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幼儿语言学习的多感官自然交流法(MCA)

(2008-03-24 23:49:31)
标签:

育儿

 

The Multi-Sensory Communicative Approach (MCA)

 to English Language Acquisition

 

Dr. Florence Lee

幼儿语言学习的多感官自然交流法(MCA

快乐天使首席顾问Florence Lee博士给家长们的演讲

由长沙校区语言指导张华军博士翻译


 

 

I.Why ESL since Early Childhood?

一、为什么选择在幼儿期学习第二语言?

There is an increasing awareness of the value of introducing a second language to children. The argument is that early childhood is an advantageous time to learn a second language.

人们已经越来越认识到幼儿学习第二语言的重要性。研究证明,幼儿阶段是学习第二语言的最佳时期。

Reasons:

因为:

In the first six years of early childhood, the “window of opportunity” is wide open for natural language acquisition. If a child hears two or more languages in his home and school environment and uses them in daily interactions with adults and peers, he will be a “natural” speaker of these languages.

六岁之前的儿童,处在自然习得语言的“绝好时期”。如果孩子在家庭和教学环境中接触两种或甚至更多的语言,并在和大人和同伴的日常交流中使用这些语言,这些语言将成为他们的“自然”语言(“母语”)。

At the later stage, when the “window of opportunity” is passed, the child may face difficulties in learning languages other than his mother tongue.

之后,这个“绝佳时期”过去后,儿童再学习其母语之外的语言,就会相对困难很多。

More specifically,

展开来说,

1.     Young children seem to “pick up” a first and second language with relative ease.

研究表明,幼儿能很容易地习得第一和第二语言。

2.     The child’s language needs are simple and are linked to everyday activities, familiar people and objects and happenings that affect the child directly.

幼儿的语言需要非常简单,而且和日常生活、熟悉的人和周围对其发生直接影响的事物密切相关。

3.     A second language can also be acquired quite naturally and incidentally during day-to-day activities and interaction with other people.

在和他人日复一日的交往中,幼儿能很自然甚至是不经意的习得第二语言。

4.     An effective way of teaching a second language to a child is to use the language with him in daily living – the daily routines and storytelling and other interesting learning activities.

教幼儿学习第二语言最有效的途径就是在日常生活场景中和他们使用这种语言交谈,例如在一日生活的常规中使用,在讲故事的过程中,以及在其他有趣的学习活动中。

5.     Motivation is not a problem because their activities are interesting and therefore, intrinsically motivating.

动机并不是一个问题,因为活动本身是有趣的,这自然就成了孩子学习的内部动机。

 

6.     The level of language required is not high, and comprehension is not a problem because the language is used in concrete and familiar contexts with plenty of stimuli.

在学习第二语言时,幼儿所需的相关语言基础要求并不高,理解语言也不成问题,因为语言总是在具体、熟悉、充满大量刺激的环境中被反复使用。

 

How to be a “Natural” Speaker of a Second Language?

The Multi-Sensory Communicative Approach (MCA)

如何成为让第二语言成为“自然”语言?

多感官自然交流式方法

We suggest here this Multi-Sensory Communicative Approach, which is based on the “natural communicative” as well as the “kinaesthetic” approach to English language acquisition.

我们提出了多感官自然交流式方法,该方法落足于两个方面:一是“自然交流”,二是“运动感官刺激”。

In the natural approach, language is used for the purpose of communicating in “natural” social situations, that is, children use language meaningfully to interact with one another in realistic situations. The focus is on the “message” which the child wants to express to others in his environment. “What” he has to say is more important than “how” he says it, particularly in the initial stage of language acquisition. The child’s senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste are used to facilitate language acquisition.

在自然习得方式下,语言的目的是在“自然”的社会情境中用于交流,也就是说,儿童赋予语言以意义,在现实情境中和他人交流。这个过程中强调的是儿童在特定情境中想要向他人传达的“信息”。他所说“什么”比他“怎么说”更重要,尤其在刚开始进行语言学习的阶段。儿童的视觉、听觉、触觉、嗅觉和味觉都将被调动起来促进语言学习。

In addition, the kinaesthetic approach involves the child in physically responding to commands and directions given in the English language. Thus the child uses his “whole” body to acquire the target language that he uses to actively communicate with his peers and adults in relevant and realistic situations.

