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如何写得好

(2008-02-02 05:39:19)
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给学生的建议

财经

Saturday, October 07, 2006
How to Write Well
如何写得好
Starrynight翻译
http://gregmankiw.blogspot.com/2006/10/how-to-write-well.html

When I was CEA chair, I sent the following guidelines to my staff as they started drafting the Economic Report of the President. A friend
recently emailed me a copy, and I thought I would share them with blog readers. They are good rules of thumb, especially for economists writing for a general audience.

在我担任CEA(Council of Economic Advisors经济顾问协会)主席的期间,当我的秘书开始起草“主席经济报告”的时候,我把下面的这些指导内容发给他。最近,一个朋友发回给我一个拷贝,我认为我应该和我的博客读者们分享。这些都是些很好很实用的方法,尤其是给那些准备写给大众的经济学家们。

ERP Writing Guidelines
ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning,企业资源计划/综合商业管理系统,包括所有方面以及有效计划和管理业务所需的计算机化管理方法) 写作指导
  • Stay focused. Remember the take-away points you want the reader to remember. If some material is irrelevant to these points, it should probably be cut.
  • 把握重点。记住那些你希望读者记住的观点。如果其中一些材料与这些观点无关,应该把它们去掉。
  • Keep sentences short. Short words are better than long words. Monosyllabic words are best.
  • 简明扼要。句子要短,短小的词比长词好,单音节的词是最佳选择。
  • The passive voice is avoided by good writers. Positive statements are more persuasive than normative statements.
  • 好的作家避免使用被动语态。实证论述比规范论述更有说服力。
  • Use adverbs sparingly.
  • 谨慎地使用副词。
  • Avoid jargon. Any word you don’t read regularly in a newspaper is suspect.
  • 避免使用行话。任何那些你在报纸中不经常读到的词都是令人怀疑的。
  • Never make up your own acronyms.
  • 永远不要使用你自己的缩写词。
  • Avoid unnecessary words. For instance, in most cases, change
    “in order to” to “to” ;“whether or not” to “whether”; “is equal to” to “equals”
  • 避免使用一些没有必要的词。比如说,在大多数情况下,将“in order to” 改成 “to”,将“whether or not” 改成 “whether”,将 “is equal to”改成“equals”
  • Avoid “of course“, “clearly,” and “obviously.” Clearly, if something is
    obvious, that fact will, of course, be obvious to the reader.
  • 避免使用 ''of course”, “clearly,” 和 “obviously.” 显然,如果某些东西是显而易见的,那么这个“显而易见”事实对于读者来说也是显而易见的。
  • The word “very” is very often very unnecessary.
  • "very"这个词通常是非常不必要的。
  • Keep your writing self-contained. Frequent references to other works, or to things that have come before or will come later, can be distracting.
  • 保持你文章的独立性。频繁地引用其他作品或者一些事件会使读者分心。
  • Put details and digressions in footnotes. Then delete the footnotes.
  • 把细节和离题的东西放到脚注,然后删除脚注。
  • To mere mortals, a graphic metaphor, a compelling anecdote, or a striking fact is worth a thousand articles in Econometrica.
  • 对于凡人来说,一个形象的比喻,一个令人瞩目的趣闻,或者一个惊人的事实比Econometrica里上千篇文章都要好。
  • Keep your writing personal. Remind readers how economics affects their lives.
  • 保持你文章的个性化。提醒读者经济如何影响他们的生活。
  • Remember two basic rules of economic usage:
    “Long run” (without a hyphen) is a noun. “Long-run” (with a hyphen) is an adjective. Same with “short(-)run.” ; “Saving” (without a terminal s) is a flow. “Savings” (with a terminal s) is a stock.
  • 记住两个基本的经济学惯用原则:

    • “Long run” (没有连字符) 是个名词, “Long-run” (由连字符) 是个形容词。“short(-)run”是一样的。
    • “Saving” (没有结尾的s) 是指流通,“Savings” (with a terminal s) 是指储蓄。

  • Buy a copy of Strunk and White’s Elements of Style. Also, William Zinsser’s On Writing Well. Read them—again and again and again. Keep it simple. Think of your reader as being your college roommate who majored in English literature. Assume he has never taken an economics course, or if he did, he used the wrong textbook.
  • 买一本《Strunk and White’s Elements of Style》和William Zinsser的《On Writing Well》。反复阅读。简单来说,把你的读者当作你主修英语文学的室友。假设他没有上过经济课,即便上了,就当他用错了教材。

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