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梭罗《瓦尔登湖》17:更高的规律 Higher Laws

(2011-09-19 13:17:19)
标签:

梭罗

瓦尔登湖

更高的规律

教育

分类: 生存生活

      当我提着一串鱼,拖着钓竿穿过树林回家的时候,天色已经完全黑了下来,我瞥见一只土拨鼠偷偷地横穿过我的小径,就感到了一阵奇怪的野性喜悦的颤抖,我被强烈地引诱了,只想把它抓住,活活吞下肚去,倒不是因为我那时肚子饿了,而只是因为它所代表的是野性。我在湖上生活的时候,有过一两次发现自己在林中奔跑,像一条半饥饿的猎犬,以奇怪的恣肆的心情,想要觅取一些可以吞食的兽肉,任何兽肉我都能吞下去。最狂野的一些景象都莫名其妙地变得熟悉了。我在我内心发现,而且还继续发现,我有一种追求更高的生活,或者说探索精神生活的本能,对此许多人也都有过同感,但我另外还有一种追求原始的行列和野性生活的本能,这两者我都很尊敬。我之爱野性,不下于我之爱善良。钓鱼有一种野性和冒险性,这使我喜欢钓鱼。有时候我愿意粗野地生活,更像野兽似的度过我的岁月。也许正因为我在年纪非常轻的时候就钓过鱼打过猎,所以我和大自然有亲密的往还。渔猎很早就把我们介绍给野外风景,将我们安置在那里,不然的话,在那样的年龄,是无法熟悉野外风景的。渔夫,猎户,樵夫等人,终身在原野山林中度过,就一个特殊意义来说,他们已是大自然的一部分,他们在工作的间歇里比诗人和哲学家都更适宜于观察大自然,因为后者总是带着一定的目的前去观察的。大自然不怕向他们展览她自己。旅行家在草原上自然而然地成了猎手,在密苏里和哥伦比亚上游却成了捕兽者,而在圣玛丽大瀑布那儿,就成了渔夫。但仅仅是一个旅行家的那种人得到的只是第二手的不完备的知识,是一个可怜的权威。我们最发生兴趣的是,当科学论文给我们报告,已经通过实践或者出于本能而发现了一些什么,只有这样的报告才真正属于人类,或者说记录了人类的经验。
   

As I came home through the woods with my string of fish, trailing my pole, it being now quite dark, I caught a glimpse of a woodchuck stealing across my path, and felt a strange thrill of savage delight, and was strongly tempted to seize and devour him raw; not that I was hungry then, except for that wildness which he represented. Once or twice, however, while I lived at the pond, I found myself ranging the woods, like a half-starved hound, with a strange abandonment, seeking some kind of venison which I might devour, and no morsel could have been too savage for me. The wildest scenes had become unaccountably familiar. I found in myself, and still find, an instinct toward a higher, or, as it is named, spiritual life, as do most men, and another toward a primitive rank and savage one, and I reverence them both. I love the wild not less than the good. The wildness and adventure that are in fishing still recommended it to me. I like sometimes to take rank hold on life and spend my day more as the animals do. Perhaps I have owed to this employment and to hunting, when quite young, my closest acquaintance with Nature. They early introduce us to and detain us in scenery with which otherwise, at that age, we should have little acquaintance. Fishermen, hunters, woodchoppers, and others, spending their lives in the fields and woods, in a peculiar sense a part of Nature themselves, are often in a more favorable mood for observing her, in the intervals of their pursuits, than philosophers or poets even, who approach her with expectation. She is not afraid to exhibit herself to them. The traveller on the prairie is naturally a hunter, on the head waters of the Missouri and Columbia a trapper, and at the Falls of St. Mary a fisherman. He who is only a traveller learns things at second-hand and by the halves, and is poor authority. We are most interested when science reports what those men already know practically or instinctively, for that alone is a true humanity, or account of human experience. 

 

      有些人说北方佬很少娱乐,因为他们公定假日既少,男人和小孩玩的游戏又没有像英国的那样多。这话错了,因为在我们这里,更原始、更寂寞的渔猎之类的消遣还没有让位给那些游戏呢。几乎每一个跟我同时代的新英格兰儿童,在十岁到十四岁中间都掮过猎枪,而他的渔猎之地也不像英国贵族那样地划定了界限,甚至还比野蛮人的都广大得多。所以,他不常到公共场所游戏是不足为奇的。现在的情形却已经在起着变化,并不是因为人口增加,而是因为猎物渐渐减少,也许猎者反而成了被猎的禽兽的好朋友,保护动物协会也不例外。
   

They mistake who assert that the Yankee has few amusements, because he has not so many public holidays, and men and boys do not play so many games as they do in England, for here the more primitive but solitary amusements of hunting, fishing, and the like have not yet given place to the former. Almost every New England boy among my contemporaries shouldered a fowling-piece between the ages of ten and fourteen; and his hunting and fishing grounds were not limited, like the preserves of an English nobleman, but were more boundless even than those of a savage. No wonder, then, that he did not oftener stay to play on the common. But already a change is taking place, owing, not to an increased humanity, but to an increased scarcity of game, for perhaps the hunter is the greatest friend of the animals hunted, not excepting the Humane Society.

