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训练及行为术语测试 – P1

(2010-01-25 22:04:56)
标签:

塑造

刺激泛化

二級強化物

一级强化

意外强化

強化程式

懲罰

经典条件作

分类: 动物行为训练 Training

大家都學習了有關動物訓練的知識不少時間了,現在來測試一下大家對專業術語的水準如何,共20题, 测试时间为15分钟解题方式:左为数字列,内是术语名词;右为字母列,为术语名词解释。 有在表格下方有一方框,内有1 – 20数字,将右侧配对的解释的字母编号填入数字之中。请自己下载后自己独立完成

 

 

训练及行为术语测试

Part 1:            20 questions

1

 

行为

Behaviour  

A

The probability of a behaviour being performed in the presence of one stimulus which is not evident in the presence of another.

当个体学会对两个以上的刺激中的每个刺激作出分化反应时,其就辨别了两个以上的刺激,即处于刺激控制之下。

 

2

 

塑造

Shaping   

 

 

B

A reinforcement procedure in which a reinforcer is presented following the performance of a correct response, which increases the probability that the response will reoccur in the future.

是个体行为的结果导致了积极刺激增加,从而使该行为增强。

 

3

 

刺激泛化

Stimulus generalization

 

C

A type of learning in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a reflex response or respondent behaviour - Also referred to as Pavlovian Conditioning.

与中性刺激多次结合有效刺激而使有机体形成的条件反应。即是一种新的刺激引起已存在的反射反应。一种自动化的、非习得性的反应。

 

4 

强化物

Reinforcer

D

An external or internal object or event which elicits a behavioural response
from an organism.

作用于有机体,能引起有机体生理或行为反应的外部或内部的影响或生理变化。

 

5

攻击性

Aggression

 

E

Any reward perceptible by touch

以任何可察觉的触摸强化行为。

 

6

 

二級強化物

Secondary reinforcer

 

F

The procedure of providing consequence for a response that reduces the frequency of that response.

行为之后的结果,它导致这一行为在未来出现的可能性降低的过程。

 

7

 

刺激

Stimulus

 

G

Transfer of a trained response to situations or conditions other than those on which training has taken place in response to a stimulus that resembles the training stimulus. 

有机体获得对某一特定条件刺激的固定性条件反应后,与该条件刺激类似的其他刺激,不需经过另外的条件反射学习过程也能引起类似反应的现象。

8

 

操作条件作用

Operant conditioning

 

H

To add to the environment

将某对象加入到环境中

9

 

一级强化

Primary reinforcement

 

I

A generic term covering acts, activities, responses, reactions, movements, processes, operations, etc., in short, any measurable response of an organism.

有机体在各种内外部刺激影响下产生的活动。

 

10

 

促进

Prompt

 

J

An antecedent event that helps initiate a response. Instructions, gestures, physical guidance, and modeling cues serve as prompts.

指在SD出现后,对所给予的行为作出引导性的刺激, 如指导、手势、身体语言等,以增加个体在正确的时间做出正确行为的可能性。

 

11

 

正强化

Positive reinforcement

 

K

A reinforcer that has acquired reinforcing value through learning by being paired with events that are already reinforcing. (See conditioned reinforcer.)

经学习能够强化有机体反应的刺激物。其在生物学意义上,最初是中性的,后与初级强化物结合,获得强化的性质。

 

12

 

接触强化

Tactile reinforcement

 

L

The rule denoting how many or which responses will be reinforced.

在运用部份强化来形成操作性条件反射时的强化时间与比率的安排。

 

13

 

正面

Positive

 

M

The entire process of selectively reinforcing responses that approximate the desired response to an increasingly greater degree. A method of modifying behavior. 

根据操作条件作用原理,以一系列连续渐进的方式建立个体新行为的过程。

 

14

 

刺激控制

Stimulus control

 

N

An extremely general term used for a wide variety of acts that involve attack, hostility, etc. Typically, it is used for such acts as can be assumed to be motivated by any of the following: (a) fear or frustration, (b) a desire to produce fear or frustration in others, or (c) a tendency to push forward one’s own ideas or interests.

个体试图伤害其他个体或精神的心理或行为。 可能表现为一种心理情绪状态或性格特质,如愤怒、激动、敌意等。

 

15

 

信号 / 辨别刺激

Discriminative stimulus (SD)

O

A reinforcing event that does not depend on learning to achieve its reinforcing properties.

一种无需通过学习而具有的强化作用。

 

16

 

负强化

Negative Reinforcement

P

A science of behaviour in which the frequency of occurrence of behaviour is modified by the consequences of the behaviour.

当行为在一个具体的情景中发生后跟随着一个强化结果,使该行为在将来类似的情景中可能发生。即行为的结果影响行为再次发生的频率;是自发的,偶然的。

 

17

 

经典条件作用

Classical conditioning

Q

Reinforcement of unintended behaviour, causing an increase in an undesired response.

机体于作出非刻意行为上之强化,因此增加一个非预期之反应。

 

18

 

懲罰

Punishment

 

R

Any consequence of a response that increases the frequency of that response.

增加反应发生的可能性或频度的任何刺激物。

 

19

 

意外强化

Accidental reinforcement

 

S

The occurrence of a behaviour, there is followed by the removal of a stimulus or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus, which result in the strengthening of the behaviour.

一个行为的出现,随着这个行为出现了刺激的消除或者刺激强度的降低,导致了这行为的增加。

 

20

 

強化程式

Reinforcement schedules

 

T

A conditioned signal or cue that is initially paired with, then has the property of eliciting, a specific behavior through a reinforcement schedule.

透过强化计划,一个(条件化的)线索或信号能引发一特定的动作。

 

 

 

 

Write Answers here

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 11__        12__        13__        14__        15__        16__        17__        18__        19__        20__

 

 

 

记分

多于18题正确, 90%        非常好

17题正确,           85%        

16题正确,           80%         合格

少于16题正确,  请重温你的训练手册.

 

 

 

 

野云飞 搁笔于

2010年01月25日

 

 

 

 

 

 

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