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查拉图斯特拉

(2007-11-27 15:01:00)
分类: 哲学沉思类

我们所认为的:尼采的查拉图斯特拉就是尼采本人,实际并非如此,尼采在《瞧,这个人!》中明确指出,这个人应该就是琐罗亚斯德(希腊语发音,波斯语发音就是查拉图斯特拉),古代拜火教的创始人。下面引用一些材料介绍查拉图斯特拉。

 

Zarathustra, The Persian Prophet

波斯先知扎拉图斯特拉

There are many viewpoints on the timeline for Zarathustra's date of birth - vary by almost 1,000 years. At best this is all speculative. The truth will remain an enigma, but his teachings and his belief in monotheism have perpetuated throughout history. Who was this great teacher and prophet? Many scholars believe he was a priest and a prophet. He was linked to the Magi. His spiritual influences have always affected human thought and reasoning - his goals, to show human their connection a creation and their link to onesource.

对于扎拉图斯特拉的出生日期,有很多不同的看法——竟然会相差一千年之多。这些至多都是投机的说法,真相依然是一个谜,但是他的教导和一神论的信仰在整个历史上都是不朽。这位伟大的导师和先知是谁呢?很多学者都相信他是一位祭司和先知。他与东方三博士有着连接。他始终在精神上影响着人们的思想和论证——他的主旨,是向人类显示出他与一个造物主的连接和他们的连接源头。

Zoroaster's name

琐罗亚斯德的名字

The name Zarathustra is a Bahuvrihi compound in the Avestan language, of zarata- "feeble, old" and usatra "camel", translating to "having old camels, the one who owns old camels". The first part of the name was formerly commonly translated as "yellow" or "golden", from the Avestan "zaray", giving the meaning "having yellow camels".

扎拉图斯特拉(Zarathustra)这个名字在阿维斯陀语是一个性状复合词,zarata是代表“衰弱,年老”, usatra是代表“骆驼”,翻译起来就是“拥有年老的骆驼,拥有年老骆驼的人”。这个名字睥经一部分以前通常是翻译为“黄色”或者“金黄色”,来自阿维斯陀语的“zaray”,有“拥有黄色骆驼”的意思。

A more romantic, but inaccurate, translation of the name in the past has been Bringer of the Golden Dawn, based on the mistaken assumption that the second part of the name is a variant of the Vedic word "Ushas" meaning "dawn".

在过去,一个更加传奇式,但不准确的翻译就是“从金色黎明而来”,主要建立在众多吠陀梵语中“黎明女神”即是“黎明”的错误假设的基础上。

This last translation seems to have derived from a desire to give a more fitting meaning to the prophet's name than "owner of feeble camels."

最后的翻译看来更多是源自给予这个先知名字合适意思的渴望上,而不是 “虚弱骆驼的主人”。

An alternate reading is "old camel." Animals such as camels and horses were essential and even sacred to the people of Zarathushtra's age, and thus a name containing one of these animals marks a person as important. A similar naming practice occurred among the ancient Greeks where names containing "-ippos" or horse denoted high birth - such as Philippos (lover of horses), Aristippos (best horse), or Xanthippos (yellow horse).

一种交替式的读法就是“年老的骆驼”。像骆驼,马这样的动物是本质,在扎拉图斯特拉的年代甚至比人还要神圣,从而一个包含着这些动物名字的人名是标志着一个人的重要性。类似的命名事实上出现在古希腊里面,带有词根“-ippos”的名字或者“马”是代表高贵的出身——例如Philippos(马的爱好者),Aristippos(最优良的马),或者Xanthippos(黄色的马)。

The later Zoroastrians, perhaps embarrassed by their prophet's primitive-sounding name, said that the name meant "Golden Light," deriving their meaning from the word zara and the word ushas, light or dawn. There is no doubt about Zarathushtra's clan name, which is Spitama - perhaps meaning "white." Zarathushtra's father was named Pouruchaspa (many horses) and his mother was named Dughdova (milkmaid). His birthday is celebrated on March 26, as part of the Iranian New Year Festival.

后期的琐罗亚斯德教,很可能是被他们的先知听起上来原始和粗糙的名字搞得因窘,说名字意思是“金黄色的光”,它们的意义是源自扎拉(zara)和乌莎丝(ushas,黎明女神),明亮或者黎明。毫无疑问,扎拉图斯特拉的宗族名字,是斯皮塔马——很可能是“白色”的意思。扎拉图斯特拉的父亲叫做普鲁切帕(Pouruchaspa,“很多马”的意思),他的母亲叫做达多瓦(Dughdova,“挤奶的妇女”的意思)。他的生日是在3月26日庆祝,作为波斯人庆祝新年的其中一部分。

No one knows where or when the Prophet was born. Some legends place his birth in western Iran, perhaps near Tehran; others, which are somewhat more likely due to the eastern Iranian language of his poetry, place his birthplace in the east. As for the date of his birth, it has been since ancient times a matter of controversy. Greek sources placed him as early as 6000 B.C., a reckoning derived from poorly transmitted Zoroastrian legends; few if any scholars take that date seriously. The traditional Zoroastrian date for Zarathushtra's birth and ministry is around 600 B.C. This is derived from a Greek source that places him "300 years before Alexander" which would give that date; other rationales for the 600 BC date identify the King Vishtaspa of Zarathushtra's Gathas with the father of the Persian King Darius, who lived around that time.