 

     况且,我在湖边时,有时捕鱼,只是想换换我的口味。我确实像第一个捕鱼人一样,是由于需要的缘故才捕鱼的。尽管我以人道的名义反对捕鱼,那全是假话,其属于我的哲学的范畴,更甚于我的感情的范畴。这里我只说到捕鱼,因为很久以来,我对于打鸟有不同的看法,还在我到林中来之前,已卖掉了我的猎枪。倒不是因为我为人比别人残忍,而是因为我一点感觉不到我有什么恻隐之心。我既不可怜鱼,也不可怜饵虫。这已成了习惯。至于打鸟,在我那背猎枪的最后几年里,我的借口是我在研究飞鸟学,我找的只是罕见或新奇之鸟。可是我承认,现在我有比这更好的一种研究飞鸟学的方式了。你得这样严密仔细地观察飞鸟的习惯啊,就凭这样一个理由,已经可以让我取消猎枪了。然而,不管人们怎样根据人道来反对,我还是不得不怀疑,是否有同样有价值的娱乐,来代替打猎的;当一些朋友们不安地探问我的意见,应不应该让孩子们去打猎,我总是回答,应该,——因为我想起这是我所受教育中最好的一部分,——让他们成为猎者吧,虽然起先他们只是运动员,最后,如果可能的话,他们才成为好猎手,这样他们将来就会晓得,在这里或任何地方的莽原里并没有足够的鸟兽,来供给他们打猎的了。迄今为止,我还是同意乔臾写的那个尼姑的意见,她说:
   

Moreover, when at the pond, I wished sometimes to add fish to my fare for variety. I have actually fished from the same kind of necessity that the first fishers did. Whatever humanity I might conjure up against it was all factitious, and concerned my philosophy more than my feelings. I speak of fishing only now, for I had long felt differently about fowling, and sold my gun before I went to the woods. Not that I am less humane than others, but I did not perceive that my feelings were much affected. I did not pity the fishes nor the worms. This was habit. As for fowling, during the last years that I carried a gun my excuse was that I was studying ornithology, and sought only new or rare birds. But I confess that I am now inclined to think that there is a finer way of studying ornithology than this. It requires so much closer attention to the habits of the birds, that, if for that reason only, I have been willing to omit the gun. Yet notwithstanding the objection on the score of humanity, I am compelled to doubt if equally valuable sports are ever substituted for these; and when some of my friends have asked me anxiously about their boys, whether they should let them hunt, I have answered, yes -- remembering that it was one of the best parts of my education -- make them hunters, though sportsmen only at first, if possible, mighty hunters at last, so that they shall not find game large enough for them in this or any vegetable wilderness -- hunters as well as fishers of men. Thus far I am of the opinion of Chaucer's nun, who

 

    “没有听到老母鸡说过, 猎者并不是圣洁的人。”

 

"yave not of the text a pulled hen that saith that hunters ben not holy men."

 

      在个人的和种族的历史中还都曾经有过一个时期,那时猎者被称颂为“最好的人”,而阿尔贡金族的印第安人就曾这样称呼过他们。我们不能不替一个没有放过一枪的孩子可怜,可怜他的教育被忽视,他不再是有人情的了。对那些沉湎在打猎上面的少年,我也说过这样的活,我相信他们将来是会超越过这个阶段的。还没有一个人在无思无虑地过完了他的童年之后,还会随便杀死任何生物,因为生物跟他一样有生存的权利。兔子到了末路,呼喊得真像一个小孩。我警告你们,母亲们,我的同情并不总是作出通常的那种爱人类的区别的。
   

There is a period in the history of the individual, as of the race, when the hunters are the "best men," as the Algonquins called them. We cannot but pity the boy who has never fired a gun; he is no more humane, while his education has been sadly neglected. This was my answer with respect to those youths who were bent on this pursuit, trusting that they would soon outgrow it. No humane being, past the thoughtless age of boyhood, will wantonly murder any creature which holds its life by the same tenure that he does. The hare in its extremity cries like a child. I warn you, mothers, that my sympathies do not always make the usual philanthropic distinctions.

