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"the Tree" by H. P. Lovecraft

(2008-07-13 11:57:06)
标签:

杂谈

 

"the <wbr>Tree" <wbr>by <wbr>H. <wbr>P. <wbr>Lovecraft

 

坟头树(the Tree)
by H. P. Lovecraft
1920年 作
1921年10月发表于《Tryout》第7期

弥赛亚之书 译

 

     On a verdant slope of Mount Maenalus, in Arcadia, there stands an olive grove about the ruins of a villa. Close by is a tomb, once beautiful with the sublimest sculptures, but now fallen into as great decay as the house. At one end of that tomb, its curious roots displacing the time-stained blocks of Panhellic marble, grows an unnaturally large olive tree of oddly repellent shape; so like to some grotesque man, or death-distorted body of a man, that the country folk fear to pass it at night when the moon shines faintly through the crooked boughs. Mount Maenalus is a chosen haunt of dreaded Pan, whose queer companions are many, and simple swains believe that the tree must have some hideous kinship to these weird Panisci; but an old bee-keeper who lives in the neighboring cottage told me a different story.

  

    在阿耳卡狄亚【译注1】,米那努斯山青翠的山坡上有一片橄榄树林,环绕着一座倾颓的古厦。在它近旁竖立着一块墓碑,上面庄严的雕塑曾经美丽非常,现在却也如那座古厦般腐朽不堪。在这坟冢的一头,生长着一棵异乎寻常的大橄榄树,在已褪色的古希腊大理石块上盘根虬曲。这棵树形状古怪,令人厌恶,看上去就好像一个怪诞的死人。在每个昏暗月光穿过那些扭曲树枝的晚上,村民们都不敢从那里经过。米那努斯山区流传着可怕潘神【译注2】的传说,淳朴的村民们相信这棵树与那些超自然的鬼怪一定有某种可怕的联系。然而住在邻近村舍的一个养蜂老人给我讲述了一个与此不同的故事。

 

    Many years ago, when the hillside villa was new and resplendent, there dwelt within it the two sculptors Kalos and Musides. From Lydia to Neapolis the beauty of their work was praised, and none dared say that the one excelled the other in skill. The Hermes of Kalos stood in a marble shrine in Corinth, and the Pallas of Musides surmounted a pillar in Athens near the Parthenon. All men paid homage to Kalos and Musides, and marvelled that no shadow of artistic jealousy cooled the warmth of their brotherly friendship.

  

    很多年以前,当这个半山古厦还灯火辉映、富丽堂皇的岁月里,在里面住着两个雕塑家:喀洛斯和穆赛德斯。从吕底亚【译注3】到拿坡里【译注4】,他们创作的艺术品被广为传颂,没有任何人能为他们分出高下。喀洛斯创作的赫耳墨斯【译注5】矗立在科林斯【译注6】的大理石神殿中,而穆赛德斯创作的雅典娜【译注7】则在雅典帕台农神庙【译注8】的台柱顶端昂首伫立。每个人都对喀洛斯和穆赛德斯致以无上的敬意,而且惊异于没有任何嫉妒的阴影冷却他们俩之间兄弟般的友情。

 

    But though Kalos and Musides dwelt in unbroken harmony, their natures were not alike. Whilst Musides revelled by night amidst the urban gaieties of Tegea, Saios would remain at home; stealing away from the sight of his slaves into the cool recesses of the olive grove. There he would meditate upon the visions that filled his mind, and there devise the forms of beauty which later became immortal in breathing marble. Idle folk, indeed, said that Kalos conversed with the spirits of the grove, and that his statues were but images of the fauns and dryads he met there for he patterned his work after no living model.

  

    然而,尽管喀洛斯和穆赛德斯相处融洽和谐,他们的天性却彼此不同。在穆赛德斯每晚到附近忒格亚【译注9】的派对中纵饮狂欢时,喀洛斯会呆在家里。他躲过仆从们的注意,潜入到橄榄树林幽凉的深处。在那里他冥想着脑海中盈溢的幻象,并且构思着各种结构和形态,思索着如何在大理石雕中更为逼真地体现出永恒之美。好事的村民们说,喀洛斯其实是在那里与树林中的精灵们交谈,他的那些雕塑原形其实都不是真人,而是弗恩【译注10】和德律阿得斯【译注11】们所展露的真身。

 

    So famous were Kalos and Musides, that none wondered when the Tyrant of Syracuse sent to them deputies to speak of the costly statue of Tyche which he had planned for his city. Of great size and cunning workmanship must the statue be, for it was to form a wonder of nations and a goal of travellers. Exalted beyond thought would be he whose work should gain acceptance, and for this honor Kalos and Musides were invited to compete. Their brotherly love was well known, and the crafty Tyrant surmised that each, instead of concealing his work from the other, would offer aid and advice; this charity producing two images of unheard of beauty, the lovelier of which would eclipse even the dreams of poets.