没有人知道先知在何时何地出生。一些传说称他在伊朗西部诞生,很可能是在德克兰附近;其他的是在一些他作的诗的语言里,更趋向于说他是在伊朗东部诞生。他出生的日子是古时候充满纷战的时期。希腊原始资料说他是在公元前六千年诞生,估计是源自贫乏的琐罗亚斯德传说传播上,几乎没有学者认真地对待出生日期。传统上,琐罗亚斯德教认为扎拉图斯特拉出生和传教的日子大约在公元前六百年左右。这是源自一个说他“是亚历山大大帝之前三百年延生”的希腊原始资料;其他的是因为扎拉图斯特拉的《迦特》说到的与维什塔帕国王一样是公元前六百年,他的父亲是波斯的大流士国王,大约是生活在这个时期。

As the linguists of both Europe and India worked on the Gathas, however, it became clear that the language of the Gathas attributed to Zarathushtra was far older than the language spoken in Iran at the time of King Darius' father. Gathic Avestan was very close to the Sanskrit of the Indian Rig-Vedas, which can be dated from the period 1500-1200 BC. This would mean that Zarathushtra lived far earlier than the "traditional" date. Some scholars have said that the 600 BC date is still plausible if Gathic Avestan was actually an artificially preserved sacred language, somewhat like Latin, which continued in literature and rituals thousands of years after it had ceased to be spoken.

然而,随着欧洲和印度的语言学家对《迦特》的工作,就变得很明显就是《迦特》归因于扎拉图斯特拉的语言比大流士国王的父亲伊朗所说的要古老的得多。《迦特》的阿维斯陀语与《梨俱吠陀》的梵语非常接近,可以追溯到公元前1500——公元前1200。这就意味着扎拉图斯特拉活在比“传统”日子早得多的时间。一些学者指出,如果〈迦特〉的阿维斯陀语是人为保存的宗教语言,那么公元前六百年的日期仍然是似是而非的。

Recent work by Martin Schwartz and Almut Hintze tends to discount this theory, as the linguists show that the Gathas are not the work of an academic writing in a dead language; they show all the signs of poetry composed and recited in an oral tradition, similar to the heroic poetry of Homer or the Rig-Vedas. These studies would confirm the earlier date for Zarathushtra.

Martin Schwartz和Almut Hintze的近期工作趋向于折扣这种理论,正如语言学家指出〈迦特〉并不是由死的语言写成的学术性作品一样。他们指示出所有作诗以的符号和口头传统的朗诵都与〈荷马史诗〉或者〈梨俱吠陀〉相似。这些研究会确认扎拉图斯特拉的较早时期。

The problem of Zarathushtra's time will never be solved, unless some improbable archaeological find turns up. Most scholars agree on a time-frame for Zarathushtra which could be as early as 1700 B.C. or as late as 1000 B.C.

扎拉图斯特拉的问题不会被解决,除非一些不可能的考古学发现被找到了。大多数学者同意扎拉图斯特拉的时间早则可以是公元前1700年,晚则公元前1000年。

Zarathushtra received his prophetic calling in about his thirtieth year, in which he envisioned God through Vohu Manah, or "Good Mind." His prophecies were not foretelling of the future, but prophecy in the sense of the later Hebrew prophets: revolutionary messages of religious purity and social justice, speaking out against corrupt priests and potentates.

扎拉图斯特拉大约是在三十多岁的时候获得先知的召唤,他通过Vohu Manah,或者“良好的思想”来预想神。他的预见并不是预知未来,而是像后期希伯莱先知的方式那样的先知:是宗教净化和社会正义的革命性信息,公然反对腐败的祭司和当权者。

There is very little biographical material in the Gathas. What is there indicates that Zarathushtra was cast out of his original home, wherever that was, and forced to wander, along with his followers and their animals. Yasna 46 begins with a sad verse about this:

〈迦特〉里面几乎没有传记资料。那里指出扎拉图斯特拉被驱逐出原有的家园,无论在什么情况下,都是被迫与他的追随者与动物一起流浪。Yasna 46以一首悲哀的诗开头:

"To what land should I turn? Where should I turn to go?

They hold me back from folk and friends.

Neither the community I follow pleases me,

nor do the wrongful rulers of the land...