 

     青年往往通过打猎接近森林,并发展他身体里面最有天性的一部分。他到那里去,先是作为一个猎人,一个钓鱼的人,到后来,如果他身体里已播有更善良生命的种子,他就会发现他的正当目标也许是变成诗人,也许成为自然科学家,猎枪和钓竿就抛诸脑后了。在这一方面,人类大多数都还是并且永远是年轻的。在有些国家,爱打猎的牧师并非不常见。这样的牧师也许可以成为好的牧犬,但决不是一个善良的牧羊人。我还奇怪着呢,什么伐木、挖冰,这一类事是提也不用提了,现在显然只剩下一件事,还能够把我的市民同胞,弗论老少,都吸引到瓦尔登湖上来停留整整半天,只有这一件例外,那就是钓鱼。一般说,他们还不认为他们很幸运,他们这半天过得还很值得,除非他们钓到了长长一串鱼,其实他们明明得到了这样的好机会,可以一直观赏湖上风光。他们
得去垂钩一千次,然后这种陋见才沉到了湖底,他们的目标才得到了净化;毫无疑问,这样的净化过程随时都在继续着。州长和议员们对于湖沼的记忆已经很模糊了,因为他们只在童年时代,曾经钓过鱼;现在他们太老了,道貌岸然,怎么还能去钓鱼?因此他们永远不知渔乐了。然而,他们居然还希望最后到天堂中去呢。如果他们立法,主要是作出该湖准许多少钓钩的规定;但是,他们不知道那钓钩上钓起了最好的湖上风光,而立法也成为钓饵了。可见,甚至在文明社会中,处于胚胎状态的人,要经过一个渔猎者的发展阶段。
   

Such is oftenest the young man's introduction to the forest, and the most original part of himself. He goes thither at first as a hunter and fisher, until at last, if he has the seeds of a better life in him, he distinguishes his proper objects, as a poet or naturalist it may be, and leaves the gun and fish-pole behind. The mass of men are still and always young in this respect. In some countries a hunting parson is no uncommon sight. Such a one might make a good shepherd's dog, but is far from being the Good Shepherd. I have been surprised to consider that the only obvious employment, except wood-chopping, ice-cutting, or the like business, which ever to my knowledge detained at Walden Pond for a whole half-day any of my fellow-citizens, whether fathers or children of the town, with just one exception, was fishing. Commonly they did not think that they were lucky, or well paid for their time, unless they got a long string of fish, though they had the opportunity of seeing the pond all the while. They might go there a thousand times before the sediment of fishing would sink to the bottom and leave their purpose pure; but no doubt such a clarifying process would be going on all the while. The Governor and his Council faintly remember the pond, for they went a-fishing there when they were boys; but now they are too old and dignified to go a-fishing, and so they know it no more forever. Yet even they expect to go to heaven at last. If the legislature regards it, it is chiefly to regulate the number of hooks to be used there; but they know nothing about the hook of hooks with which to angle for the pond itself, impaling the legislature for a bait. Thus, even in civilized communities, the embryo man passes through the hunter stage of development.

 

     近年来我一再地发觉,我每钓一次鱼,总觉得我的自尊心降落了一些。我尝试又尝试。我有垂钓的技巧,像我的同伴们一样,又天生有垂钓的嗜好,一再促使我钓鱼去,可是等到我这样做了,我就觉得还是不钓鱼更好些,我想我并没有错。这是一个隐隐约约的暗示,好像黎明的微光一样。无疑问的,我这种天生嗜好是属于造物中较低劣的一种,然而我的捕鱼兴趣每年都减少了一点儿,而人道观点,甚至于智慧却并没有增加,目前我已经不再是钩鱼人了。可是我知道,如果我生活在旷野中,我还会再给引诱去作热忱的渔夫和猎人的。况且,这种鱼肉以及所有的肉食,基本上是不洁的,而且我开始明白,哪儿来的那么多家务,哪儿产生的那个愿望:要每天注意仪表,要穿得清洁而可敬,房屋要管理得可爱而没有任何恶臭难看的景象,要做到这点,花费很大。好在我身
兼屠夫,杂役,厨师,又兼那吃一道道菜肴的老爷,所以我能根据不寻常的全部经验来说话。我反对吃兽肉的主要理由是因为它不干净,再说,在捉了,洗了,煮了,吃了我的鱼之后,我也并不觉得它给了我什么了不起的营养。既不足道,又无必要,耗资却又太大。一个小面包,几个土豆就很可以了,既少麻烦,又不肮脏。我像许多同时代人一样,已经有好几年难得吃兽肉或茶或咖啡等等了;倒不是因为我找出了它们的缺点,而是因为它们跟我的想法不适应。对兽肉有反感并不是由经验引起的,而是一种本能。卑贱的刻苦生活在许多方页都显得更美,虽然我并不曾做到,至少也做到了使我的想象能满意的地步。我相信每一个热衷于把他更高级的、诗意的官能保存在最好状态中的人,必然是特别地避免吃兽肉,还要避免多吃任何食物的。昆虫学家认为这是值得注意的事
实,——我从柯尔比和斯班司的书中读到,——“有些昆虫在最完美状态中,虽有饮食的器官,并不使用它们,”他们把这归纳为“一个一般性的规则,在成虫时期的昆虫吃得比它们在蛹期少得多,贪吃的蛹一变而为蝴蝶,……贪婪的蛆虫一变而为苍蝇之后”,只要有一两滴蜜或其他甘洌液体就很满足了。蝴蝶翅下的腹部还是蛹的形状。就是这一点东西引诱它残杀昆虫。大食者是还处于蛹状态中的人;有些国家的全部国民都处于这种状态,这些国民没有幻想,没有想象力,只有一个出卖了他们的大肚皮。
   

