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The American Dream

(2008-04-25 20:16:51)
标签:

教育

分类: 英语思维研究
 

The American Dream

美国梦

 

 

9.11恐怖事使满载着美国梦的两座110层世界世贸大厦顷刻间夷为平地,这是一个可怕的梦魇……

Part 1

The dream to construct a building to house everyone and everything connected with world trade began in the early 1960’s. After much deliberation, Minoru Yamasaki was  commissioned over more than a dozen other architects to work with the firm of Emery Roth and Sons to design this massive edifice(建筑物)。

     His task was evident: the building must have twelve million square feet of floor space on a sixteen acre parcel of land, accommodate the new facilities for the Hudson tubes and subway connections, and be done within the 500 million-dollar budget. The relatively small site combined with the vast space needs meant that the only way to go was up. The development would dwarf its neighbors and change the New Youk landscape and skyline at the bottom of Manhatan.

In order to accommodate the nine million square feet of office space, Yamaski make the decision that a two-tower development would be best. This would serve the dual purpose of giving sufficient office area on each floor and allowing a manageable structural system while taking advantage of be superb views. The twin towers would be 110 floors each, rising to a height of 1,353 feet (412 meters). From the observation decks at the tops of the towers it would be possible to see 45 miles in every direction.

When asked why he designed two 110-storey buildings instead of one 220-storey building, he replied, flippantly(圆滑的),“I didn’t want to lose the human touch.”

The first act in the construction process was the excavation(挖掘). The 1.2 million cubic(立方体的)yards of earth and roch that were removed were used to create 23 acres of fill in the Hudson River adjacent to the W.T.C.site. This landfill(填埋) project was subsequently developed as Battery Park. The excavation, besides providing the foundation for this enormous construction, would house parking garages, subway terminals and tubes, and shopping concourses(中央大厅).

 

建一座大楼,让与世界贸易有关的每一个人都能在里面处理每一件事,这个梦想始于19世纪60年代早期。经过慎重考虑之后,山崎战胜了其它十多们建筑师,接受委托与埃默里.罗期父子公司一起工作,设计这座规模庞大的建筑。

他的任务很明确:在一块16英亩的土地上,建设拥有1200万平方英尺的使用面积的大楼。这座大楼还必须具备与哈得逊隧道和纽约地铁的连接设施,并在5亿美元的预算内完成。相对较小的场地加上巨大的使用面积,这一要求意味着唯一的办法就是向空中发展。这座建筑的出现,会使它周围的建筑就像侏儒一样,并改变纽约的景象和曼哈顿的空中轮廓。为了拥有900万平方英尺的办公面积,山崎决定最好采用双塔楼结构。这可以达到两个目的,既为每一层楼提供了足够的办公面积,又可以采用容易实现的结构系统。同时,还有极好的视觉效果。双子塔楼每个有110层,高度为1353英尺(412米)。从塔顶的观景平台看出去,方圆45里尽收眼底。

当问及为什么要设计成两座110层的大楼而不是一座220层的大楼时,他很圆滑地答道:“我不想失去人情味。”

建筑过程的第一项任务是地基开挖。挖出的120万立方码的土石填入紧邻的世贸中心的哈得逊河,以造出23英亩土地。这个填埋工程随后被开发成为炮台公园。这次开挖,除了为这个巨大的建筑提供基础,还要建停车场、地铁站和隧道,以及购物大厅。

 

Yamasaki believed that all buildings must be strong in the context of being dominant. He felt that each building should “be a monument to the virility of our society”. The stuctural system, while possessing this stength, is also impressively simple. The 208-foot front wall is essentially a pre-assembled steelweb, with columns on 39-inch centers, providing the wind bracing necessary for a building of this height, allowing the central core to take only the gravity loads. This very light, economical configuration would result in keeping the wind bracing in the most efficient place, the outside shell of the building. In this way, the wind force would force would not be transferred through the floor membrane to the core. Thirty-three inch deep floors made of prefabricated steel trusses would act as supports to stiffen the outside walls against the buckling forces of the wind-load pressures. There would be no interior columns in the office spaces, an amazing feat as there would be 40,000 square feet of office space on each of the upper floors.

In total, there would be seven buildings in the complex: the twin towers standing 110 stories high, four smaller towers, and a central plaza. Also, there would be seven under-ground levels containing services, sopping, parking garages million square feet of leasable space, or an acre of rentable space on each floor of each tower.

The elevator system was intended to be fast, efficient, and space saving. Express elevators opening onto the forty-first and seventy-fourth floors would serve the sky lobbies. From these floors and from the plaza, four banks of elevators would carry passengers to each of the three zones.