  

    喀洛斯和穆赛德斯是如此的闻名,因此当叙拉古【译注12】的国君派遣代表邀请他们为他创作堤喀【译注13】女神的雕塑时,没有任何人觉得惊讶。这座贵重的雕像将被安置在城中,必须做到巍峨雄伟,做工精良,目的是成为民族的象征以及招徕大量的观光者。制作出来的雕塑务必要尊贵高尚,赢得众人的首肯。为了这一荣誉,喀洛斯和穆赛德斯被邀请来为之一较高下。他们间兄弟般的感情人尽皆知,这个狡诈的国王也明白这一点。他知道他们不会相互隐藏自己的作品,反而会彼此提供帮助和建议。两位大师在这种彼此相宽的环境中创作出来的作品一定非常优秀,而其中更好的那一个则一定就连诗人的梦境都会为之逊色。

 

    With joy the sculptors hailed the Tyrant's offer, so that in the days that followed their slaves heard the ceaseless blows of chisels. Not from each other did Kalos and Musides conceal their work, but the sight was for them alone. Saving theirs, no eyes beheld the two divine figures released by skillful blows from the rough blocks that had imprisoned them since the world began.

  

    两位雕塑家愉快地接受了这位国王的提议,因此接下来那些天里,他们的仆从听到凿子不停地敲击。喀洛斯和穆赛德斯彼此并不隐瞒自己的作业,但也仅限于他们自己才能观看。除了他们两人之外,没人能看到那些从世界伊始就被禁锢住的石块,是如何在巧手下升华为栩栩如生的雕像的。

 

    At night, as of yore, Musides sought the banquet halls of Tegea whilst Kalos wandered alone in the olive Grove. But as time passed, men observed a want of gaiety in the once sparkling Musides. It was strange, they said amongst themselves that depression should thus seize one with so great a chance to win art's loftiest reward. Many months passed yet in the sour face of Musides came nothing of the sharp expectancy which the situation should arouse.

  

    就像往常一样,穆赛德斯每天晚上到忒格亚去寻欢作乐,而喀洛斯则独自在橄榄林中徘徊。但随着时间的流逝,人们开始注意到穆赛德斯脸上失去了曾经的快乐表情。人们说,面对着这样一个能赢取艺术界至高无上荣誉的机会,谁都可能会感受到压力而落落寡欢。然而好几个月过去了,对胜利的憧憬和期望仍然没有回到穆赛德斯那整日阴沉的面孔上。

 

    Then one day Musides spoke of the illness of Kalos, after which none marvelled again at his sadness, since the sculptors' attachment was known to be deep and sacred. Subsequently many went to visit Kalos, and indeed noticed the pallor of his face; but there was about him a happy serenity which made his glance more magical than the glance of Musides who was clearly distracted with anxiety and who pushed aside all the slaves in his eagerness to feed and wait upon his friend with his own hands. Hidden behind heavy curtains stood the two unfinished figures of Tyche, little touched of late by the sick man and his faithful attendant.

  

    然后有一天穆赛德斯谈到了喀洛斯的病。众人恍然大悟,不再为他的悲伤而惊讶了,因为两位雕塑家之间的友谊是如此的深厚和神圣。随后很多人到喀洛斯那里去,果然注意到他脸上的苍白。但病人依旧平静而快乐,他的眼神也依旧清澈。穆赛德斯则非常担忧,甚至赶走了所有的仆从,亲自侍候朋友的饮食起居。堤喀女神那两座未完成的雕塑立在厚厚的帷幔之后,这段时间可怜的病人和他忠实的朋友都很少去工作。

 

    As Kalos grew inexplicably weaker and weaker despite the ministrations of puzzled physicians and of his assiduous friend, he desired to be carried often to the grove which he so loved. There he would ask to be left alone, as if wishing to speak with unseen things. Musides ever granted his requests, though his eyes filled with visible tears at the thought that Kalos should care more for the fauns and the dryads than for him. At last the end drew near, and Kalos discoursed of things beyond this life. Musides, weeping, promised him a sepulchre more lovely than the tomb of Mausolus; but Kalos bade him speak no more of marble glories. Only one wish now haunted the mind of the dying man; that twigs from certain olive trees in the grove be buried by his resting place-close to his head. And one night, sitting alone in the darkness of the olive grove, Kalos died. Beautiful beyond words was the marble sepulchre which stricken Musides carved for his beloved friend. None but Kalos himself could have fashioned such basreliefs, wherein were displayed all the splendours of Elysium. Nor did Musides fail to bury close to Kalos' head the olive twigs from the grove.