I have found repeatedly, of late years, that I cannot fish without falling a little in self-respect. I have tried it again and again. I have skill at it, and, like many of my fellows, a certain instinct for it, which revives from time to time, but always when I have done I feel that it would have been better if I had not fished. I think that I do not mistake. It is a faint intimation, yet so are the first streaks of morning. There is unquestionably this instinct in me which belongs to the lower orders of creation; yet with every year I am less a fisherman, though without more humanity or even wisdom; at present I am no fisherman at all. But I see that if I were to live in a wilderness I should again be tempted to become a fisher and hunter in earnest. Beside, there is something essentially unclean about this diet and all flesh, and I began to see where housework commences, and whence the endeavor, which costs so much, to wear a tidy and respectable appearance each day, to keep the house sweet and free from all ill odors and sights. Having been my own butcher and scullion and cook, as well as the gentleman for whom the dishes were served up, I can speak from an unusually complete experience. The practical objection to animal food in my case was its uncleanness; and besides, when I had caught and cleaned and cooked and eaten my fish, they seemed not to have fed me essentially. It was insignificant and unnecessary, and cost more than it came to. A little bread or a few potatoes would have done as well, with less trouble and filth. Like many of my contemporaries, I had rarely for many years used animal food, or tea, or coffee, etc.; not so much because of any ill effects which I had traced to them, as because they were not agreeable to my imagination. The repugnance to animal food is not the effect of experience, but is an instinct. It appeared more beautiful to live low and fare hard in many respects; and though I never did so, I went far enough to please my imagination. I believe that every man who has ever been earnest to preserve his higher or poetic faculties in the best condition has been particularly inclined to abstain from animal food, and from much food of any kind. It is a significant fact, stated by entomologists -- I find it in Kirby and Spence -- that "some insects in their perfect state, though furnished with organs of feeding, make no use of them"; and they lay it down as "a general rule, that almost all insects in this state eat much less than in that of larvae. The voracious caterpillar when transformed into a butterfly ... and the gluttonous maggot when become a fly" content themselves with a drop or two of honey or some other sweet liquid. The abdomen under the wings of the butterfly still represents the larva. This is the tidbit which tempts his insectivorous fate. The gross feeder is a man in the larva state; and there are whole nations in that condition, nations without fancy or imagination, whose vast abdomens betray them.  

 

     要准备,并烹调这样简单、这样清洁,而不至于触犯了你的想象力的饮食是难办的事;我想,身体固然需要营养,想象力同样需要营养,二者应该同时得到满足,这也许是可以做到的。有限度地吃些水果,不必因此而替胃囊感到羞耻,决不会阻碍我们最有价值的事业。但要是你在盘中再加上一点儿的作料,这就要毒害你了。靠珍羞美味来生活是不值得的。有许多人,要是给人看到在亲手煮一顿美食,不论是荤的或素的,都难免羞形于色,其实每天都有人在替他煮这样的美食。要是这种情形不改变,我们就无文明可言,即使是绅士淑女,也不是真正的男人女人。这方面当然已提供了应当怎样改变的内容。不必问想象力为什么不喜好兽肉和脂肪。知道它不喜好就够了。说人是一种食肉动物,不是一种责备吗?是的,把别的动物当作牺牲品,在很大一个程度里,可以使
他活下来,事实上的确也活下来了;可是,这是一个悲惨的方式,——任何捉过兔子,杀过羊羔的人都知道,——如果有人能教育人类只吃更无罪过、更有营养的食物,那他就是人类的恩人。不管我自己实践的结果如何,我一点也不怀疑,这是人类命运的一部分,人类的发展必然会逐渐地进步到把吃肉的习惯淘汰为止,必然如此,就像野蛮人和较文明的人接触多了之后,把人吃人的习惯淘汰掉一样。
   

It is hard to provide and cook so simple and clean a diet as will not offend the imagination; but this, I think, is to be fed when we feed the body; they should both sit down at the same table. Yet perhaps this may be done. The fruits eaten temperately need not make us ashamed of our appetites, nor interrupt the worthiest pursuits. But put an extra condiment into your dish, and it will poison you. It is not worth the while to live by rich cookery. Most men would feel shame if caught preparing with their own hands precisely such a dinner, whether of animal or vegetable food, as is every day prepared for them by others. Yet till this is otherwise we are not civilized, and, if gentlemen and ladies, are not true men and women. This certainly suggests what change is to be made. It may be vain to ask why the imagination will not be reconciled to flesh and fat. I am satisfied that it is not. Is it not a reproach that man is a carnivorous animal? True, he can and does live, in a great measure, by preying on other animals; but this is a miserable way -- as any one who will go to snaring rabbits, or slaughtering lambs, may learn -- and he will be regarded as a benefactor of his race who shall teach man to confine himself to a more innocent and wholesome diet. Whatever my own practice may be, I have no doubt that it is a part of the destiny of the human race, in its gradual improvement, to leave off eating animals, as surely as the savage tribes have left off eating each other when they came in contact with the more civilized.