另一方面,“运动感官刺激”方法指儿童通过肢体运动对英语命令和指示做出反应。这样,儿童就调动了他/她“整个”的身体来习得目标语言,并在相关的现实情境中积极地用于和同伴及大人之间的交流。

 

Principles that underlie most French Early Immersion teaching practice in Canada certainly shed light on our proposed English as a Native Language teaching approach, or, the Multi-Sensory Communicative Approach.

加拿大作为双语国家,其法语早期浸入式教学实践积累了丰富的经验,总结出的一些原则对儿童英语自然交流式教学有很好的借鉴作用。

1.     The teacher always uses the target language with the children. She uses simplified repetitive speech using gestures, mime and intonation.

教师应注意始终用所教学的语言来和学生沟通。教师讲话时应注意使用简单的句子,不断重复,配以适当的手势、动作等肢体语言,并力求语气抑扬顿挫,从而帮助幼儿理解和掌握。

2.     The teacher makes use of usual aids and other objects and materials to aid comprehension.

教师应使用教具以及各种材料,以帮助幼儿理解。

3.     Children learn the target language, not by studying the language as a subject but by playing and engaging in interesting activities through the medium of the language.

幼儿在学习一门语言时,不是将它作为一个专门的学科,而是通过语言的媒介,进行畅快的游戏和玩乐。

Mainly three stages are involved in the process of natural English acquisition.

在幼儿自然交流式语言习得过程中,主要要经历三个阶段。

1.     Language Input

It is most important that children “hear” and “understand” English before he is asked to use it when speaking. The child must have sufficient input – to hear English being spoken and used in realistic situations, so that he has a “feel” of the language. At this stage, the child should be an “active” listener by focusing his attention on what is being said and trying to understand what he has heard.

 

语言输入期

在让儿童使用语言来说之前,需要先让他们“听”并“理解”英语。儿童必须得到充分的输入,即在现实情境中听到相关的英语,他/她才能对语言产生“感觉”。在这个阶段,儿童应是个“积极的”倾听着,应集中注意力于别人在说什么,并努力理解所听到的内容。

 

2.     The Silent Period

When children are in the beginning stages of language acquisition, the “silent” period follows the initial input stage. During this silent period, the child may not be talking but he is nevertheless acquiring the target language through exposure to it in communicative situations.

2.沉默期

在儿童刚开始习得一种新的语言时,输入期之后紧随着的是“沉默”期。在沉默期,儿童可能不会说什么,但他/她却通过融入其所处的交流式情境而潜移默化地在习得目标语言。

The “Total Physical Response” (TPR) approach is to be encouraged as this demonstrates comprehension of commands in English. The teacher needs to be patient and should not force children to speak before they are ready. Shy and self-conscious children would be more inclined to participate in choral rhymes and action songs in English rather than speaking it.

“全身反应法”(TPR)在这时是有效的,因为它能反映出儿童对英语的指令理解了。教师需要耐心,在孩子能开口说之前,不应逼迫他们说英语。生性腼腆或内向的孩子会更容易加入到英语韵律诗合唱和行动歌曲中来,而不是一下子就开始说英语。

3.     Language Output

After the silent period, comes the “output” or oral use of language. The teacher should provide daily opportunities for children to use English for “real” communicative purposes with peers and with adults in their environment. The teacher should be a good listener and should focus on the function rather than the form of language. Frequent corrections of errors would discourage children from using English. Instead, the teacher or adult should model the “correct” form for children to hear and understand in a non-threatening manner.

3.语言输出

在沉默期过后,儿童就如了语言输出期。这时,教师应为儿童提供现实情境中和大人和伙伴交流的日常机会。教师应成为一个很好的倾听着,并应注重孩子说的语言是不是达到了其功能,而不要苛求其语词形式。不断地帮儿童纠正语言中的错误会让儿童失去对使用英语的信心。正确的做法是,教师和大人可以用一种非强迫要求的方式向孩子示范“正确”的语词用法,让孩子听到并理解。

When language is acquired in the “natural” way, language usage is enhanced, which in turn, facilitates language acquisition.

当儿童用“自然”的方法习得语言时,他/她对语言的应用就会加强,而这反过来就会促进其语言学习。

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