  

    迷惑的医师们找不出病因。而尽管有他们和朋友的悉心照料,喀洛斯仍然变得越来越虚弱。即使如此,他还是经常要求仆从把自己的病榻抬到他钟爱的那片树林中去。在那里他会要求独自留下来,仿佛要与看不见的东西交谈一样。穆赛德斯从不拒绝他的请求,但是眼中满是泪水,祈祷弗恩和林中女仙能比自己更好地照料他。最后大限来临了,喀洛斯开始安排后事。穆赛德斯啜泣着许诺为他建造一座比摩索拉斯王【译注14】更美的陵墓,但喀洛斯命他不要再提雕塑的事情。这垂死之人只有一个愿望,就是在他安眠之处埋下一棵橄榄树的树枝,就靠近他头枕着的地方。于是一天晚上,独坐在橄榄林的黑暗之中,喀洛斯死了。深受打击的穆赛德斯为他挚友打造的坟墓美得无法用文字形容,展现出一片光彩壮丽的极乐世界。除了喀洛斯自己以外,再没有第三个人能创作出如此精美的浮雕。穆赛德斯也没有忘记在好友枕边埋葬下那片树林中采撷来的橄榄树枝。

 

    As the first violence of Musides' grief gave place to resignation, he labored with diligence upon his figure of Tyche. All honour was now his, since the Tyrant of Syracuse would have the work of none save him or Kalos. His task proved a vent for his emotion and he toiled more steadily each day, shunning the gaieties he once had relished. Meanwhile his evenings were spent beside the tomb of his friend, where a young olive tree had sprung up near the sleeper's head. So swift was the growth of this tree, and so strange was its form, that all who beheld it exclaimed in surprise; and Musides seemed at once fascinated and repelled.

  

    悲恸的穆赛德斯逐渐接受了好友已死的事实,转而开始勤奋地继续雕刻他的堤喀女神。所有的荣誉现在都归于他,因为叙拉古的国王没有再安排其他人来从事这项伟业。他用工作来宣泄自己的情感,每天都辛苦地劳作。他避开曾经沉醉其中的所有纵饮和狂欢,每天晚上都在朋友的坟边度过。而在永眠者的枕边,一棵幼小的橄榄树已经开始抽枝发芽。这棵树生长得如此迅速,它的外形如此怪异,以至于每个看到它的人都会禁不住惊呼。而穆赛德斯则表现得既为之神魂颠倒而又心生厌恶。

 

    Three years after the death of Kalos, Musides despatched a messenger to the Tyrant, and it was whispered in the agora at Tegea that the mighty statue was finished. By this time the tree by the tomb had attained amazing proportions, exceeding all other trees of its kind, and sending out a singularly heavy branch above the apartment in which Musides labored. As many visitors came to view the prodigious tree, as to admire the art of the sculptor, so that Musides was seldom alone. But he did not mind his multitude of guests; indeed, he seemed to dread being alone now that his absorbing work was done. The bleak mountain wind, sighing through the olive grove and the tomb-tree, had an uncanny way of forming vaguely articulate sounds.

  

    喀洛斯死后三年过去了,穆赛德斯向国王派遣了使者,而忒格亚集市上则有传言说那座伟大的雕像已经完成了。到如今那颗坟头树也长得枝繁叶茂,面积超群,而且异乎寻常地伸出一根粗壮的分枝,遮盖在穆赛德斯工作间的上空。由于很多人过来观看这棵巨树以及赞美雕塑家的杰出艺术品,穆赛德斯失去了独处的时间。但他根本不介意这些民众来打扰他,甚至可以说,在完成了这件伟大作品之后,他非常害怕独处。阴冷的山风从橄榄树林和坟头树间穿过,奇妙地发出一种含糊的低语声。

 

    The sky was dark on the evening that the Tyrant's emissaries came to Tegea. It was definitely known that they had come to bear away the great image of Tyche and bring eternal honour to Musides, so their reception by the proxenoi was of great warmth. As the night wore on a violent storm of wind broke over the crest of Maenalus, and the men from far Syracuse were glad that they rested snugly in the town. They talked of their illustrious Tyrant, and of the splendour of his capital and exulted in the glory of the statue which Musides had wrought for him. And then the men of Tegea spoke of the goodness of Musides, and of his heavy grief for his friend and how not even the coming laurels of art could console him in the absence of Kalos, who might have worn those laurels instead. Of the tree which grew by the tomb, near the head of Kalos, they also spoke. The wind shrieked more horribly, and both the Syracusans and the Arcadians prayed to Aiolos.