 

      如果一个人听从了他的天性的虽然最微弱,却又最持久的建议——那建议当然是正确的——那他也不会知道这建议将要把他引导到什么极端去,甚至也会引导到疯狂中去;可是当他变得更坚决更有信心时,前面就是他的一条正路。一个健康的人内心最微弱的肯定的反对,都能战胜人间的种种雄辩和习俗。人们却很少听从自己的天性,偏偏在它带他走入歧途时,却又听从起来。结果不免是肉体的衰退,然而也许没有人会引以为憾。因为这些生活是遵循了更高的规律的。如果你欢快地迎来了白天和黑夜,生活像鲜花和香草一样芳香,而且更有弹性,更如繁星,更加不朽,——那就是你的成功。整个自然界都庆贺你,你暂时也有理由祝福你自己。最大的益处和价值往往都受不到人们的赞赏。我们很容易怀疑它们是否存在。我们很快把它们忘记了。它们是最高的现实。也许那些最惊人、最真实的事实从没有在人与人之间交流。我每天生命的最真实收获,也仿佛朝霞暮霭那样地不可捉摸,不可言传。我得到的只是一点儿尘埃,我抓住的只是一段彩虹而已。
   

If one listens to the faintest but constant suggestions of his genius, which are certainly true, he sees not to what extremes, or even insanity, it may lead him; and yet that way, as he grows more resolute and faithful, his road lies. The faintest assured objection which one healthy man feels will at length prevail over the arguments and customs of mankind. No man ever followed his genius till it misled him. Though the result were bodily weakness, yet perhaps no one can say that the consequences were to be regretted, for these were a life in conformity to higher principles. If the day and the night are such that you greet them with joy, and life emits a fragrance like flowers and sweet-scented herbs, is more elastic, more starry, more immortal -- that is your success. All nature is your congratulation, and you have cause momentarily to bless yourself. The greatest gains and values are farthest from being appreciated. We easily come to doubt if they exist. We soon forget them. They are the highest reality. Perhaps the facts most astounding and most real are never communicated by man to man. The true harvest of my daily life is somewhat as intangible and indescribable as the tints of morning or evening. It is a little star-dust caught, a segment of the rainbow which I have clutched.

 

      然而我这个人绝不苛求;一只油煎老鼠,如果非吃不可,我也可以津津有味地吃下去。我只喝白开水已有这么久了,其原因同我爱好大自然的天空远胜过吸食鸦片烟的人的吞云吐雾一样。我欢喜经常保持清醒,而陶醉的程度是无穷的。我相信一个聪明人的唯一饮料是白开水,酒并不是怎样高贵的液体,试想一杯热咖啡足以捣毁一个早晨的希望,一杯热茶又可以把晚上的美梦破坏掉!啊,受到它们的诱惑之后,我曾经如何地堕落过!甚至音乐也可以使人醉倒。就是这一些微小的原因竟毁灭过希腊和罗马,将来还要毁灭英国和美国。一切醉人的事物之中,谁不愿意因为呼吸了新鲜空气而陶醉呢?我反对长时间的拼命做苦工的理由是它强迫我也拼命地吃和喝。可是说实话,在这些方面,近来我似乎也不那么挑剔了。我很少把宗教带上食桌,我也不寻求祝福,这却不是因为
我更加聪明了,我不能不从实供认,而是因为,不管多么遗憾,我也一年年地更加粗俗了,更加冷漠了。也许这一些问题只有年轻人关心,就像他们关心诗歌一样。“哪儿”也看不见我的实践,我的意见却写在这里了。然而,我并不觉得我是吠陀经典上说的那种特权阶级,它说过:“于万物主宰有大信心者,可以吃一切存在之事物,”这是说他可以不用问吃的是什么,是谁给他预备的,然而,就是在他们那种情形下,也有这一点不能不提起,正如一个印度的注释家说过的,吠陀经典是把这一个特权限制在“患难时间”里的。
   

Yet, for my part, I was never unusually squeamish; I could sometimes eat a fried rat with a good relish, if it were necessary. I am glad to have drunk water so long, for the same reason that I prefer the natural sky to an opium-eater's heaven. I would fain keep sober always; and there are infinite degrees of drunkenness. I believe that water is the only drink for a wise man; wine is not so noble a liquor; and think of dashing the hopes of a morning with a cup of warm coffee, or of an evening with a dish of tea! Ah, how low I fall when I am tempted by them! Even music may be intoxicating. Such apparently slight causes destroyed Greece and Rome, and will destroy England and America. Of all ebriosity, who does not prefer to be intoxicated by the air he breathes? I have found it to be the most serious objection to coarse labors long continued, that they compelled me to eat and drink coarsely also. But to tell the truth, I find myself at present somewhat less particular in these respects. I carry less religion to the table, ask no blessing; not because I am wiser than I was, but, I am obliged to confess, because, however much it is to be regretted, with years I have grown more coarse and indifferent. Perhaps these questions are entertained only in youth, as most believe of poetry. My practice is "nowhere," my opinion is here. Nevertheless I am far from regarding myself as one of those privileged ones to whom the Ved refers when it says, that "he who has true faith in the Omnipresent Supreme Being may eat all that exists," that is, is not bound to inquire what is his food, or who prepares it; and even in their case it is to be observed, as a Hindoo commentator has remarked, that the Vedant limits this privilege to "the time of distress." 