I know... that I am powerless.

I have a few cattle and also a few men."

?

“我来自什么地方?又往哪里去?

他们用亲属和朋友来阻止我。

我所跟随的社区和土地上不正当的统治者都不欢迎我……

我知道……我是无能为力,

我只有少数牛群和几个追随者。”

?

He and his followers wandered until they found a sympathetic friend in King Vishtaspa, who was not the father of King Darius but an earlier ruler of the same name, who may have lived in eastern Iran or in Bactria, modern Afghanistan. There, Zarathushtra won over the king, and his court, and became the court prophet.

他和他的追随者在流浪,直到他们在维塔斯帕国王那里找到一位有同情心的朋友,维塔斯帕国王并不是国王大流士的父亲,而是一位更早期的同名统治者,可能住在伊朗东部或者巴克特里亚王国,今天的阿富汗。那里,扎拉图斯特拉赢得国王和他的宫庭的好感,成为宫庭的先知。

Zarathushtra is said to have had six children, three boys and three girls. This is not exact information, since the number and gender equals that of the six Amesha Spentas and may be only symbolic. But the last Gatha is composed for the marriage of Zarathushtra's daughter Pouruchista (Full of Wisdom) so he is known to have had at least one child. Zarathushtra, in the legends, had three wives (in sequence) of whom the last was Hvovi (Good Cattle) the daughter of King Vishtaspa's prime minister. Thus Zarathushtra married into the king's court; Pouruchista, in turn, married the prime minister.

扎拉图斯特拉据说拥有六个孩子,三个男孩和三个女孩。这没有切实的资料,由于数字和性别都与六个Amesha Spentas,这也许只是些象征。但是,〈迦特〉的末尾部分是写扎拉图斯特拉的女儿Pouruchista(充满智慧)的婚姻,因此他至少应该有一个孩子。扎拉图斯特拉,在传说中是拥有三位妻子(依次),最后一位是Hvovi(良好的牛),维塔斯帕国王的首相的女儿。因此,琐罗亚斯德在国王的宫庭里结婚,Pouruchista依次又嫁给了首相。

There is no exact or provable information about Zarathushtra's life at court, though it may be assumed that it was here that he composed the Gathas, and the names of king and court appear in the poetry as if, in oral recitation, they were there listening to him. The prophet may have spent almost three decades there, before his death at age 77.

尽管可以假设他在这里写下了〈迦特〉,正如诗上所说和口头朗诵的国王名字一样,他们在这里听他讲道,但有关扎拉图斯特拉在宫庭的生活没有确切或者可查明的资料。这位先知在他七十七岁去世之前,可能花了几乎三十年的时间停留在那里。

Again, no one knows how Zarathushtra died. Many legends, and Zoroastrian tradition, say that he was killed, while praying in the sanctuary, by a foreign enemy of the king. But there is no holiday commemorating the martyrdom of the Prophet, as there would be in other religions (Christianity, for instance) and other Zoroastrian traditions, and scholars, say that Zarathushtra died peacefully.

此外,没有人知道扎拉图斯特拉是怎样死的。很多传说和琐罗亚斯德教的传统都说他是在避难所祷告的时候被一位国王的外敌杀害的。但没有节日是纪念这位先知的牺牲,就像在其他宗教(比如基督教)和其他琐罗亚斯德教的传统,以及学者,说扎拉图斯特拉是平静地死去。

One of the controversies about Zarathushtra concerns whether he was a priest. He did not live in a religious vacuum, but was born into a society that practiced the polytheistic rites of ancient Indo-Iranian religion. This religion already had a well-developed system of priesthood and service. In one verse of the Gathas (Y,33, 6) Zarathushtra calls himself a "zaota" which in later Zoroastrian usage is the word for officiating priest. The word, though, literally means "invoker" and both Taraporewala and Jafarey translate it simply, claiming that Zarathushtra never meant to call himself a priest. It is very possible that Zarathushtra, if not a priest, had priestly training (how else would he know the highly technical spiritual language found in the Gathas, as well as the ability to compose philosophical/religious poetry?). Other Zoroastrians, including more traditionally minded ones, say that Zarathushtra was indeed a priest and the first of the millennia-old tradition of Zoroastrian ritualizing priesthood.

