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In class reading

(2008-01-15 00:57:32)
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杂谈

Man must be the most aggressive and cruel of all living creatures. 人类肯定是所有动物中最好斗和最残忍的.                                                              

We may say a violent man is behaving “like a beast”, but, in fact, no beast behaves as violently as man.

我们会说暴徒行为“就像野兽”,然而事实上,没有任何一种动物像人类那样残暴.

When a territorial animal or bird intrudes on the territory of another creature of the same species, the latter will only perform some hostile gestures to warn off the intruder.

当地盘性的动物或鸟类侵入别的同类动物的领地时,后者只会做一些表示敌意的姿态以吓跑入侵者.

Nevertheless, should a fight follow, neither creature will be badly hurt, for the loser will save himself by making a gesture of submission.  而且,万一有争斗,任何一方都不会受重伤,因为败方知要做出姿态表示投降便可保全性命.

Normally one animal will only kill another for food, and rarely does an animal kill a member of its own species.

一般情况下,动物之间只会为了争食而杀戮,同类动物之间自相残杀是极少见的.

If, however, an animal finds itself in abnormal conditions, it may show abnormal aggressiveness.

然而,如果动物发现自己处于异常环境下,它会表现出不同寻常的攻击性.

A tiger that once came out of the jungle into a village and attacked a man was later found to have an injured paw that had evidently prevented it from hunting its usual prey.  有一只老虎从丛林跑到村庄来,袭击了人.后来人们发现原来它的爪子受了伤,使它显然不能像平时那样去猎食.

If it had not had this disability it would have undoubtedly stayed in the jungle and hunted for food in the customary way.

如果不是受了伤,这只老虎毫无疑问还会呆在丛林里,并像往常那样去猎取食物.

Animals in zoos are kept in cages and often become more aggressive than they would be in the wild.

关在动物园笼子里的动物,往往会比在野外时更加好斗.

If the caged lion, for example, were free to wander on the prassy plains of Africa, it would be continually active, ranging over long distances, hunting in family groups.   比如说,关在笼子里的狮子一旦能自由自在的徜徉在非洲的大草原上,那么它会一只活力充沛,长途跋涉,与家族同类一起追捕食物.

In the zoo it is probably better fed and cared for, but it is evidently bored and frustrated foe lack of company.

在动物园里,也许它吃的更好,能得到精心的照料,但是,由于离群索居,它显然会感到倦怠,情绪沮丧.

Some zoologists and psychologists compare modern man to a caged lion.

一些动物学家和心理学家把现代人比喻成笼子里的狮子

Living conditions in crowded cities, they say, are similar to those of animals in a zoo and make the inhabitants unusually aggressive.

他们认为,人们生活在拥挤不堪的城市里,生活条件与动物园里的动物很相似,这种状况使得这些居民特别地好斗.

If the human population had not increased so rapidly, people would have had more space and freedom.

如果人口增长速度不是这样快,人们就会有更多的空间和自由.

In prehistoric times a group of about 60 people had many kilometers of empty land to wander and search for food in.

在史前时代,60人左右的群体会有数公里的空间来活动觅食.

If conditions had remained thus, man might have been no more aggressive than his fellow creatures.

假如现在还有这样的条件,人类就不会比其他动物更加好斗.

As it is, it is possible for as many as 30000 people to be working in a single office-building.

实际情况是,在同一栋办公大楼里工作的人,有可能多达3万人.

It is not surprising if in these conditions people behave aggressively towards each other.

在这种条件下,人们之间变得寻衅好斗也就不足为奇了.

In fact, it is almost impossible for them to behave otherwise.  实际上,要他们不这样几乎是不可能的.

Man must have become more aggressive over the years as the world population has increased.

这些年来,随着世界人口的增长,人类肯定是更加好斗了.

However, aggression in itself is not necessarily a bad thing.  然而,好斗本身并不一定是坏事.

Some psychologists believe that aggression is a basic human instinct that must be satisfied.

一些心理学家认为好斗是一种必需得到满足的基本的人类本能.

If constructive means are not available to satisfy this instinct, man will turn to destructive means.

如果没有建设性的手段来满足这一本能,人类就会采用破坏性的手段.

The impulse to assert himself has enabled him to survive in a dangerous world, but, ironically, he is now likely to destroy his own species unless alternative, non-violent ways of expressing aggression can be found.

人类坚持自己的权利和主张的冲动使其能够在这充满危险的世界上生存下来;然而,具有讽刺意义的是,人类有可能自我毁灭,除非能找到其他非暴力的,能发泄其好斗本性的办法.

