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如何给1-3岁的孩子阅读--我译你读(完)

(2008-09-05 16:20:23)
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分类: 译言译行

如何给1-3岁的孩子阅读--我译你读(完)

Gabrielle takes a break from playing at her kitchen set and reaches into her basket of books. She roots around until she finds her current favorite by Richard Scarry, then delivers the book to her mother, who knows just what page to skip to. Gabrielle sits in her mom's lap as the two of them examine the page - her mom names the orange juice, milk, and waffles and Gabrielle points to the pictures. 加布里埃从她的过家家厨房玩具,换到了她的一篮子书籍中。她的站着选了一会,直到她发现她目前最喜欢的Richard Scarry写的书。然后她把这本书,给妈妈,谁知道究竟讲到哪一页了。加布里埃坐在妈妈的大腿上,他们两人都认真看着书-妈妈说橙汁,牛奶和华夫饼干的名子,加布里埃指出对应的图片。

当你跳过熟悉书籍中的一些内容,而你的孩子知道并要求你按原来的顺序进行时,不要感到吃惊。这表明他们了解了语言和图片的联系,还表明,他们明白故事发生的先后顺序。

Soon, Gabrielle slides off her mother's lap and moves over to her stuffed animals. Her mom knows better than to try to finish the book. For Gabrielle and lots of other toddlers, these little bits of reading are just right. 很快,加布里埃从妈妈的大腿上滑了下去,走向填充动物玩具。她的妈妈知道,这样也许更好,不能设法强迫加布里埃读完这本书。象加布里埃和许多其他这年年纪的幼童,这些阅读是恰恰好。

 

Why Should I Read to My Toddler? 为什么要读书给小孩听?

Studies show that children with active exposure to language have social and educational advantages over their peers - and reading is one of the best exposures to language. 研究表明,能积极接触语言的儿童,也他们的朋辈相比,有社交和教育优势-阅读是接触语言最好的活动之一。

Reading to your child lays the foundation for later independent reading. But before your child can read independently, he or she needs a set of skills called emergent literacy skills. These include: 为孩子读书,能为以后他们的独立阅读奠定基础。但之前,让您的孩子可以独立阅读,需要教给他或她一套技巧,所谓浸入式的识字技能。这些措施包括:

  • having a large vocabulary of words and knowing how to use them具备大量的词汇,并知道如何使用它们。

  • understanding that words are made up of smaller sounds (this is called phonemic awareness) 理解话是由一些短的声音组成的(这就是所谓的音素意识)

  • understanding that marks on a page represent letters and words理解书上的标志代表一个字或一句话。
  • knowing the letters of the alphabet 理解字母表

 

You don't need games, flashcards, or special instruction to help your child gain these skills. You just need books, your child, and you. Reading to your child as often as possible is the best thing you can do to help him or her learn to read independently.您不需要游戏,卡片,或特别的指导来帮助您的孩子获得这些技能。你只需要的书籍,您的孩子和你。尽可能常常多读书给孩子听,就是你能做的帮助他学习独立阅读的最好方法。

I'm Not a Baby Anymore! 我不再只是一个婴儿了!

Reading aloud is also an important way to help your child make the transition from babyhood to toddlerhood. Between the ages of 1 and 3, your child will have triumphs and challenges. It can help for your child to hear stories about other kids and how they managed fears about what's under the bed and tackled the challenge of using the potty. 朗读也是能帮助孩子的一个重要的方式,帮助他们从婴儿期过渡到幼儿期。年龄介于1至3时,您的孩子将会遇到胜利和挑战。听故事可以帮助你的孩子,了解其他的孩子如何去面对恐惧,例如担心床底下有什么,跨越学习上厕所时遇到的挑战。

Your child will make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and will learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, seasons - all of which can be reinforced through books. Choose ones with many pictures your child can point to and name. 您的孩子在词汇量上会有一个大的飞跃,学习字母、形状、颜色、天气、动物、季节—所有这一切都可以通过阅读得到加强。选择一张纸上有很多图片的书,让孩子可以指和说出它们的名称。

But while eager to learn about the world and experience it, your toddler also needs a strong connection with you. Reading together regularly can strengthen that connection, helping your toddler feel safe and comfortable. 不过,虽然急于了解和经历世界,小孩也需要和你有强烈的亲密感。一起阅读,经常可以加强这种亲密感,帮助您的孩子感到安全和舒适。

When and How to Read to Your Toddler何时及如何阅读为宝宝阅读
Experts recommend you read to your child as often as you can and that you strive to have at least one scheduled reading time each day. Choosing regular times to read (especially before naps and bedtime) is a way to help your child learn to sit with a book and relax. But you can read anytime your child seems in the mood. 专家建议您尽量在有空时给孩子读书,尽量每天都至少计划一个读书时间。定时阅读(尤其是午睡前和上床时间)是一种方法,可以帮助您的孩子学习拿着书坐下并放松。不过,只要孩子想听,你可以随时阅读给您的孩子读。

If your toddler will let you, hold him or her in your lap when you read. It's a great spot for: 如果您的小孩会让你抱着他坐在你的腿上听故事,就太棒了:
helping your child feel safe, happy, and relaxed让您的孩子感到安全,快乐,和放松

  • giving undivided attention专注,不会分心;
  • showing new things展示新事物
  • inviting participation 方便邀请孩子参与

