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[转载]英语倒装句略谈

(2013-04-12 01:13:21)
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分类: 它山之石
原文地址:英语倒装句略谈作者:女儿是天

英语倒装句略谈

            作者:俞江涛    文章来源:《湖北教育高中生学习》

   掌握倒装句(包括全部倒装和部分倒装)是考纲对高中毕业生的要求,也是高中生英语学习的重点内容之一。是考试经常考到的内容,同时如果同学们在平时的英语写作中如果能适当地使用一些倒装句一定会使自己的作文增添一些亮点。笔者在此对其用法进行归纳希望能对同学们的复习备考能有所帮助。

    英语的句子有两种语序,它们分别是英语句子的自然语序:主语在前,谓语动词在后。另一种是英语句子的倒装结构:谓语动词放在主语之后。倒装结构又可以分为两种,它们是:

完全倒装:全部谓语放在主语之前

部分倒装:只把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前

下面让我们一起来看一下。

一、完全倒装:

   (1) 用于there be句型

例如: There are 40 students in our class.

   (2)用于“here, there, now, then +不及物动词(主要是表位置移动的词go, come,rush, fly, etc.)+主语”的句型中或以out, in, up, down, away等副词开头的句子里,以示强调.

例如: Here comes the bus.

           There goes the bell.

           Now comes your turn.

           Out rushed the boys.

           Then followed three days of heavy rain.

注意:代词作主语时,只把该副词提前,主谓语序不变.

例如: Here it is.                  In he comes.

(3)当句首状语为表地点的介词词组时,也常引起完全倒装.

       例如: South of the city lies a big steel factory.

           From the valley came a frightening sound.

(4)表语位于句首时,倒装结构为表语+连系动词+主语

A.形容词+连系动词+主语

       例如: Present at the meeting were Professor Li, Professor Smith and many other guests.

B.过去分词+连系动词+主语

      例如: Gone are the days when they could do what they liked to the Chinese people.

C.介词短语+ be +主语

      例如: Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers and toys.

(5)用于so, nor, neither开头的句子,表示重复前句部分内容,原句的谓语应与前句谓语的时态、形式相一致.

      例如: He has been to Beijing, so have I.

          Li wei can’t answer the question, neither can I.

          The first one isn’t good, nor is the second.

(6)为了保持句子平衡,或为了强调表语或状语,或为了使上下文紧密衔接时.

      例如: They arrived the farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.

          Gone are the days when we used foreign oil.

          Nearby were two small boats in which they had come to the island.

二、部分倒装

(1)用于疑问句.

   例如: Do you speak English?

(2)用于省略if虚拟条件状语从句.

   例如: Had you revised your lessons, you might have passed the exam.

       Should it rain, the crops would be saved.

(3)用于“形容词(或名词、动词) +as(though)”引导的让步状语从句.

   例如:   Hero as he is, he keeps modesty.

         Pretty as she is, she is not clever.

         Try as he would, he might fall again.

A:在用as(though)引导的让步状语从句中,如果主语较长,也可用完全倒装.

例如: Difficult as was the chemistry homework, it was finished in time.

B:若从句的表语是名词,其名词前不加任何冠词.

    例如: Child as he was, he had to make a living.

(4)用于no sooner…than…; hardly…when…和not until的句型中.

    例如: Hardly had I reached the bus stop when the bus started.

        Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework.

(5)用于never, hardly, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, often, at no time, not only, not once, many  a time等词开头的句子.

    例如: Never shall I do this again.

        Little did he know who the woman was.

        Seldom do I go to see a film.

(6)于only开头的句子(only放在句首,修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句)

    例如: Only this afternoon did I finish the novel.

        Only in this way can we master English.

        Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in.

注意:如果only修饰主语, 则不用倒装.

    例如: Only Wang Lin knows this.

(7)So修饰形容词或副词放在句首时

    例如: So badly was he injured in the accident that he was sent to the hospital for treatment.

(8)如果直接引语后注明引语是什么人说的,而且主语是名词时,用倒装结构,主语是代词时,一般不用倒装.

   例如: “Let’s go,” said the man/ he said.

(9)用于某些表示祝愿的句子.

   例如: May you succeed!

        Long live the People’s Republic of China!

 

(巩固练习)

()1.Not a single song     at yesterday's party.

A.she sang  B.sang she  C.did she sing  D.she did sing

()2.Only when the war was over      to his hometown.

  A.did the young soldier return  B.the young soldier returned

  C.returned the young soldier    D.the young soldier did return

()3.So difficult      it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined

to learn English.

  A.I have felt  B.have I felt  C.I did feel  D.did I feel

()4.-Jim has made great progress recently.

  -       ,and       .

  A.So he has;so you have           B.So he has;so have you

  C.So has he                       D.So has he;so you have

()5.Not until all the fish died in the river       how serious the pollution was.

  A.did the villagers realize       B.the villagers realized

  C.the villagers did realize       D.did'nt the villagers realize

()6.Hardly      when it began to rain.

  A.had he arrived                  B.arrived he

  C.he had arrived                  D.did he arrive

()7.      your letter,I would have started off two days ago.

  A.If could have received           B.If I received

  C.Should I received                D.Had I received

()8.At the gate       a soldier        uniform.

  A.Lying,in                         B.Lain,worn

  C.has come,worn                    D.is coming,in

()9.Look!There       the bus!

  A.will come  B.comes  C.has come  D.is coming

()10.          ,I have never seen anyone who's as capable as Jack.

  A.As large as I have traveled

  B.Now that I have traveled so much

  C.Much as I have traveled

  D.As I have traveled so much

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