其中一个有关扎拉图斯特拉的争议就是他是否一位傺司。他并不活在宗教真空的世界里,而是出生在一个实践古代印欧宗教多神教传统的社区中。这种宗教已经发展出祭司体制和祭礼。在〈迦特〉的韵文中(Y,33, 6),扎拉图斯特拉称他本人为“zaota,萨奥塔”,在后期的琐罗亚斯德教是作为行使祭司的用法。虽然这个词的字面意思是“祈求者”, Taraporewala和Jafarey也仅仅地这样翻译,声称扎拉图斯特拉从未称自己为祭司。就算不是祭司,扎拉图斯特拉也很可能受过祭司的训练(否则他怎可能在〈迦特〉上使用如此高技巧的祭司语言,也有能力写哲学/宗教的诗?)其他琐罗亚斯德教,包括更加传统的派别,说琐罗亚斯德事实上是位祭司,在头一个千禧年——古老的琐罗亚斯德传统祭司奉行仪式主义。

In the later Avesta, Zarathushtra is used as a character in dialogue with Ahura Mazda; he is featured in ritual texts and in law- texts, and great amounts of ritual and doctrine are thus attributed to him, whether he was their originator or not. In much later Zoroastrian traditions, some of which were not recorded until centuries after the Arab conquest, the life of the Prophet abounds with miracles and divine interventions.

在后期的阿维斯陀,扎拉图斯特拉被用作一位与阿胡玛兹达对话的人物;他在祭礼文献和律法文献都有作为号召物的特征,不管他是否他们的发起人。在更加后期的琐罗亚斯德教传统里,有些并不没有记载,直到阿拉伯人侵略数世纪之后,先知的生命充满奇迹和神的干涉。

His mother glowed with the divine Glory usually reserved for kings; the soul of the prophet was placed by God in the sacred Haoma plant (which Z. condemned in the Gathas) and the prophet was conceived through the essence of Haoma in milk (though the birth is not a virgin birth, but the natural product of two special, but earthly parents.). The child laughed at his birth instead of crying, and he glowed so brightly that the villagers around him were frightened and tried to destroy him. All attempts to destroy young Zarathushtra failed; fire would not burn him nor would animals crush him in stampedes; he was cared for by a mother wolf in the wilderness.

他的母亲散发出通常保留给国王的神的荣耀,先知的灵魂被神放置在神圣的植物豪马(Haoma)内,先知是通过豪马乳汁的本质而受孕得来(尽管并不是由童贞女所生,而是由现世的双亲和两个特别的自然产物)。孩子出生时是笑,而不是哭,他散发着如此明亮的光,以致围绕在他周围的村民都吓得要命,企图消灭他。所有尝试消灭扎拉图斯特拉的企图都失败了,火不会烧他,挤进他的动物也会惊跑;他在荒野被一位野狼母亲照料。

He spent years in the wilderness communing with God before his first vision, in which Vohu Manah came to him in the form of a huge Angel. All the heavenly entities, the Amesha Spentas, instructed Zarathushtra in heaven, and he received perfect knowledge of past, present, and future. Zarathushtra's preaching to King Vishtaspa was enhanced by miracles, especially the healing of a paralyzed horse that convinced the king to accept the new religion.

他在得到第一人预象之前花了数年在野外与神交谈,在那里Vohu Manah以动物的形态走近他。所有的天体,Amesha Spentas,在天上教导扎拉图斯特拉,他获得了过去,现在,未来的完美知识。扎拉图斯特拉向国王维塔斯帕的传教被奇迹夸大了,尤其是治愈了瘫痪的马,使得确信国王接受新宗教。

Most of these motifs are familiar from the lives of other culture heroes such as Romulus, Moses, and Jesus. Whether any of this literally happened is a matter for belief, not scholarship. Tradition-minded Zoroastrians do accept these legends as truth about Zarathushtra. Other, more modern Zoroastrians, who rely more on the Gathas as a scriptural source, discount the legends as pious fantasies, noting that there are no miracles or supernatural interventions in the Gathas.

大多数这些主题都与其他文化的英雄,比如罗穆卢斯,摩西和耶稣比较接近。不管这些文字是出现在信仰事件还是学识里,传统思想的琐罗亚斯德教徒会接受这些传说作为琐罗亚斯德的真理。其他的,更为现代的琐罗亚斯德教徒,会更加依靠〈迦特〉作为典型的来源,折扣了作为虔诚幻想的传说,倒不是因为那里没有任何奇迹或者超自然力量干涉了〈迦特〉。

Unlike Mohammed's recitation of the Koran, the Gathas of Zarathushtra are not "channeled" - that is, the Gathas are regarded as the inspired composition of a poet-prophet rather than a text dictated by a heavenly being. Zarathushtra was inspired by God, through the Bounteous Immortals of Vohu Manah, Asha, and the others - but he was not a passive recipient of the divine wisdom. In accordance with Zoroastrian philosophy, he reached God through his own effort simultaneously with God's communication to him.