Tenders posted, contractors hired, and the preliminary materials purchased, the groundbreaking ceremony was held on August 5, 1966. Some offices were ready for occupancy in 1970 but the ribbon cutting ceremoony wasn’t held until April 4, 1973. Final cost 750 million dollars.

山崎认为考虑到建筑的高耸,所有的大楼必须是坚固的。他觉得每幢大楼都应该成为体现我们社会强大气息的的纪念碑。具备其强度的结构系统令人意想不到的简单。208英尺的前墙实际上就是一个事先组装好的钢网,里面有39英寸直径的柱子,钢网可为这种高度的大楼提供必须的抗风支撑,且让中心的承重立柱只承受重力。这种轻盈、经济的构造把抗风支撑放在最有效的地方,即建筑物的外壳。这样,风力就不会通过楼板传递到柱子上。预制钢桁架做成的33英寸厚的楼板将担当加强外墙的支撑以抵抗风载压力的扭曲应力。在办公空间里将没有立柱,这是一个令人称奇的壮举。在上部楼层的每一层都将有40000平方英尺的办公空间。

这个综合建筑全部共有七座大楼:离地110层高的双塔楼,4座较小的塔楼和一个购物中心。还有7层地下室,包括服务处、商店、停车场和地铁站。完工后,将有1000万平方英尺的空间可供出租,或者说在每个大楼的每一层有1英亩的出租空间。

民梯系统以快速、高效并节省空间为目的。快速电梯在41楼以上才开,74层作为空中大厅。从这些楼层和购物广场,4组电梯能把乘客送到三个区段的每一层。

发标书、雇承包商,采购原材料,奠基仪式于1966年8月5日举行。一些办公室在1970年就可供办公使用了,但剪彩仪式一直到1973年4月4日才举行。最后造价7亿5千万美元。

The institution of the W.T.C.would become a symbol of commerce and economicsuperioriy to the world. International offices there. Thus, the working population of the W.T.C. would incorporate a cross-section of nationalities, not just Americans. The buildings would be occupied by as many as fifty thousand people daily during the week. Addithionally, thousands of tourists could be in the center at any given time, visiting the restaurant, windows on the world, atop One W.T.C., the indoor and outdoor observation decks on Two W.T.C., as well as the shops, exhibition pavilions, and the 250 room hotel.

A compex of this size is not without some problems, including fire. Numerous small fires and one major one on Febuary 13, 1975 occurred over the years.. However, on February 26, 1993, a terrorist attack on the W.T.C. caused the largest inciddent ever handled by the City of New York’s Fire Department. The blaze, resulting from the ignition of a nitrourea bomb, with hydrogen cylinders to add impact, and located in the parking garage, required the response of 84 engine companies, 60 truck companies, and hundreds of personnel. Firefighters maintained a presence at the site for 28 days, guarding against the possibility of further fires caused by the blast. Six people died and 1042 were injured. The towers survived.

After this violent incident failed in its intended purpose of destroying the W.T.C., who could have envisaged an assault as disastrous as the one inflicted on it and the United States on September 11,2001? Who could have conceived an attac so vicious it would eclipse almost every man-made catastrophe? Who could have foreseen that the American dream would blur into a trrible nightmare?

At 8: 45 a.m. New york local time, a hijacked 767 commercial airliner with a full load of jet fuel for a transcontinental flight collided with One W.T.C., the north tower, with enough impetus to carry it through to the opposite side. Initially, terrorism was not a consideration in the mind of the public. This was merely a dreadful accident.

这座世贸中心建筑将成为统治世界商业和经济的象征。国际商业人士认识到在这里办公的优势。这样世贸中心的工作人员将是来自各个国家的人组成的混合团体,不仅仅是美国人。在一周的工作日之内,大楼每天可以容纳5万人上下班。此外,成千上万的游客可以在任何规定的时间进入该中心,参观餐馆、世界之窗、一号世贸中心塔楼楼顶、世贸二号塔楼的室内室外的观察平台,以及商店、展览馆和一个有250个房间的旅馆。

象这种规模的建筑肯定存在一些问题,包括火灾。多年来,发生了无数的小火灾,最大的一次发生在1975年2月13日。然而,1993年2月26日,对世贸中心的一次恐怖袭击所导致的事故,是纽约市消防部门处理的最大一次事故。为扑灭那次位于停车场由硝基脲炸弹加上被撞击的氢气缸引起的火焰,消防部门动用了84个机械公司,60个货车公司和数百名人员。消防人员在现场维持秩序28天,以防爆炸可能引起的进一步的为灾。6人死亡,1042人受伤。大楼幸免。

在这次想要摧毁世贸中心的恐怖事件之后,谁能想到在2001年9月11日世贸中心和美国会遭受如此惨烈的袭击呢?谁能想得出如此邪恶,使几乎一切人为灾难都黯然失色的攻击呢?有谁能预料得到,美国梦会变成一场可怕的梦魇呢?