  

    在叙拉古的使者来到忒格亚的那天晚上天色很黑。市民们都知道他们前来是为了去取走那件伟大的堤喀女神,并且为穆赛德斯带去永恒的荣耀,因此召开了盛大的招待酒会。晚上米那努斯山上吹过来猛烈的暴风,于是这批远道而来的客人便决定在城里面舒适地休息一晚。他们谈到他们杰出的国君,谈到他都城的显赫,以及是如何因穆赛德斯为他所打造的雕像而雀跃。而后忒格亚的人们则谈到仁慈善良的穆赛德斯,谈到他对死去挚友的悲恸,甚至即将到来的殊荣也无法安慰他,因为这桂冠也很可能属于喀洛斯。他们还谈到了喀洛斯枕边的那棵坟头树。屋外的风声嘶吼得更为尖利起来,叙拉古人和阿耳卡狄亚人一同为喀洛斯而祈祷。

 

    In the sunshine of the morning the proxenoi led the Tyrant's messengers up the slope to the abode of the sculptor, but the night wind had done strange things. Slaves' cries ascended from a scene of desolation, and no more amidst the olive grove rose the gleaming colonnades of that vast hall wherein Musides had dreamed and toiled. Lone and shaken mourned the humble courts and the lower walls, for upon the sumptuous greater peri-style had fallen squarely the heavy overhanging bough of the strange new tree, reducing the stately poem in marble with odd completeness to a mound of unsightly ruins. Strangers and Tegeans stood aghast, looking from the wreckage to the great, sinister tree whose aspect was so weirdly human and whose roots reached so queerly into the sculptured sepulchre of Kalos. And their fear and dismay increased when they searched the fallen apartment, for of the gentle Musides, and of the marvellously fashioned image of Tyche, no trace could be discovered. Amidst such stupendous ruin only chaos dwelt, and the representatives of two cities left disappointed; Syracusans that they had no statue to bear home, Tegeans that they had no artist to crown. However, the Syracusans obtained after a while a very splendid statue in Athens, and the Tegeans consoled themselves by erecting in the agora a marble temple commemorating the gifts, virtues, and brotherly piety of Musides.

  

    第二天早晨阳光明媚,市民们带领叙拉古的使者到山坡上前往雕塑家的住所。可是前晚的大风导致奇怪的事情发生了。人们听到仆从们的哭喊声在一片荒芜中回荡,而本该在橄榄林中闪现的柱廊则消失不见。那里本应是穆赛德斯梦想和辛劳的辽阔厅堂,如今却只剩下粗陋的庭院和破损的围墙在孤独中哀悼和坠落。那上面原本奢侈华丽的列柱走廊,被那棵奇怪的树所伸展过来的沉重树枝压得坍塌成了碎块,变成一堆难看的废墟。一切的庄严美好都被毁坏殆尽了,来访者们和忒格亚人惊骇地看着这棵不祥的巨树所造成的灾难,他们看到它就像一个古怪的人般站立着,树根诡异地从喀洛斯那满是浮雕的陵墓中虬曲出来。在搜寻遗迹的时候他们的恐惧和惊慌更加强烈,因为不管是温文尔雅的穆赛德斯还是那绝妙的堤喀女神雕像,都完全失去了踪迹。在这片崩坏的废墟中只剩下一团混乱,而两座城市的代表都无比的沮丧和失望。叙拉古人没有雕像带回家了,忒格亚人则再也没有艺术家可供自夸。然而,叙拉古人不久之后便在雅典获得了一座非常壮丽的雕像,而忒格亚人则在他们的集市中竖立起一座大理石庙宇,用以纪念穆赛德斯的天赋、美德,和对朋友的忠诚。

 

    But the olive grove still stands, as does the tree growing out of the tomb of Kalos, and the old bee-keeper told me that sometimes the boughs whisper to one another in the night wind, saying over and over again. "Oida! Oida! -I know! I know!"

  

    但是橄榄林仍然寂静地站立着,就如同从喀洛斯坟中生出来的那棵树一般。那个养蜂老人告诉我,有时候在晚风中,树梢们会彼此低语,不停地诉说着:“噢咿哒!噢咿哒!——我知道!我知道!”

