺从的惩罚。这包括了完美环境与自然不朽的缺失,以及承受自然痛楚、疾病、年岁、身体失调和性欲的可能性。这种境况是病态的,也是可遗传的;这不是一种摹仿。无论如何,能够推理与意愿的那种灵魂的积极能力并不弱。奥古斯丁没有说这些,但是他似乎这么想。灵魂能力的改变会带来新的物种。如果我们被告知说我们因为祖先的罪行而有欠发达,那将是可怕的;被告知说我们的物种是作为对罪行的惩罚而被不同物种的高级存在创造出来,那也是恐怖的。无论如何,所有罪恶的灵魂受两种惩罚的折磨:无知与困难。人类缺少亚当与夏娃所享受的那种与上帝的亲密,而这种亲密在亚当夏娃或魔鬼的故事里都不足以保证维持正当性。

 

[原文]

Augustine of Hippo

Aurelius Augustinus (354-430) was the most important of the Western church fathers because of his significance for both Roman Catholic and Protestant theology and practice.

Augustine was born in Numidian Tagaste in the Roman North Africa (now Souk-Ahras, Algeria). His family belonged to the middle class with his father being pagan and mother, Monica, being Christian.

His education took him to Madaura, near his home, and to Carthage to study rhetoric. He soon abandoned the Christian morals Monica had taught him. A spiritual search began with the writings of Cicero. Augustine studied the Bible, but he preferred the dignity of Cicero over the inspired Scriptures of the Bible. Next his pilgrimage led to Manichaeanism, a synthesis of Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Judaism, and Christianity. He moved to Rome in 383 and a year later was chosen to teach rhetoric in Milan.

Augustine soon came under the preaching of Bishop Ambrose of Milan. This preaching combined with Augustine’s own mystical experience brought about his conversion to Christianity in 386. He became a catechumen, a student of Christian doctrine, and was baptized by Ambrose. By 388 he had returned to Tagaste and once more devoted himself to study. In 391 Augustine moved to Hippo (now Bona, Algeria), where he became a priest and later bishop in 396. There he established a monastery that later included a school for ministerial training. Augustine died at Hippo in 430, at the time the vandals were besieging it.’

Augustine has written 93 works. Among others was “De civitate Dei” The Kingdom of God, which took Augustine 13 years to write it. Rome was defeated and people thought it was the punishment of old Roman gods, because the Christians did not honor Roman values or religion. The friends of Augustine asked him to write the book; “Confessiones” which became the apology of the old church; “De Doctrina Christiana”. A short presentation of Augustine’s thinking during his mature age is the book Enchiridion, a handbook. The text of this book in English and in Latin can be found in the Internet. There is one Chinese translation, and a second translation is under preparation.


Augustine, evil, sin

Before becoming a Christian Augustine thought that God is good. He knew also that there is evil in the world. Physical things have limitations and some people behave in a bad or evil way. The problem of evil: How God exists and evil exists, because God is good and omnipotent? Augustine found a reply to this problem from Manichaeism. According to it world has two opposing powers, good and evil. They compete with each others. God is doing the best he can against evil. Evil is as powerful as God. God is light, evil is darkness. Both are corporeal, God has the body of light and evil has the body of darkness..

After Augustine became a Christian he rejected this Manichaean materialistic doctrine about light and darkness. God is spiritual, not corporeal. Manichaeism could also teach that there is invincible source of evil which could be incorporeal as well.  Augustine rejected this doctrine. He said that God is sovereign over all other things. No being can be sovereign if there is another being over which it cannot prevail. God is sovereign because he has created everything out of nothing, ex nihilo.

In Platonism: Demiurge created this world and this world is the best world the demiurge could create. Demiurge formed everything out of matter which existed. Augustine rejected this, God created out of nothing.

Why God created. “Because he willed”. If God's will has a cause, it is something that takes precedence over (antecedat) God's will, which is sinful to believe. Every cause is superior to its effects.

Creation is very good. God will not create a thing unless he knows that it is good. God did not create out of any need.

Aguinas: the world is composed of the best possible parts and the world has the best possible order among its parts.

Augustine: Every creature is good insofar as it exists. How then, there is evil?

Some creatures are better than others. Some corrupted things are better than other uncorrupted things. A corrupted gold is better than uncorrupted silver. A rational spirit corrupted by evil is still better than an uncorrupted irrational spirit. Any spirit is better than uncorrupted body.

God is supremely spiritual being and supremely simple. No creature is evil although some are worse than others. Evil refers to privation, absence of goodness. Why God allows such privation occur? 1.Creatures tend to corrupt because they are created out of nothing. 2. Local privation may contribute to the good of the whole. Passing away ushers new, good creatures. 3. God owes nothing to anyone. On the contrary, things that exist owe their existence to God's grace.

It is evil to use good in an evil way. Sin is the will's turning away from God. This rejection of God is freely chosen by the agent's will. This is not only culpable. It is irrational. It is the worst deal imaginable.

The cause of the will's movement away from God is unknowable non-being. God's will in creating has no cause, so human's will in sinning has no cause.

There are two cases of sinful choice that dramatize for Augustine the sheer willfulness of sin. 1. The Devil's defection from the ranks of the angels and Adam and Eve's choosing to eat the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. The Devil's case was a model to which the psychology of many human sins conforms.  In answer to the question why Devil rejected the blessed life open to all angels, Augustine cited the motive of pride (superbia), which he defines as “the love of one's own excellence”. Pride is the initial evil impulse behind the fall of Adam and Eve. Devil tempted, did not coerce. If the temptation had been coercive, then the punishment had been unjust. Adam and Eve voluntarily followed the temptation because of their prideful fascination with the thought that they would become like God.  Sin came to the created world through price. Still some sins are committed in ignorance or desperation.

Adam and Eve ushered into the world original sin. It is not an event, it is a condition. This condition is a punishment on Adam and Eve for disobedience. This includes loss of perfect environment, loss of natural immortality, getting the possibility of physical pain, diseases, aging, bodily disorders, sexual lust. This condition is pathological and inherited. It is not imitation. The soul's active abilities were however not weakened, those of ability to reason and to will. Augustine does not speak about this, but he seems to think like this. The alteration of soul's abilities could produce new species. It is awful enough to be told that we are at present disadvantaged because of the misdeed of our ancestors. It would be monstrous to be told that our kind was created as a punishment for misdeeds perpetrated by superior beings of a different species. However, all sinful souls suffer from two penalties: ignorance and difficulty. Humans lack the kind of intimacy with God enjoyed by Adam and Ave. This intimacy was not sufficient to guarantee the maintenance of righteousness, in either Adam and Eve's or the Devil's case.

 

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