In fact, it is growing more and more difficult for people to assert themselves as individuals, as towns, nations and organizations become steadily bigger, with authority increasingly centralized and remote.       实际上,人类作为个体要想坚持自己的权利和主张已经越来越困难了,因为城镇,国家以及组织机构本的越来越庞大,而权利则变得越发集中,越发遥远了.

A man who may once have been a self-employed craftsman, master of his own trade, might now have a boring job in a factory.

一个人也许曾经是个体手工业者,而且还是本行业的能工巧匠,而现在却可能在工厂里干着单调乏味的工作.

A small firm that once worked as a team to produce high-quality goods is likely to be absorbed into a vast organization where their work is mechanical and there is no possibility for personal expression.        一家小公司曾经团结合作生产出高质量产品,而现在可能被并入了一家大机构,员工的工作很机械,也没有自我发挥的机会了.

Unable in these conditions to channel their aggression into creative work, people will probably express it through resentment and anger.  在这样的条件下,人们无法将自己争强好斗的特征发挥在创造性的工作上,很可能就表现出怨恨,愤怒等情绪.

At the international level an accumulation of hostile emotions finally finds expression in large-scale impersonal warfare.

在国与国之间,敌对情绪的日积月累终会以大规模的没有人性的战争形势爆发出来.

A man who would hesitate to hit another person in front of his eyes may kill thousands of people by dropping a bomb from a plane; to him they are too remote to be human beings, but are merely figures on a chart of his routine job.

一个不大愿意对他面前的人拔拳相向的人,也许会从飞机上投下一枚炸弹导致成千上万的人死亡;对他来说,那些人太遥远,已不算是人了,仅仅是他日常工作报表上的数字而已.

Nevertheless, it might be possible at least to improve the situation.    然而,这种状况至少还是能够得到改善的.

The encouragement of competition in all possible fields should tend to diminish the likelihood of war rather than increase it.

鼓励所有可能领域中的竞争,应该会逐渐减少而不是增加战争的可能性.

In his book Human Aggression, Anthony Storr suggested that the United Nations should organize international competitions in sports and also for the best designed house or hospital, or the safest car.         安东尼.斯托尔在他的<<人类的好斗性>>一书中,建议联合国组织性体育比赛,还可以开展诸如最佳房屋或医院设计,最安全汽车竞赛等活动.

Even the enormous amount of money and energy devoted to the space race is, he says, to be welcomed, for this kind of competition can be regarded as similar to the ritual conflicts of animals.    

他说,甚至那些把大量的财力和人力用于太空竞赛的做法,也是值得欢迎的,因为这种竞争与动物之间惯常的冲突类似.

Only if hostility and aggression can be expressed in constructive activity and non-violent competition, will the human race be able to survive.    只有将人类敌意和好斗性通过建设性活动和非暴力的竞争发挥出来,人类才能继续生存下去.

We do not think such an abnormal phenomenon will last long.  不正常的,反常的  adj.

My parents thought it was abnormal for a boy to be interested in ballet.

Accumulations of sand can be formed by the action of waves on coastal beaches.   积累物,积聚起来的东西  n.

The accumulation of life’s experiences should make us at our wisest when we are old.

If I criticize him he gets very aggressive and starts shouting.    好斗的,挑衅性的, 好争吵的 adj.

Kids who play violent video games show much more aggressive behavior than those who don’t.

A good salesman must be aggressive if he wants to succeed.   有进取心的,  有冲劲的 adj.

Thanks to our aggressive marketing tactics, our sales have risen sharply.

At home, when your child behaves aggressively, try redirecting his or her attention by offering a choice of other activities. 好争吵地

The elementary school boys played too aggressively on the school ground so the teacher stopped them.  挑衅性地 adv.

Football fans have been criticized for their aggressiveness at games.    敌对情绪  n.

Your husband’s recent aggressiveness in everything is not good for the children, nor for the marriage.

You are too timid-you must try to assert yourself more.  坚持自己的想法,权利,意见v.

Women assert themselves more nowadays and do not tolerate unfair treatment from men like they once did.

Although she was found guilty, she continued to assert her innocence.    宣称 声明 断言 v.

The government has repeatedly asserted that it will not change its policy.

I am getting very bored with this entire business.   厌烦的  厌倦的 adj.

After waiting three hours for the train we were quite bored.

A centralized government is important for any modern nation.    集中的  adj.

Economic organizations in the late 20th century were more centralized than before.

If you don’t have anything constructive to say I’d rather you kept quiet.    建设性的 有益的  adj.

The teacher offered constructive criticism for the student’s writing project.

My father is a skilled craftsman with woodworking.      工匠  能工巧匠  n.

In the Middle Ages craftsman were organized into Guilds.

