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[转载]转:动词不定式主动形式表被动的用法

(2013-04-09 14:47:53)
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分类: 它山之石

动词不定式主动形式表被动的用 

动词不定式有两种被动式, 即一般式和完成式, 例如do的被动式有to be done, to have been done。只有及物动词和相当于及物动词的短语才有不定式的被动式。一般说来, 当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式动作的承受者时, 该不定式要用被动式。例如:

He asked to be sent to work in that factory. 他要求派他去那个工厂工作。

These books are not allowed to be taken out of the room. 这些书不许带出室外。

但在某些情况下, 不定式虽然表示被动意思, 用的却是主动形式。常见的有下列几种情况:

一、在某些固定句型中, 动词不定式作定语, 用主动形式表被动意义。

1)have(give, show)sth. to do

在这种句型中的不定式与前边的名词有动宾关系, 又和句中另一名词或代词构成主谓关系。例如: I have a lot of things to do this afternoon. to do与things是动宾关系, 与I是主谓关系。否则, 在表示被动意义时, 仍需要被动式。试比较:

Have you anything to do this afternoon? 今天下午你有事要做吗?

(to do是由you发出的)

Have you anything to be taken to your parents? 你有要带给你父母的东西吗? (谁带不得而知)再如:

Please get me something to read. 请给我弄点读的材料。

He'll show you the right path to take. 他会给你指出要走的正确的路。

2)It(This, That)+be+a/an+adj. + n. +to do

在这种句型中, 不定式与前面的名词有动宾关系。动词不定式可改为动词不定式复合结构。例如: This is a difficult question to answer. 这是个难答的问题。

question与to answer为动宾关系。to answer可改为 for me to answer。再如:

It is an easy sentence to translate. 这个句子很容易翻译。

3)There +be +n. +to do

在此句型中, 用来修饰主语的不定式, 可用主动式, 也可用被动式, 只是侧重点不同。用主动式作定语, 重点在人, 用被动式作定语, 重点在物。例如:

没有时间可以耽误。可译成:

There is no time to lose(to be lost). 用 to lose可看成for us to lose; 用to be lost, 谁 lost time不明确。

但下述两句用主动不定式与被动不定式意义不同:

a. There is nothing to do now. (=We have nothing to do now. )现在没事干。

b. There is nothing to be done. (=We can do nothing now. )现在没办法了。

a. There is nothing to see. (nothing worth seeing)没有东西值得看。

b. There is nothing to be seen. (nothing there at all)看不见什么东西。

二、在某些“形容词+不定式”的结构中, 不定式有被动意义, 与句子主语构成动宾关系。其句型有:

1)n. +be+adj. +to do

The question was very difficult to answer. 这问题很难回答。

The job is very easy to do. 这工作很容易做。

2)n. +be+too+adj. +to do

The thing is too small to see. 这东西太小看不见。

I was too excited to say a word. 我激动得连一句话也说不出。

3)n. +be +adj. +enough to do

The box is light enough to carry. 这盒子轻得可带走。

The book is cheap enough to buy. 这本书很便宜可以买。

但下列两句可用不定式的主动式, 也可用被动式:

This plant is fit to eat /to be eaten. 这种植物可以食用。

The cake is ready to eat /to be eaten. 这块饼可以吃了。

三、某些动词, 如to let, to blame (责备), to seek(寻找)用主动式表被动意义。

例如:

The house is to let. 这房子要出租。

Who is to blame for it? 这得怪谁?

The reason is not far to seek. 这理由不难找到。

练习: 选择填空

1. The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to __________.

a. sit b. sit on c. be sat d. be sat on

2. I'm hungry. Get me something __________.

a. eat b. to eat c. to be eat d. for eating

3. It is difficult for a foreigner __________ Chinese.

a. write b. to write c. to be written d. written

4. I have no more letters __________, thank you.

a. to type b. typing

c. to be typed d. typed

5. The car is rather difficult __________.

a. to repair b. to be repaired

c. repairing d. being repaired

6. He was nowhere __________.

a. to see b. to be seen c. seeing d. seen

7. She had no money __________ a birthday present for their children.

a. to buy b. to be bought c. bought d. buying

8. We waited for the work __________.

a. done b. being done c. to do d. to be done

答案:

1—5 bbbca 6—8 bad(金水之北的博客)

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