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重听人的个体和社会群体身份(国外精品论文译稿)(下)

(2008-02-28 20:29:02)
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分类: 翻译集萃
This is where national organizations of hard of hearing people, and IFHOH itself, can make a significant contribution. In the fact that we provide, visibility to the reality of the hard of hearing condition, that we do not feel any sense of stigma or feel somehow diminished as human beings because we have a hearing loss. By our own self-acceptance, by acting as role models and advocates, we can appeal to the many more hard of hearing people in our societies to come out of the closet, to accept and deal with the reality of their hearing losses. Right now, our best estimate is that in developed countries only about 20 percent of people who can benefit from hearing aids wear them. These percentages, as we well know, would be even poorer in developing countries. It is not just a matter of economics. If this were the only factor, then most hard of hearing people in the developed countries would be using amplification. The issue really is self-acceptance. It's not easy to move hard of hearing people out of their self-constructed closet of isolation and despair. Among the hurdles that must be overcome are the association of hearing loss with increasing age and infirmity and the psychological blow to one's self-esteem that this acknowledgment may entail.
这就是重听人组织和IFHOH自身做出的重大贡献。事实上我们提供的是让更多人正视重听的现实条件,我们并不因为有听力损失就感到丢脸或觉得低人一等。藉着我们的自我认识,藉着我们充当榜样和倡导者,我们能够呼吁更多的重听人接受和对待听力损失的现实。目前,我们最乐观的估计是,在发达国家只有大约20%的人藉由所戴的助听器受益。而且,如我们所知,在发展中国家这个百分比值更少。它不仅仅是经济问题,如果经济是唯一的影响因素,那么在发达国家使用助听器的重听人数应当更多。问题的根本在于自我认识。促使重听人从自建的孤独与绝望的囚笼中走出来绝非易事。在这些困难当中,我们必须克服的是:听力损失与年纪增长、体质虚弱相关,还有可能必须承认精神上吹鼓的自尊。
However difficult this may be, the alternative is worse. People in contact with a hard of hearing person are aware that a problem exists. They note the misunderstood words, the unusual or irrelevant responses to spoken comments, the repetition of previously covered material, the withdrawal from conversational situations or attempts to dominate conversations - they can see, in other words, the effects of the hearing loss. If these other people are not aware that the hearing loss is the primary cause of these aberrant behaviors, then they will attribute these strange responses to other reasons, such as senility, aloofness, ignorance, or mental illness. The preferred choice seems obvious.
无论这有多困难,其他情况可能更糟。与重听人打过交道的人都知道一个问题。他们注意到被误解的词句、对言辞评论的异常或无关的反应、重复先前叙述过的内容、退出谈话、试图支配谈话-换言之,他们能察觉到听力损失的影响。如果旁人不知道听力损失是导致这些失常行为的根本原因,他们就会把这些奇怪的反应归咎于其它原因,如:衰老、冷漠、无知或精神病。人们倾向于何种选择显而易见。
I have already alluded to the fact that I don't think that a "hard of hearing" entity exists. So it is ironic in a way that the first step in any kind of remediation effort is for people with hearing losses to acknowledge that they are indeed hard of hearing. But what they are acknowledging is a condition and not an identity. If we - and by we I mean the many national organizations of hard of hearing people represented here - are successful in recruiting new members, this does not mean that they have acquired a new identity. What it does mean is that they are seeking support and information so that they can more effectively continue their usual pursuits. They may come to our organizations feeling somewhat stressed and overwhelmed by the impact the hearing loss has been having on their lives. Perhaps there has been conflict in the family because of communication breakdowns, or one's whole pattern of life has been disrupted because of an inability to continue former social, cultural, or vocational activities. The group support is not aimed at developing a new identity, but is aimed as assisting a person to assume his or her previous identity, and by this I mean one's former pattern of behaviors as much as possible.
我已经暗示了一个事实:我不认为存在有”重听”实体。所以多少有点讽刺意味的是在任何一种补救所做出的努力中,第一步却是让听力损失者认识到他们确实是重听。但是,他们所认识的是一个条件而不是一个身份。我们-我指的是在这里出席的诸国重听人组织-是否成功地吸收新成员,并不意味着他们获得了一个新的身份。这是说他们在寻找能够使他们能更有效地继续他们一贯的追求的支持和信息。他们来到我们这个组织可能是有些压力,听力损失给他们的生活带来冲击。也许由于沟通不便在家庭中有矛盾,或许由于无法继续以前社会、文化、职业上的活动而导致个人整个生活方式土崩瓦解。这个群体支持的目标不是发展一个新身份,而是协助一个人继续他/她以前的身份,这意思是:尽可能保持以前的行为方式。
In a sense, our success with people who join our organizations is often our failure as well. Many of the people who come through our organizations, and take the benefits that a self-help and advocacy group can offer, later leave the organization after they have received these benefits. They don't stay with the group precisely because this group membership does not define their identity. In this respect, organizations of hard of hearing people function much like many, but not all, support groups in general. When the presenting issue or problem has been resolved, the feeling is that there is no longer any point in staying involved.