 

      谁个没有吃得津津有味过,而胃囊却一无所获?我曾经欣然想到,由于一般的所谓知味,我有了一种精神上的感悟,通过味觉受到后发。坐在小山上吃的浆果营养了我的天性。“心不在焉,”曾子说过,“视而不见,听而不闻,食而不知其味。”能知道食份的真味的人决不可能成为饕餮,不这样的人才是饕餮。一个清教徒可能狂吞他的面包皮屑,正如一个议员大嚼甲鱼。食物入口并不足以玷辱一个人,但他吃这种食物的胃口却足以玷辱他。问题不在量,不在质,而在口腹的贪嗜上,如果吃东西不是为了养活我们的生命,也不是为了激励我们的精神生活,而是为了在肚皮里缠住我们的蛔虫。一个猎者爱吃乌龟、麝鼠或其他野蛮的食物,一个漂亮太太爱吃小牛蹄做的冻肉,或海外的沙丁鱼,他们是一样的,他到他的湖边去,她拿她的肉冻罐。使人惊奇的是他们,你,我,怎么能过如此卑劣的禽兽生活,只是吃吃喝喝。
   

Who has not sometimes derived an inexpressible satisfaction from his food in which appetite had no share? I have been thrilled to think that I owed a mental perception to the commonly gross sense of taste, that I have been inspired through the palate, that some berries which I had eaten on a hillside had fed my genius. "The soul not being mistress of herself," says Thseng-tseu, "one looks, and one does not see; one listens, and one does not hear; one eats, and one does not know the savor of food." He who distinguishes the true savor of his food can never be a glutton; he who does not cannot be otherwise. A puritan may go to his brown-bread crust with as gross an appetite as ever an alderman to his turtle. Not that food which entereth into the mouth defileth a man, but the appetite with which it is eaten. It is neither the quality nor the quantity, but the devotion to sensual savors; when that which is eaten is not a viand to sustain our animal, or inspire our spiritual life, but food for the worms that possess us. If the hunter has a taste for mud-turtles, muskrats, and other such savage tidbits, the fine lady indulges a taste for jelly made of a calf's foot, or for sardines from over the sea, and they are even. He goes to the mill-pond, she to her preserve-pot. The wonder is how they, how you and I, can live this slimy, beastly life, eating and drinking.  

 

      我们的整个生命是惊人地精神性的。善恶之间,从无一瞬休战。善是唯一的授予,永不失败。在全世界为之振鸣的竖琴音乐中,善的主题给我们以欣喜。这竖琴好比宇宙保险公司里的旅行推销员,宣传它的条例,我们的小小善行是我们所付的保险费。虽然年轻人最后总要冷淡下去,宇宙的规律却是不会冷淡的,而是永远和敏感的人站在一边。从西风中听一听谴责之辞吧,一定有的,听不到的人是不幸的。我们每弹拨一根弦,每移动一个音栓的时候,可爱的寓意渗透了我们的心灵。许多讨厌的声音,传得很远,听来却像音乐,对于我们卑贱的生活,这真是一个傲然的可爱的讽刺。
   

Our whole life is startlingly moral. There is never an instant's truce between virtue and vice. Goodness is the only investment that never fails. In the music of the harp which trembles round the world it is the insisting on this which thrills us. The harp is the travelling patterer for the Universe's Insurance Company, recommending its laws, and our little goodness is all the assessment that we pay. Though the youth at last grows indifferent, the laws of the universe are not indifferent, but are forever on the side of the most sensitive. Listen to every zephyr for some reproof, for it is surely there, and he is unfortunate who does not hear it. We cannot touch a string or move a stop but the charming moral transfixes us. Many an irksome noise, go a long way off, is heard as music, a proud, sweet satire on the meanness of our lives. 