 

 

【译注1】:阿耳卡狄亚(Arcadia),为古希腊伯罗奔尼撒半岛中部一高原地区。其居民与其它著名文明世界相对隔绝,以过着简朴和田园式的生活著称,主要从事游猎和畜牧。公元前3世纪左右,境内的曼丁尼亚和迈加洛波利斯较为有名。公元前2世纪并入罗马版图。后世西方某些文艺作品中,常以“阿耳卡狄亚”一词形容“世外桃源”或者田园牧歌款式的生活。今属希腊。

【译注2】:潘神(Pan),又译作“帕恩”。希腊神话中掌管树林、田地和羊群的神。被描绘为长有人的躯干、头以及山羊的腿、角和耳朵。他吹奏着自己发明的芦笛以纪念仙女绪任克斯。仙女绪任克斯在被他追求时变成了一根芦苇。潘神最初是在阿耳卡狄亚的神庙里祀奉,随着全希腊神话学的发展,逐渐由地方性的神祗变成狄俄倪索斯的从神之一。后被认为是帮助孤独的航行者驱逐恐怖的神。

【译注3】:吕底亚(Lydia),小亚细亚中西部的富裕古国,濒临爱琴海,位于今天土耳其的西北部,以其富庶及其宏伟的首都萨第斯著称,它可能是最早使用铸币的国家(公元前7世纪)。

【译注4】:拿坡里(Neapolis),又译那波利,现名那不勒斯。意大利中南部一城市,位于第勒尼安海的那不勒斯湾。公元前600年由希腊人建立,公元前4世纪被罗马征服。公元8世纪成为独立的公国,并成为那不勒斯王国的首都(1282-1860年),是重要海港和商业、文化和旅游业中心。

【译注5】:赫耳墨斯(Hermes),希腊神话中众神的信使、书吏及报信者,双脚长有双翼,行走如飞。他是商业、发明、灵巧之神,也是盗贼、牧童和游子的保护神。在罗马神话中对应于墨丘利(Mercurius),属九大行星中的水星。

【译注6】:科林斯(Corinth),又译哥林多,古希腊的奴隶占有制城邦,位于希腊南部伯罗奔尼撒半岛东北。迈锡尼文明时代(约前16世纪上半叶~前12世纪)古城便已建成,公元前1000多年被多利亚人征服。在公元前8到前6世纪时是一个富裕的海上强国。

【译注7】:雅典娜(Pallas),Pallas原指帕拉斯,是希腊神话中海之信使特里同的女儿。雅典娜无意中杀死她,因纪念她,自己改名为帕拉斯,自称为帕拉斯·雅典娜。此处应指雅典娜。雅典娜是智慧、技艺及战争女神,雅典城即以她命名。

【译注8】:帕台农神庙(Parthenon)女神雅典娜的主要神庙,位于雅典卫城上,建于公元前447年和公元前432年之间,被认为是多利克式建筑的杰出代表,世界上最著名的古建筑之一。

【译注9】:忒格亚(Tegea),又译帖该亚、泰耶阿,阿耳卡狄亚境内一座富饶的平原城市。南部的斯巴达曾于公元前590年入侵该地,战争持续了30年之久,最后成功抵御了侵略,双方以缔盟结束。即后来的伯罗奔尼撒联盟。

【译注10】:弗恩(Faun),古罗马传说中半人半鹿的农牧神,呈人形,有鹿的角、耳朵、尾巴和腿。它们是自然和丰收之神弗恩乌斯(Faunus)的追随者,温和可爱,只是喜欢恶作剧,或制造噩梦。

【译注11】:德律阿得斯(dryads),希腊神话中森林与树的女神之统称。也就是林中女仙。

【译注12】:叙拉古(Syracuse),现名锡拉库扎,意大利西西里岛东南部一城市,位于爱奥尼亚海沿岸。公元前8世纪由科林斯殖民者创建,公元前5世纪其国力达到颠峰,但于212年落于罗马人之手。

【译注13】:堤喀(Tyche),希腊神话中的命运女神。

【译注14】:摩索拉斯王(Mausolus),又译毛索洛斯,公元前四世纪波斯属地卡利亚的国王。其陵墓曾被誉为世界七大奇迹之一,坐落其中的雕塑由当时最著名的雕刻家创作。时至今日,有不少的雕塑仍然幸存,并存放在英国伦敦的博物馆内。

 

 

 

 

 

 

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