纽约当地时间上午8点45分,一架满载喷气燃料油准备横跨大陆飞行的767商用客机被劫持撞向世贸中心1号楼即北塔,巨大的冲力使飞机穿过大楼到了另一侧。起初,人们没有想到这是恐怖行动,认为这只是可怕的意外事故。

Part 2

 

As a bewildered public endeavored to assimilate this ovrwhelming event,at 9: 03 a.m., a second hijacked jet crashed into Two W.T.C. Millons of people around the watching the terror unfold on their televisions, watched in  shock as the second plane, in the blink of an eye, entered the south tower at approximately the seventy-second floor and partially exited the opposite wall. Fire and police departments were mobilized immediately. Rapid evacuation of the buildings was crucial. Many workers on upper floors, knowing there was no escape, committed suicide by hurling themselves out of windows to their deaths.

Then, 62 minutes after it had been crashed into, the south tower crumbled into the streets in a gigantic cloud of dust and debris. Hundreds of police and firefighters intent on their rescue mission lost their lives as Two W.T.C. collapsed. Drivers and attendants of emergency vehicles, unable to abandon their posts, died where they had stopped to give aid and assistance.

Employees from the two towers, rushing to escape the raging fires, were caught in the wreckage. Pedestrians, uncertain of which way to turn, and not convinced of the need ofr urgency, found themselves trapped in anavalanche of cocrete. Members of the media, on their way to cover the breaking news of the disaster, became victims of it. Hundreds of commuters, on their way to work via subway, were trapped below ground with no escape possible.

Hospital emergency departments, having been notified of the explosions, quickly prepared for the arrival of casualtied. When the expected influx failed to materialize, it could only mean that there were few survivors.

正当大家力图搞清这个巨大事故到底是怎么回事的时候,上午9点3分,第二架被劫持的喷气机向世贸中心2号楼撞去。全球受到震惊的数百万人在电视上收看这次恐怖事件,他们又惊恐地看到第二架飞机眨眼之间就从大约72楼进入南塔,并有一部分机身从另一面墙穿出。消防和警察部门立即动员起来。最重要的是让人们迅速撤离大楼。在上面楼层的许多工作人员,知道没有逃路,自已冲出窗外自杀身亡。

接下来,在遭撞击后62分,南塔楼倒塌在大街上,尘土和碎片形成的巨大的浓烟。数百名肩负营救使命的警察和消防队员在世贸中心2号楼倒塌时失去了生命。没有放弃职责的救援车辆的驾驶员和服务员牺牲在他们停下来实施帮助和救援的地方。

刚从两个大楼里冲出来,逃出火海的职员,也被埋进了残骸中。街上不知道往哪里逃、还不知道情况紧急的行人,发现自已也陷入了雪崩一样的混凝土块之中。一些媒体的记者,在去采访这场灾难的路上,也成了牺牲者。数百名通勤者在他们乘坐地铁去上班的路上,也被陷在地下,没有办法逃生。

医院急诊部在接到爆炸事件的通知后,迅速做好了接收伤员的准备。当期望的人流没有出现时,那可能已经意味着没有多少幸存者。

 

One W.T.C. collapsed at 10:30 a.m., 105 minutes after being hit, adding to the mass confusion in the streets. Seven W.T.C., a later additon to the complex, was damaged, caught fire, and collapsed later that afternoon. Not one of the adjoining structures was left intact.

In the aftermath of this incredible misfortune, the pieces of the puzzle began to be put in place. Shortly before 8:00 a.m. on September 11, 2001, three commercial airliners were hijacked from Logan Airport in Boston, Massachusetts. All were transcontinental flights with passengers destined for California and there full fuel tanks provided the ammunition critical to the mission of the hijackers. Authorities speculate that the pilots were assassinated and their places taken by the terrorists who had had flight training. In all, there were 157 passengers and crew on the two planes. The third plane crashed in Pennsylvania killing 45 passengers and crew.

A number of the hostages managed to use their cellular telephones to call their families to say goodbye. Everything occurred in such a short period of time that, other than alerting a handful of people that there were some hijackings, no one had any idea why. The dilemma was that there were no warnings, no demands for ransom, and no hints that this bright, sunny September morning was about to become a day that will live forever in the minds of those who witnessed the tragedy.