The bus is always crowded in the morning.    拥挤的  adj.

I said hello to all the people in the crowded room.

Mary was evidently upset when she heard about Tom’s death.     清楚地 明显地  adv.

Evidently, the local authorities are planning to close the school.

The grassy meadows reached as far as one could see.        长满草的  adj.

The sheep grazed on the grassy slope at the edge of town. 

The inhabitants of the village protested against the new road.  居民 住户 n.

This is a poor rural area, with only one doctor per 10000 inhabitants.

Lions have an instinct to hunt.      本能 n.

Animals have a natural instinct for survival.

I don’t have as strong a materialistic instinct as some other people.   直觉 n.

Don’t ask me; follow your instincts and do what you think is right.

The children were being taught to read in a mechanical way.    机械的  不加思考的   adj.

He was asked the same question so many times that the answer became mechanical.

The plane had to make an emergency landing because of mechanical problems.   机械的 由机械制成的,机械操纵的 adj.

Unlike mechanical clocks, which are completely blind to their surroundings, a biological clock gets reset every day by the sun.

Our dog cut his paw on a piece of metal.   爪子 n.

The tiger’s paw has gone through a lot of changes in both looks and focus.

His horse pawed the ground.    用爪子抓,用蹄扒  v.

The dog’s pawing at the door again-let him out.

Dinosaurs were some of the largest animals in prehistoric times.    史前的  adj.

There are some ruins down there and some prehistoric engravings in the rock faces.

The house was very remote and felt lonely all the time.    遥远的 偏僻的  adj.

In the remotest parts of Asia, there is sparse population.

The connection between these two ideas is very remote  关系远的  不近的  adj.

Your comments are rather remote from the subject we are discussing.

I afraid your chances of success are rather remote   极少的 微乎其微的  adj.

There’s a remote chance that you can catch him before he leaves.

Most alternative technologies work best on a small scale   规模 范围 程度 n.

There has been housing development on a massive scale since 1980.

She gradually made her way up the social scale  等级  级别 n.

The salary scale goes from $ 60000 to $ 175000.

A set of kitchen scales sat on the countertop.   天平 磅秤n.

The new bathroom scales are more accurate than our older ones.

The earthquakes measured 7 on the Richter scale 刻度 标度  n.

On a scale of one to ten, how do you rate his performance?

A map with a scale of 1:250,000 was posted on the wall of the room       比例  n..

Seven of their 1:20 scale models have been chosen for exhibition.

The wet fish scales were shiny.

Fish scales should be removed before the fish is cooked.    鳞  n.

Rescuers had to scale a 300m cliff to reach the injured climber.

A ladder will be necessary if you are going to scale the wall.   攀登  v.

The young dog showed its submission by lying down.

The defeated army gave up its weapons in submission to the victors.    屈服 投降  n.

Many types of birds are highly territorial     守卫自身活动地域的,领域性的 adj.

Dogs have an instinctive territorial behavior.  

The country has suffered substantial territorial losses in this war.     领土的 属地的 adj.

The two countries had a territorial dispute over which one owned the island.  

It’s undoubtedly the best French film this year.    毫无疑问地 肯定地  adv.

Undoubtedly, public interest in folk music has declined.

Students were involved in violent clashes with the police.   暴力的 暴力引起的 adj.

Not a few violent scenes were cut from the film before it was shown.

He has a violent dislike of school.          激烈的 强烈的  adj.

She was in a violent temper and began throwing things about.

Hugh violently objects to the proposal.              暴力地  激烈地  adv.

The escaping prisoners violently attacked their guards.

Biological warfare is unacceptable to most nations.       战争  冲突 n.

Warfare will continue until a compromise is reached.

John hopes to become a zoologist following his education.        动物学家  n.

The zoologist was hired to train the ape to communicate by sign language.

I thought things would get better, but as it is they are getting worse.  事实上 实际情况是

They hoped to finish the kitchen by Friday, but as it is they’ll probably have to come back next week.

Who will care for the children when she is in the hospital?   关心 照顾

Bob and his sister take turns caring for their elderly mother.

I have to say I don’t much care for modern music.     喜欢

Your father thought she was nice but Casey and I didn’t care for her.

Yao’s athletic abilities found expression on the basketball court with the Rockets.   在……中表达出来

Her concern has now found expression in the new environmental protection act.

The talk was all tight in itself but it went on too long.    本身

There is a slight infection in the lung which in itself is not serious.

One can always turn to music for comfort.   求助于  借助于

Her family lived a long way away, and she had no one to turn to.

Some animals mark their territory to warn off rivals.   告诫….离开

They warned him off, but he kept going back to the dangerous river.

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