不像穆罕穆德朗诵〈可兰经〉,扎拉图斯特拉的〈迦特〉并没有“沟通”——那就是说,〈迦特〉被看作一位诗人般的先知得到灵感而写的作品,更胜于直接由天启而来的文本。琐罗亚斯德得到神的灵感,通过Vohu Manah, Asha和其他实体宽宏大量的不朽而来——但他并不是神性智慧的被动容器。与琐罗亚斯德的哲学体系相一致,他是通过自身的努力达到神,同时神又传递信息给他。

Zarathushtra was never divine, not even in the most extravagant legends. He remained a man like all others, though divinely gifted with inspiration and closeness to Ahura Mazda. His life is an inspiration for Zoroastrians of all persuasions, traditionalist and modern - in his innovation, loving relationship with God, and spiritual courage he is a model for all his followers. After his death. Zarathushtra's great soul attains almost the level of a Bounteous Immortal, but still is not merged in the divinity.

扎拉图斯特拉从来就不是神,甚至不在最夸张的传说里面。他同其他人一样,仍然是一个人,通过神的灵感的恩赐和接近阿胡玛兹达。他的一生是给予所有琐罗亚斯德教徒说服力的灵感,不管传统还是现代——在他的革新里面,与神的亲密关系,和精神上的勇气使得他成为所有追随者的模范。扎拉图斯特拉死后,他伟大的灵魂几乎达到了无边的不朽,但仍然没有与神性连接。

Ever since ancient Greek times the name of Zoroaster has stood for mysterious Eastern wisdom. In Hellenistic times many esoteric and magical texts were written using his name (though none of those texts had anything to do with the real Zarathushtra) and Zoroaster was thought of as one of the greatest magicians.

即使是希腊时期,琐罗亚斯德的名字是代表神秘的东方智慧。在希腊化时期,很多深奥和不可思议的文本都以他的名字写出来(尽管那些文献与真实的扎拉图斯特拉无关),琐罗亚斯德被认为是最伟大的魔法师之一。

Once the Avesta had been brought to the West in the 18th century, his name again became famous in the West - this time not for magic, but for the humanistic, monotheistic, moral philosophy found in the Gathas. Enlightenment philosophers such as Kant and Diderot mentioned him as a model; the playwright Voltaire wrote a play called "Zoroaster."

当〈阿维斯陀〉在十八世纪传入西方的时候,他的名字再一次在西方变得有名——这次并不是魔法,而是发现在〈迦特〉里面的人文主义,一神论和道德哲学。启蒙的哲学家,就像康德和狄德罗作为一种典范而提到他,剧作家Voltaire写了一首叫“琐罗亚斯德”的戏剧。

Here was a philosopher from "pagan" antiquity who was monotheistic and moral without any help from the Christian Church! The French composer Rameau wrote an opera called "Zoroastre" and the free-thinking Mozart used a variant of the name for his character Sarastro in "The Magic Flute;" Sarastro is the priest of the Sun and Light who defeats the Queen of the Night. In the 20th century Nietszche was inspired by Zarathushtra's example when expounding his philosophy in 'Thus Spake Zarathrustra', though there is no identifiable Zoroastrian teaching in the Nietszche work.

这是一位从“异端”遗物而来的先知,是没有在任何基督教会帮助下的一神论和道德!法国作曲家Rameau写了一首叫“琐罗亚斯德”的歌剧,自由思想的莫扎特在“魔笛”里使用各种不同名字描绘他萨拉族的特质。萨拉族是太阳与光明的祭司,打败了月神。二十世纪的尼采在解释他的哲学作品“查拉斯图特拉如是说”的时候是从琐罗亚斯德的例子上得到灵感,尽管在尼采的作品上并没有可以确认的琐罗亚斯德教导。

The German composer Richard Strauss, inspired by the Nietzsche work, wrote the tone-poem of the same name, which became famous in the 1960s as the theme for the Stanley Kubrick film 2001 - 'A Space Odyssey. '

德国作曲家理查德施特劳斯,从尼采的作品上得到灵感,写了一首同时期的音乐诗,在六十年代变得出名,成为电影“2001——空间〈奥德赛〉的主题曲。

The example of the Prophet is still good today, and anyone who sees his or her own religion overwhelmed by insensitive, exploitative "orthodoxy" can sympathize with this ancient revolutionary whose message is ever fresh and ever new.

先知的实例在今天仍然有用处,每一个人看见他或她的宗教被淹没在感官迟顿之中,剥削的“传统派”会同情这些古代革命性的信息,信息曾经是新鲜的,而且永远都是新鲜。


 

According to the 'Zend Avesta', the sacred book of Zoroastrianism, Zoroaster was born in Azerbaijan, in northern Persia. He is said to have received a vision from Ahura Mazda, the Wise Lord, who appointed him to preach the truth. Life.

依照琐罗亚斯德教的圣书“阿维斯陀”,琐罗亚斯德出生于波斯北部的阿塞拜疆。据说他得到一个来自英明的主,阿胡玛兹达的异像,委任他去传播真理和生命。

A major personality in the history of the religions of the world, Zoroaster has been the object of much attention for two reasons. On the one hand, he became a legendary figure believed to be connected with occult knowledge and magical practices in the Near Eastern and Mediterranean world in the Hellenistic Age (c. 300 BC-c. AD 300).