It will be years before the final toll of damage will be known. To consolidate information, compute the financial losses, designate a monetary value for loss of life, fill the void left on the terrain, to make sense of this misfortune intened to undermine the foundation of America is a formidable assignment. We do know that destruction of the World Trade center cost the lives of more than three thousand innocent people in the buildings, in the jijacked airplanes, and in the surrounding streets. Who can erase the mental images of those planes smashing into the twin towers? Who is unable to visualize the spectacle of terrified men and women jumping to their doom? How can those of us who observed the collapse of the buildings fail to dwell on the loss of life caused by men, cowards, who lacked the fortitude to proclaim war on their alleged enemy?

世贸中心1号楼在被撞击后的105分,即10点30分倒塌,加重了街上已经非常混乱的状况。世贸中心7号楼,一座后来加进来的大楼,受到了破坏并起火,在那天下午晚些时候倒塌。连接在一起的全部结构全部受到损坏。

在这次令人难以置信的灾难之后,几个疑团开始出现了。在2001年9月11日上午8点之前不久,3架从马萨诸塞州波士顿的洛根机场起飞的商用飞机被劫持,它们都是横跨大陆载着乘客飞往加利福利亚的,机上盛满的油箱为这伙劫持者提供了致命的武器,专家们推测飞行员们已经被害,他们的位置被受过训练的恐怖分子所取代。这两架飞机上共有157名乘客和机组人员。第三架飞机坠毁在宾夕法尼亚州,45名乘客和机组人员遇难。

几个人质设法用手机与他们的家人通电话道别。一切都在如此之短的时间里发生,除了发出信号说这里有一伙人在劫持飞机外,没有人能想到为什么。使用权人进退两难的是,没有警告,也没有勒索,没有线索预示9月的这个阳光明媚的上午将会变成怎样的一天。这一天将永远留在那些亲眼目睹了这场灾难的人们的心中。

好几年才知道这次破坏所带来的损失。整理资料、计算金融损失、把生命的损失折算成货币价值,填补地上留下来的空间,搞清楚这次旨在破坏美国根基的事件的原因是一项艰巨的任务。我们知道世贸中心的毁灭夺走了大楼里、被劫持的飞机上和周围的街道上的3000多无辜人员的生命。谁能抹去飞机撞进双子塔楼时留在人们心灵上阴影?我们很难想象出那些恐惧的男人和女人们走向死亡时的情景。我们中的那些看到大楼倒塌的人,怎么能够不怀念被那些懦夫、那些没有胆量向他们所谓的敌人宣战的家伙们所伤害的无辜的生命呢?

 

Today, October 22, 2001, nine more corpses were discovered in the rubble, the first such discover in severalweeks. This may seem trivial when one considers the multitude of people who died. However, the fatalities aren’t the only victims of this trgicevent. Their families, friends, and colleagues need closure. They need to know with certainty that their loved ones are dead and they need to bury the remains. Unfortunately, most of the casualties will probably never be found because the heat produced by the ignition of jet fuel and the damage incurred by the impact would have instantaneously vaporized everything and eveeryone in the immediate vicinity. Others, in the buildings or on the streets as the towers collapsed are under so much debris that their bodies may not be found for months.

The list of building s collapsed and damaged includes all seven buildings of the W.T.C. comples comprising W.T.C.6, the U.S. Customs House to the north; W.T.C.3, the 22 story Marriott World Trade Center Hotel just west of Tower Two; W.T.C. 4 and 5, the Plaza Buildings, and One Liberty Plaza, a 54 story, 743 foot high building to the east. Firefighters and recovery workers remain on the scene. The fires still smolder beneath the ruins.

The American spirit has been bruised and the land has alize just how fragile and vulnerable their country is. Nevertheless, they are defiant. They do not still optimistic about their place in today’s world. They assert that the nightmare visited upon them will be visited upon the perpetrators of this cowardly act.

The World Trade Center is no more. The dream of an international axis of business, once a reality, will be revised. Maybe having one place that is so prominent will also be rethought. Whatevr the outcome, this massacre has served to strengthen the resolve of a mighty nation. The dream and dreamers will survive.