You'll find that your toddler has a mind of his or her own and wants to be independent and successful. Nurture these instincts by offering three or four books to choose from, praising your child's selection, letting your toddler help you turn pages, and asking for help as you find things on a page. Your child will love to finish sentences in books with repetitive phrasing or rhymes. 您将发现您的小孩有自己的想法,希望保持独立,希望获得成功。为了满足这些本能,你可以提供三个或四本书籍供他/她选择,并赞扬孩子的选择,让孩子帮助您翻页,当想找到书上的图片时,可以请他帮你。孩子会非常喜欢书上有重复的句子和韵律。

Here are some additional reading tips: 这里有一些额外的阅读提示:

  • Read whatever books your toddler asks for, even if it's the same book every night for weeks and weeks (and weeks and weeks). •孩子要求你读哪本书就读哪本,即使已经读了好几个星期了。

  • Read slowly enough for your toddler to understand.读的速度要慢到能让孩子明白才行。
  • Read expressively, using different voices for different characters and raising or lowering your voice as appropriate. 要声情并貌地读 ,不同的角色要使用不同的声音,适当时要提高或降低你的声音。
  • Use puppets, finger plays (like the "Itsy Bitsy Spider"), or props while you read.阅读时使用的木偶,手指发挥(如“ itsy bitsy蜘蛛” ) ,或道具。

  • Encourage your toddler to clap or sing when you read rhythmic, sing-song books. 鼓励幼儿,在你读有节奏的儿歌时拍手。

  • Talk about the illustrations with your child. Point to items and name them. Then ask your child to name them with you and offer enthusiastic praise as he or she does so.和孩子谈书的上插图,指出物品并说出名称。然后叫您的孩子也这样做,如果他们这样做了,要热情赞美他或她。
  • Ask open-ended questions - "Why do you think the lion is going into the woods? What do you think will happen next?" This encourages your child to think about the story and to ask questions. •问一些没有正确答案,的开放性问题-“为什么你认为狮子是进入森林了,接下来你认为会发生什么” ?这鼓励你的孩子思考故事并问问题。
  • Substitute your child's name for the name of a character in the book. •把书中一个角色的名字换成你家宝宝的。

  • Have fun! Show your child that reading is enjoyable. •要显示有趣!在孩子面前表现出阅读是愉快的。

Busy Bodies, Busy Minds身忙心忙

Trying to read to a toddler who just won't sit still can be frustrating. It's important to be patient and keep trying. Find a book or a few pages that capture his or her interest. If you can't do that, don't force the reading but be sure to try again later. Remember that toddlers love repetition - if your child seems uninterested in books, you may need to find a favorite and read it over and over again.要尝试给一个不肯坐下来的幼儿是一件令人感到沮丧的事。重点是要耐心和不断尝试。找到一本书或是其中几页能抓住他或她的兴趣。如果你不能做到这一点,不强迫孩子,便稍后一定要再试。记住幼童爱重复-如果您的孩子看起来对有些书不感兴趣,您可能需要找一本她喜欢的,一次又一次的反复读给她们听。

 

Some busy toddlers like to stand up while you read to them. Others like to look at a page or two before moving on to something else. Keep the book out - he or she may want to return to it later, which you should encourage. Don't worry if your child can't sit still for an entire book - his or her attention span will start to get longer soon. You might want to keep reading even if your child moves around. Before bedtime, allow your child to touch and play with favorite toys while you read aloud. The sound of your voice will be a soothing reminder of your bedtime routine and that books are a part of it. 一些不喜欢闲着的幼童,在你读书给他们听时,喜欢站着。其它人看了一、两页以后就想作别的事了。留着这本书,先别那么快放好-他或她稍后可能会再回来读,这是您应该鼓励的。如果您的孩子不能好好坐着听完一整本书,不用担心。他或她的注意力的保持很快会越来越长。如果您的孩子在周围走来走去,您可能仍需要继续阅读,就寝前的时间,让孩子抱着最喜爱的玩具,你大声朗读。您的声音就会起到安抚和提醒就寝时间的作用,书籍是它的一部分.

 

You may find that your child sits still better while coloring or playing with a favorite toy while you read. Don't assume that because your child isn't looking at you or the book that he or she isn't interested or listening. 您可能会发现,在您阅读的时候,如果孩子们正在着色或是正在玩他们喜欢的玩具,会坐地更好。不要以为,您的孩子不看着你或书,他或她就不感兴趣,或没有听你读书。

You want your child to have positive associations with reading, so if you are feeling tense or your child is resisting, consider setting the book aside and returning to it later. 你希望孩子和阅读有积极的联系,因此,如果你太紧张或孩子们一直抵制,考虑下先反书隔一边,等下再接着读。

If your child really doesn't like to spend much time reading, remember that reading to your child is just one thing you can do to encourage emergent literacy. You also can limit TV, talk to your child throughout the day, sing songs together, play rhyming games, and make up your own stories together. Don't forget to provide paper and crayons so your child can practice writing.如果您的孩子真的不喜欢花太多时间阅读,请记住,读书给孩子听只是你所能做的鼓励他爱上文字的事之一。您还可以限制他看电视的时间,花白天的时间和孩子聊聊天,一起唱歌,玩押韵游戏,一起编自己的故事。不要忘记,提供纸张和蜡笔让你的孩子可以练习写。(完)

 

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