琐罗亚斯德,作为一个世界宗教史上的主要人物,已经因为两个理由而受到广泛注意。一方面,他成为一个传奇人物,相信是与希腊时期近东与地中海世界的神秘知识与不可思议的实践连结起来。(公元前三百年至公元三百年)

On the other hand, his monotheistic concept of God has attracted the attention of modern historians of religion, who have speculated on the connections between his teaching and Judaism and Christianity.

在另一方面,他的一神论概念已经受到现代宗教历史学家所注意,已经推测到他的教导与犹太教和基督教的联系。

Though extreme claims of pan-Iranianism (i.e., that Zoroastrian or Iranian ideas influenced Greek, Roman, and Jewish thought) may be disregarded, the pervasive influence of Zoroaster's religious thought must nevertheless be recognized.

通过准伊朗人的声称(例如,琐罗亚斯德或者伊朗的观点影响着希腊,罗马和犹太的思想)也许会受到忽视,琐罗亚斯德宗教思想的普遍深入的影响无疑是要经过验证的。

The student of Zoroastrianism is confronted by several problems concerning the religion's founder. One question is what part of Zoroastrianism derives from Zoroaster's tribal religion and what part was new as a result of his visions and creative religious genius.

琐罗亚斯德教的研究者碰上了几个有关宗教奠基人的问题。一个问题就是琐罗亚斯德教的哪一部分是来自琐罗亚斯德部落的宗教,以及哪一部分是作为他的想像力和创造性的宗教天才的结果。

Another question is the extent to which the later Zoroastrian religion (Mazdaism) of the Sasanian period (ad 224-651) genuinely reflected the teachings of Zoroaster.

另一个问题就是延伸到哪一部分是萨珊王朝时期的后期琐罗亚斯德宗教(拜火教信仰者)真实地反映琐罗亚斯德的教导。

A third question is the extent to which the sources--the Avesta (the Zoroastrian scriptures) with the Gathas (older hymns), the Middle Persian Pahlavi Books, and reports of various Greek authors--offer an authentic guide to Zoroaster's ideas.

第三个问题就是哪一部分的原始资料——阿维斯陀(琐罗亚斯德的手稿),连同着迦特(赞美诗,中古波斯巴拉维语的书籍),以及不同的希腊作者的叙述——对琐罗亚斯德的思想提供可靠的指引。

The date of Zoroaster's life cannot be ascertained with any degree of certainty. According to Zoroastrian tradition, he flourished "258 years before Alexander."

琐罗亚斯德一生的日子不能够在任何程度上得到确知。依照琐罗亚斯德教的传统,他在“亚历山大之前258年”比较活跃。

Alexander the Great conquered Persepolis, the capital of the Achaemenids, a dynasty that ruled Persia from 559 to 330 BC, in 330 BC.

亚历山大大帝在公元前330年征服了阿切曼尼的首都波斯波利斯,一个从公元前559年到公元前330年统治波斯的朝代结束。

Following this dating, Zoroaster converted Vishtaspa, most likely a king of Chorasmia (an area south of the Aral Sea in Central Asia), in 588 BC. According to tradition, he was 40 years old when this event occurred, thus indicating that his birth date was 628 BC.

接下来是在公元前588年,琐罗亚斯德让维什塔帕,一位很可能是切罗西马(中亚咸海的地区)的国王,改变了信仰。依照传统,这件事发生的时候他是四十岁,因此指出他的出生应该是在公元前628年。

Zoroaster's teachings.

琐罗亚斯德的教导

Zoroaster apparently was opposed in his teachings by the civil and religious authorities in the area in which he preached. It is not clear whether these authorities were from his native region or from Chorasmia prior to the conversion of Vishtaspa.

琐罗亚斯德的教导很显然是受到他传教的地区的人民和宗教权威所反对。不清楚这些权威是来自他的本土宗教还是来自维萨塔帕国王转变信仰之前的切罗米亚。

Confident in the truth revealed to him by Ahura Mazda, Zoroaster apparently did not try to overthrow belief in the older Iranian religion, which was polytheistic; he did, however, place Ahura Mazda at the center of a kingdom of justice that promised immortality and bliss. Though he attempted to reform ancient Iranian religion on the basis of the existing social and economic values, Zoroaster's teachings at first aroused opposition from those whom he called the followers of the Lie (dregvant).

对真理的确信通过阿胡玛兹达向他显示出来,琐罗亚斯德很明显并不是企图颠覆古老的伊朗宗教多神的信仰;然而,他却做了,把阿胡玛兹达放置在正义王国的中央,许诺不朽与福佑。通过他在现有社会与经济价值的基础上对古老伊朗宗教的改草尝试,琐罗亚斯德的教导最初是唤醒那些被他称做谎言的追随者的反对派。

Ahura Mazda and the Beneficent Immortals.