 

      我们知道我们身体里面,有一只野兽,当我们的更高的天性沉沉欲睡时,它就醒过来了。这是官能的,像一条毒蛇一样,也许难于整个驱除掉;也像一些虫子,甚至在我们生活着并且活得很健康的时候,它们寄生在我们的体内。我们也许能躲开它,却永远改变不了它的天性。恐怕它自身也有一定的健壮,我们可以很健康,却永远不能是纯净的。那一天我拣到了一只野猪的下腭骨,有雪白的完整的牙齿和长牙,还有一种和精神上的不同的动物性的康健和精力。这是用节欲和纯洁以外的方法得到的。“人之所以异于禽兽者几希,”孟子说,“庶民去之,君子存之。”如果我们谨守着纯洁,谁知道将会得到何等样的生命?如果我知道有这样一个聪明人,他能教给我洁身自好的方法,我一定要去找他。“能够控制我们的情欲和身体的外在官能,并做好事的话,照吠陀经典
的说法,是在心灵上接近神的不可缺少的条件。”然而精神是能够一时之间渗透并控制身体上的每一个官能和每一个部分,而把外表上最粗俗的淫荡转化为内心的纯洁与虔诚的。放纵了生殖的精力将使我们荒淫而不洁;克制了它则使我们精力洋溢而得到鼓舞。贞洁是人的花朵;创造力、英雄主义、神圣等等只不过是它的各种果实。当纯洁的海峡畅通了,人便立刻奔流到上帝那里。我们一忽儿为纯洁所鼓舞,一忽儿因不洁而沮丧。自知身体之内的兽性在一天天地消失,而神性一天天地生长的人是有福的,当人和劣等的兽性结合时,便只有羞辱。我担心我们只是农牧之神和森林之神那样的神或半神与兽结合的妖怪,饕餮好色的动物。我担心,在一定程度上,我们的一生就是我们的耻辱。——
   

We are conscious of an animal in us, which awakens in proportion as our higher nature slumbers. It is reptile and sensual, and perhaps cannot be wholly expelled; like the worms which, even in life and health, occupy our bodies. Possibly we may withdraw from it, but never change its nature. I fear that it may enjoy a certain health of its own; that we may be well, yet not pure. The other day I picked up the lower jaw of a hog, with white and sound teeth and tusks, which suggested that there was an animal health and vigor distinct from the spiritual. This creature succeeded by other means than temperance and purity. "That in which men differ from brute beasts," says Mencius, "is a thing very inconsiderable; the common herd lose it very soon; superior men preserve it carefully." Who knows what sort of life would result if we had attained to purity? If I knew so wise a man as could teach me purity I would go to seek him forthwith. "A command over our passions, and over the external senses of the body, and good acts, are declared by the Ved to be indispensable in the mind's approximation to God." Yet the spirit can for the time pervade and control every member and function of the body, and transmute what in form is the grossest sensuality into purity and devotion. The generative energy, which, when we are loose, dissipates and makes us unclean, when we are continent invigorates and inspires us. Chastity is the flowering of man; and what are called Genius, Heroism, Holiness, and the like, are but various fruits which succeed it. Man flows at once to God when the channel of purity is open. By turns our purity inspires and our impurity casts us down. He is blessed who is assured that the animal is dying out in him day by day, and the divine being established. Perhaps there is none but has cause for shame on account of the inferior and brutish nature to which he is allied. I fear that we are such gods or demigods only as fauns and satyrs, the divine allied to beasts, the creatures of appetite, and that, to some extent, our very life is our disgrace.--

 

      “这人何等快乐,斩除了脑中的林莽,把内心的群兽驱逐到适当的地方。……能利用他的马、羊、狼和一切野兽,而自己和其他动物相比,不算蠢驴, 否则,人不单单放牧一群猪猡,而且也是这样那样的鬼怪妖魔,使它们狂妄失性,使他们越来越坏。
   

"How happy's he who hath due place assigned to his beasts and disafforested his mind!

. . . . . . . Can use this horse, goat, wolf, and ev'ry beast, And is not ass himself to all the rest! Else man not only is the herd of swine, But he's those devils too which did incline Them to a headlong rage, and made them worse."  

 

      一切的淫欲,虽然有许多形态,却只是一个东西,纯洁的一切也只是一个东西。一个人大吃大喝,男女同居,或淫荡地睡觉,只是一回事。这属于同一胃口,我们只要看到一个人在于其中的一件事,就能够知道他是怎样的一个好色之徒。不洁和纯洁是不能一起站立,一起就座的。我们只要在穴洞的一头打一下蛇,它就会在另一头出现。如果你想要贞洁,你必须节制。什么是贞洁呢?一个人怎么知道他是贞洁的呢?他不能知道。我们只听说过,但不知道它是怎样的。我们依照我们听到过的传说来说明它。智慧和纯洁来之于力行,从懒惰中却出现了无知和淫欲对一个学生来说,淫欲是他心智懒惰的结果,一个不洁的人往往是一个懒惰的人:他坐在炉边烤火,他在阳光照耀下躺着,他没有疲倦,就要休息如果要避免不洁和一切罪恶,你就热忱地工作吧,即使是打扫马厩也行。天性难于克制,但必须克制。如果你不比异教徒纯洁,如果你不比异教徒更能克制自己,如果你不比异教徒更虔敬,那你就算是基督徒又怎么样呢?我知道有很多被认为是异教的宗教制度,它们的教律使读者感到羞愧,并且要他作新的努力,虽然要努力的只不过是奉行仪式而已。
   