今天,2001年10月22日,在瓦砾中又发现了九具尸体,这是几个星期来第一次这样的发现。想到这么多人遇难,这似乎是微不足道的。然而,不幸的人并不是只有这次悲剧事件的牺牲者。他们的家人、朋友和同事需要一个结果。他们需要确切地知道他们所爱的人的死,他们需要掩埋遗体。不幸的是,大多数遇难者也许将永远也找不到了,因为航空燃油燃烧产生的热量和撞击产生的损害马上就把附近的每件东西和人员瞬间化为灰烬。在塔楼倒塌时,在大楼和街上的其它遇难者被埋在如此之多的残骸之下,好几个月都不会找出他们的尸体。

在倒塌和损坏的建筑物名单上包括世贸中心建筑群的所有七幢大楼。它们是世贸中心6号楼,北边的美国海关大楼,世贸中心3号楼,2号塔楼正西的22层的马利亚特世贸中心饭店,世贸中心4号楼和5号楼,购物中心大楼,以及东面54层的743英尺高的大楼。消防人员以及援救人员仍在现场。火仍然在废墟下面燃烧着。

美国心灵遇到了挫折,这片土地遭受了创伤。这个伟大的国家的人民现在才认识到他们的国家是多么脆弱和容易受到攻击。然而,他们是不会屈服的。他们认为自已不是恐怖分容易捕获的猎物。他们对他们在现今世界上的地位依然乐观。他们声称降临到他们的噩梦将降落到这场胆怯行动的凶手们身上。

世贸中心已不复存在。曾经变为现实的国际商业枢纽的梦想,需要重新考虑。也许,还会考虑一个同样著名的地方。不论结果如何,这场悲剧更加坚定了巩固一个强大国家的决心。梦想与梦想者永存。

 

 

本篇英语思维方式解读开始

 

The dream to construct a building to house everyone and everything connected with world trade began in the early 1960’s. 这个梦想开始了。开始这个动作,发生的时间用in the early 1960’s来表示,当然begin需要用它的过去形式began。英语思维是:建一个容纳与世界贸易有关的所有的人和所有的事的大楼的梦想开始于六十年代初期。To construst ………. 作为the dream的定语,用以说明这是一个什么样的梦想;to house……作为a building 的定语,用以说明这是一个什么样的大楼。因为这种说明作者认为用一个动作来表述更合适,所以这里他自然考虑使用动词不定式这个语法工具。connected with world trade是一个-ed分词短语,来限定everyone and everything的范围。可以理解为它们的定语,也可以理解成是对它们(everyone and everything)的修饰,当然,从语法的角度来讲,是完全可以用从句来表述的,但显然这样用,用词精炼,且看起来水平高。需要指出的是,英语的一个显著的特点就是:使用粘连的方式,即任何一个修饰性从句或者短语都是粘在它要修饰的那个词后面的。 After much deliberation, Minoru Yamasaki was  commissioned over more than a dozen other architects to work with the firm of Emery Roth and Sons to design this massive edifice(建筑物)。核心意义为:Minoru Yamasaki被委托同the firm of Emery Roth and Sons一道工作,设计这个宏伟的建筑物。After much deliberation和over more than a dozen other architects表示was  commissioned这种动作状态存在的时间,俗称时间状语。有人会说,它们都是时间状语,为什么不放在一起呢,显然,象作者这样放,从句子结构审美的角度看,更好看。To work…用来表示被委托的目的,to design this massive edifice同样也是动词不定式,用来表示to work with这种动作状态的目的。俗称目的状语;with the firm of Emery Roth and Sons 为to work的方式状语(伴随);After much deliberation 在这里作者用的是一个省略了主语也省略了非谓语动词,只存在的一个名词的由介词after引导的独立结构分句。当然,这里用到much 是因为作者认为deliberation是一个不可数名词。上面这句英文的主要结构就是Minoru Yamasaki was  commissioned  其它的成分都是依附这个主要结构上的。没有这个结构,其它的将都不能存在或者说没有意义了。  His task was evident: the building must have twelve million square feet of floor space on a sixteen acre parcel of land, accommodate the new facilities for the Hudson tubes and subway connections, and be done within the 500 million-dollar budget. The relatively small site combined with the vast space needs meant that the only way to go was up. The development would dwarf its neighbors and change the New York landscape and skyline at the bottom of Manhatan.

In order to accommodate the nine million square feet of office space, Yamaski make the decision that a two-tower development would be best. This would serve the dual purpose of giving sufficient office area on each floor and allowing a manageable structural system while taking advantage of the superb views. The twin towers would be 110 floors each, rising to a height of 1,353 feet (412 meters). From the observation decks at the tops of the towers it would be possible to see 45 miles in every direction.

When asked why he designed two 110-storey buildings instead of one 220-storey building, he replied, flippantly(圆滑的),“I didn’t want to lose the human touch.”

The first act in the construction process was the excavation(挖掘). The 1.2 million cubic(立方体的)yards of earth and roch that were removed were used to create 23 acres of fill in the Hudson River adjaacent to the W.T.C.site. This landfill(填埋) project was subsequently developed as Battery Park. The excavation, besides providing house parking garages, subway terminals and tubes, and shopping concourses(中央大厅).

 

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