阿胡玛兹达和不朽的仁慈

Zoroaster's teachings, as noted above, centered on Ahura Mazda, who is the highest god and alone is worthy of worship. He is, according to the Gathas, the creator of heaven and earth; i.e., of the material and the spiritual world. He is the source of the alternation of light and darkness, the sovereign lawgiver, and the very center of nature, as well as the originator of the moral order and judge of the entire world. The kind of polytheism found in the Indian Vedas (Hindu scriptures having the same religious background as the Gathas) is totally absent; the Gathas, for example, mention no female deity sharing Ahura Mazda's rule.

琐罗亚斯德的教导,正如上面所述,是以阿胡玛兹达为中心,是最高的神和值得崇拜。依照《迦特》,他是天与地,物质与精神世界的创造者。他是光明与黑暗交替的源头,至高无上的立法者和大自然的中心,同样也是道德秩序的创造者和整个世界的审判者。发现在印度吠陀经的多神论类型(印度手稿像《迦特》一样拥有相同的宗教背景)是完全欠缺的,例如,《迦特》提到没有女性神分享阿胡玛兹达的统治。

He is surrounded by six or seven beings, or entities, which the later Avesta calls amesha spentas, "beneficent immortals." The names of the amesha spentas frequently recur throughout the Gathas and may be said to characterize Zoroaster's thought and his concept of god. In the words of the Gathas, Ahura Mazda is the father of Spenta Mainyu (Holy Spirit), of Asha Vahishta (Justice, Truth), of Vohu Manah (Righteous Thinking), and of Armaiti (Spenta Armaiti, Devotion).

他被六或者七个本质,或者实体所围绕,后期的《阿维斯陀》称它们为阿玛萨斯潘塔斯,“不朽的仁慈”阿玛萨斯潘塔斯的名字经常出现在整部《迦特》里面,也可以说是琐罗亚斯德的思想特征和他对神的概念。在《迦特》的字句里面,阿胡玛兹达是Spenta Mainyu(圣灵),Asha Vahishta(正义,真理),Vohu Manah(正直的思想),Armaiti(Spenta Armaiti,热爱,投入)的父亲

The other three beings (entities) of this group are said to personify qualities attributed to Ahura Mazda: they are Khshathra Vairya (Desirable Dominion), Haurvatat (Wholeness), and Ameretat (Immortality). This does not exclude the possibility that they, too, are creatures of Ahura Mazda. The good qualities represented by these beings are also to be earned and possessed by Ahura Mazda's followers.

这个群体的其他的三个本质(实体)据说是归功于阿胡玛兹达的人格化本性:他们是Khshathra Vairya(合意的领土),Haurvatat(全体)和Ameretat(不朽)。这个也并不把阿胡玛兹达的创造物排除在外。这些存在物表现出来的良好品质也被阿胡玛兹达的追随者获得和疯狂的。

This means that the gods and mankind are both bound to observe the same ethical principles. If the amesha spentas show the working of the deity, while at the same time constituting the order binding the adherents of the Wise Lord, then the world of Ahura Mazda and the world of his followers (the ashavan) come close to each other. The very significant eschatological aspect of Zoroastrianism is well demonstrated by the concept of Khshathra (Dominion), which is repeatedly accompanied by the adjective Desirable; it is a kingdom yet to come.

这就意味着众神和人类都一定要遵守同样的道德原则。如果amesha spentas表现出神性的工作,而同一时期秩序的制定又会与英明的主的追随者捆绑在一起,那么阿胡玛兹达的世界和他的追随者的世界(the ashavan)相互之间就会走得接近。琐罗亚斯德教非常有意义的末世论外貌被Khshathra(统治权,支配)的概念给予很好的论证,再三地伴随着合意的形容词,这是一个还未来到的王国。

Monotheism and dualism.

一神论与二元论

The conspicuous monotheism of Zoroaster's teaching is apparently disturbed by a pronounced dualism: the Wise Lord has an opponent, Ahriman, who embodies the principle of evil, and whose followers, having freely chosen him, also are evil.

琐罗亚斯德显著的一神论教导明显是被明确的二元论扰乱了:英明的主有一个对手,恶神(恶灵或邪灵),包含了邪恶的法则,他的追随者拥有选择他的自由,同样也是邪恶的。

This ethical dualism is rooted in the Zoroastrian cosmology. He taught that in the beginning there was a meeting of the two spirits, who were free to choose--in the words of the Gathas--"life or not life." This original choice gave birth to a good and an evil principle.

这种与伦理有关的二元论植根在琐罗亚斯德的宇宙论里面。他教导,最初的时候有一场两个灵魂的会议,有选择的自由——《迦特》写道——“生命与非生命”。这个起初的选择产生了好与坏的法则。

Corresponding to the former is a Kingdom of Justice and Truth; to the latter, the Kingdom of the Lie (Druj), populated by the daevas, the evil spirits (originally prominent old Indo-Iranian gods).