All sensuality is one, though it takes many forms; all purity is one. It is the same whether a man eat, or drink, or cohabit, or sleep sensually. They are but one appetite, and we only need to see a person do any one of these things to know how great a sensualist he is. The impure can neither stand nor sit with purity. When the reptile is attacked at one mouth of his burrow, he shows himself at another. If you would be chaste, you must be temperate. What is chastity? How shall a man know if he is chaste? He shall not know it. We have heard of this virtue, but we know not what it is. We speak conformably to the rumor which we have heard. From exertion come wisdom and purity; from sloth ignorance and sensuality. In the student sensuality is a sluggish habit of mind. An unclean person is universally a slothful one, one who sits by a stove, whom the sun shines on prostrate, who reposes without being fatigued. If you would avoid uncleanness, and all the sins, work earnestly, though it be at cleaning a stable. Nature is hard to be overcome, but she must be overcome. What avails it that you are Christian, if you are not purer than the heathen, if you deny yourself no more, if you are not more religious? I know of many systems of religion esteemed heathenish whose precepts fill the reader with shame, and provoke him to new endeavors, though it be to the performance of rites merely.

 

      我不愿意说这些话,但并不是由于主题,一我也不管我的用字是何等亵猥,——而是因为说这些话,就泄露出我自己的不洁。对于一种淫欲的形式,我们常常可以无所忌惮地畅谈,对于另一种却又闭口无言。我们已经太堕落了。所以不能简单地谈人类天性的必要活动。在稍早一些的几个时代,在某些国内,每一样活动都可以正经谈论,并且也都由法律控制。印度的立法者是丝毫不嫌其琐碎的,尽管近代人不以为然。他教人如何饮,食,同居,如何解大小便等等,把卑贱的提高了,而不把它们作为琐碎之事,避而不谈。
   

I hesitate to say these things, but it is not because of the subject -- I care not how obscene my words are -- but because I cannot speak of them without betraying my impurity. We discourse freely without shame of one form of sensuality, and are silent about another. We are so degraded that we cannot speak simply of the necessary functions of human nature. In earlier ages, in some countries, every function was reverently spoken of and regulated by law. Nothing was too trivial for the Hindoo lawgiver, however offensive it may be to modern taste. He teaches how to eat, drink, cohabit, void excrement and urine, and the like, elevating what is mean, and does not falsely excuse himself by calling these things trifles.

 

      每一个人都是一座圣庙的建筑师。他的身体是他的圣殿,在里面,他用完全是自己的方式来崇敬他的神,他即使另外去琢凿大理石,他还是有自己的圣殿与尊神的。我们都是雕刻家与画家,用我们的血,肉,骨骼做材料。任何崇高的品质,一开始就使一个人的形态有所改善,任何卑俗或淫欲立刻使他变成禽兽。
   

Every man is the builder of a temple, called his body, to the god he worships, after a style purely his own, nor can he get off by hammering marble instead. We are all sculptors and painters, and our material is our own flesh and blood and bones. Any nobleness begins at once to refine a man's features, any meanness or sensuality to imbrute them.

 

      在一个九月的黄昏,约翰·发尔末做完一天艰苦的工作之后,坐在他的门口,他的心事多少还奔驰在他的工作上。洗澡之后,他坐下来给他的理性一点儿休息。这是一个相当寒冷的黄昏,他的一些邻人担心会降霜。他沉思不久,便听到了笛声,跟他的心情十分协调。他还在想他的工作,虽然他尽想尽想着,还在不由自主地计划着、设计着,可是他对这些事已不大关心了。这大不了是皮屑,随时可以去掉的。而笛子的乐音,是从不同于他那个工作的环境中吹出来的,催他沉睡着的官能起来工作。柔和的乐音吹走了街道、村子和他居住的国家。有一个声音对他说,——在可能过光荣的生活的时候,为什么你留在这里,过这种卑贱的苦役的生活呢?同样的星星照耀着那边的大地,而不是这边的,——可是如何从这种境况中跳出来,真正迁移到那里去呢?他所能够想到的只是实践一种新的刻苦生活,让他的心智降入他的肉体中去解救它,然后以日益增长的敬意来对待他自己。

John Farmer sat at his door one September evening, after a hard day's work, his mind still running on his labor more or less. Having bathed, he sat down to re-create his intellectual man. It was a rather cool evening, and some of his neighbors were apprehending a frost. He had not attended to the train of his thoughts long when he heard some one playing on a flute, and that sound harmonized with his mood. Still he thought of his work; but the burden of his thought was, that though this kept running in his head, and he found himself planning and contriving it against his will, yet it concerned him very little. It was no more than the scurf of his skin, which was constantly shuffled off. But the notes of the flute came home to his ears out of a different sphere from that he worked in, and suggested work for certain faculties which slumbered in him. They gently did away with the street, and the village, and the state in which he lived. A voice said to him -- Why do you stay here and live this mean moiling life, when a glorious existence is possible for you? Those same stars twinkle over other fields than these. -- But how to come out of this condition and actually migrate thither? All that he could think of was to practise some new austerity, to let his mind descend into his body and redeem it, and treat himself with ever increasing respect.

 

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