在某种意义上说,人们加入我们的组织,是我们的成功,常常也正是我们的失败。很多人通过这个组织,获得自助与倡导者社团提供的帮助,获益后就离开了。他们不留在团队当中,因为这个团队的全体成员并不为他们的身份下定义。在这方面,重听人组织的作用更像许多一般社会团体(不是全部的)。解决了问题后就感觉到再没可以停留之处。
I think we need another model for hard of hearing people, one that overlaps and extends the traditional benefits of support group interactions. We need to define ourselves not as a common identity, but as a common interest group, a constituency if you will, that speaks out and represents our welfare. In this respect, the model I would like to see adopted is the one represented by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). This group represents the interests of older people in the US and has 33 million paid members. None of the politicians or bureaucrats in our country would take any action, in any matter affecting older people, without at least considering the response of the AARP. Older people are members of this organization purely on the basis of self-interest, but by virtue of their membership, they are also helping other older people as well since they add numbers to the power and influence of the organization.
我认为我们应该为重听人另设一个模式,这个模式藉着社团内部的互相影响从而覆盖和扩大其传统利益。我们不需要定义我们自己为另一身份(特性),而是作为一个共同利益的社团,如果你愿意,那么也可以代表团体的福利而且广而告之。在这方面,我乐意采用美国退休人员协会(AARP)所展示的模式。在美国这个协会代表着老年人的利益,有3300万付费会员。在对老年人切身利益有影响的事情上,没有AARP的响应,美国任何一个政客或官僚都不会采取行动。老年人成为这个协会的会员纯粹是基于自身利益。但是,由于成员之间的关系,他们也帮助其它老年人,由于其它人加入协会加强了组织的作用力和影响力。
Hard of hearing people, on the other hand, rarely join or stay members of organizations composed of hard of hearing people. Perhaps we should also start appealing to self-interest. For example, there are 24 million hard of hearing people in the US, but of them only about 25,000 belong to Self Help for Hard Hearing People, either at the local or national level. Proportionate to the possible membership, we represent a minuscule number of hard of hearing people. If in spite of our relatively few members, we have been effective advocates for hard of hearing people in our country - thanks to our founder Rocky Stone and his successor Donna Sorkin - just imagine how effective we could be with 100 times the number of members?
另一方面,重听人很少加入或留在重听人组成的组织当中成为其中的成员。也许我们也应该为自身利益发起呼吁。比如,美国有2400万重听人,但是全国和地区SHHH组织的所有成员只有2.5万。相对于重听人实际总数,我们表现出的只是一个极小的数字。尽管我们的成员相对较少,但由于我们的创始人Rock Stone和他的继承人Donna Sorkin的努力,在我国我们已经成为卓有成效的倡导者,试想,若成员数目增加100倍,又该产生多大的影响?
The point we must get across is that by joining with us, they are not thereby redefining their central identity. What they are doing is what democracies generally do: groups form themselves into constituencies that represents their interest. And their interest is not to separate from society, not to develop a sub-culture of hard of hearing people, but to so structure society, in particular in reducing the impact of the hearing loss, so that they can more fully be a participating member of the larger society. Hard of hearing want to be part of what they've always been part of, their hearing families and friends, their work, their familiar world, and the continued opportunity for self-fulfillment in all of its manifestations.
我们必须清楚表明的一点是:通过加入到我们当中,他们不必对他们的主要身份和特性再做定义。他们要做的就是民众通常所做的:把他们自己结集成团体以代表他们的利益。而且他们的利益不会从社团中剥离出去,也不形成重听人的亚文化,而是成为这样一个社会机构,致力于减少听力损失的冲击,于是他们能够更彻底地成为社会的成员。重听想要充当的角色就是已经充当了的角色-在他们的亲友、他们的工作、他们熟悉的世界中的角色,还有在各个方面继续有机会达成自己的愿望。

References 参考文献
Davis, H. (1990) Our Forgotten Children: Hard-of-Hearing Pupils in the Schools. Bethesda, MD: SHHH Publications
Davis, H.(1990)《我们被遗忘的孩子:学校里的重听(小)学生》Bethesda. MD:SHHH刊物
Ross, M. (1990). Implications of Delay in Detection and Management of Deafness. Volta Review, 92, 69-79.
Ross, M.(1990)《耽误检查与耳聋处理的含义》Volta评论,92,69-79
Ross, M., Bracket, D. & Maxon, A. B. (1991). Assessment and Management of Mainstreamed Hearing Impaired Children. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Ross, M., Bracket, D.和Maxon, A.B. (1991)《评价和管理主流社会听力受损的孩子》Austin, TX ro-Ed
Ross, M. (1992). Implications of Audiologic Success. J. Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, 3, 1-4.
Ross, M.(1992)《听力学成就之含义》J.听力康复学院,3,1-4
Stone, H. E. (1993). An Invisible Condition. Bethesda, MD: SHHH Publications.
Stone, H.E.(1993)《隐蔽状态》Bethesda, MD:SHHH刊物

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