与前者的正义与真理的国王相符合,后者是谎言的王国,由邪灵居住(明显起源于古老的印度——雅利安神祗)。

Monotheism, however, prevails over the cosmogonic and ethical dualism because Ahura Mazda is father of both spirits, who were divided into the two opposed principles only through their choice and decision.

然而,一神论胜过天体演化论和伦理上的二元论,因为阿胡玛兹达先于两者的灵魂,只有通过他们的选择和决定才会分开两种相反的法则。

The Wise Lord, together with the amesha spentas, will at last vanquish the spirit of evil: this message, implying the end of the cosmic and ethical dualism, seems to constitute Zoroaster's main religious reform.

英明的主,与阿玛萨斯潘塔斯在一起,最后会战胜邪恶的灵魂:这个信息,暗示了宇宙和与伦理有关的二元论的终结,看上去是琐罗亚斯德的宗教改革的主要组成部分。

His monotheistic solution resolves the old strict dualism. The dualist principle, however, reappears in an acute form in a later period, after Zoroaster.

他的一神论解决方案解答了古老的严格二元论。然而,二元论的法则在琐罗亚斯德之后的随后时期以一种敏锐的方式出现。

It is achieved only at the expense of Ahura Mazda, by then called Ohrmazd, who is brought down to the level of his opponent, Ahriman.

这仅有在损害阿胡玛兹达的情况下才完成,那时候就叫奥玛兹,下降至他的对手,邪神的等级。

At the beginning of time, the world was divided into the dominion of the good and of the evil.

在时间的开端,世界就被划分成好与坏的领土。

Between these, each man is bound to decide. He is free and must choose either the Wise Lord and his rule or Ahriman, the Lie.

每一个人都一定要在两者之间选择。他是自由的,必须选择英明的主和他的统治这一方;以及邪神和谎言那一方。

The same is true of the spiritual beings, who are good or bad according to their choices. From man's freedom of decision it follows that he is finally responsible for his fate.

同样也适用于精神的本质,好与坏是依照他们的选择而定。人的自由选择推断出他最后必须会为他的决定而负责。

Through his good deeds, the righteous person (ashavan) earns an everlasting reward, namely integrity and immortality.

通过良好的行为,正义的人会有永恒的报酬,也就是诚实与不朽。

He who opts for the lie is condemned by his own conscience as well as by the judgment of the Wise Lord and must expect to continue in the most miserable form of existence, one more or less corresponding to the Christian concept of hell.

选择谎言的一方会受到良心的谴责,同样也受到英明的主的审判,预料一定会最痛苦地存在着,或多或少与基督教的地狱概念相符合。

According to Avestan belief, there is no reversal and no deviation possible once a man has made his decision.

通过对《阿维斯陀》的信仰,人一旦作出了他的选择,就没有颠倒和背离的可能。

Thus, the world is divided into two hostile blocks, whose members represent two warring dominions. On the side of the Wise Lord are the settled herdsmen or farmers, caring for their cattle and living in a definite social order.

因此,世界是分割成两个敌对的阵营,各自的成员代表两种敌对的支配。站在英明的主的一方是固定的牧人或者农民,关注他们的牲畜,住在一种明确的社会秩序里面。

The follower of the Lie (Druj) is a thieving nomad, an enemy of orderly agriculture and animal husbandry.

谎言的追随者是一个偷窃的流浪者,是有秩序的农业和动物管理的敌人。

Eschatological teachings.

末世论的教导

The Gathas, the early hymns, many of which may have been written by Zoroaster, are permeated by eschatological thinking. Almost every passage contains some reference to the fate awaiting men in the afterlife.

早期的赞美诗《迦特》,很多都是由琐罗亚斯德所写,弥漫着末世论的思想。几乎每个段落都是提及人类死后等待的命运。

Each act, speech, and thought is viewed as being related to an existence after death. The earthly state is connected with a state beyond, in which the Wise Lord will reward the good act, speech, and thought and punish the bad.

每个行为,言语和思想都被看成是一种死后的存在。早期的状态是一种超越的状态,英明的主会在那里奖赏良好的行为,言语和思想,以及惩罚坏的行为,言语和思想。

This motive for doing good seems to be the strongest available to Zoroaster in his message.

做好事的动机看上去似乎在琐罗亚斯德的信息里面是十分强烈的。

After death, the soul of man must pass over the Bridge of the Requiter (Cinvat), which everyone looks upon with fear and anxiety.

死了以后,人的灵魂必须经过一条报答的桥梁,每一个人看上去都非常畏惧和焦急。

After judgment is passed by Ahura Mazda, the good enter the kingdom of everlasting jo

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