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中高级语法大全,3

(2010-06-16 10:55:29)
标签:

杂谈

两句话连在一起肯定有连词。如果没有连词而只是“,”都表示不正常

因为天气很好,我们决定出去野营

The day (being) fine, we decided to go camping.

如果天气允许,我们下周将去游览西湖。

Weather (permitting), we will go on a tour of the Xihu lake next week.

独立主格:正常句子没有了谓语。

独立主格是作为一种成分,补充主句发生的状态,因此做状语。

独立主格使用的范围不广,最多的是“be”。肯定会看见“,”

常用来交待原因,条件;里面不涉及have done的先后关系,时态基本统一。

该结构多见于书面和高级的阅读;口语中更多用短句子。

下课了,我们回家

Since the class is over, we can go back home.

=The class being over, we can go back home.

没有什么要做的了,主席宣布会议结束

Since there was nothing to do, the chairman declared the meeting over.

= There (being) nothing to do, the chairman declared the meeting over.

这就是事实,我们无能为力

Such is the fact and we can do nothing to help

 =such being the fact, we could do nothing to help.

他姐姐死了,所以他要抚养姐姐的孩子

His sister is dead so he has to bring up her children.

=His sister being dead, he has to bring up her children.

With his sister dead, he has to bring up her children

独立主格的高级用法:低级的独立主格通常在主句之前,高级的通常在主句之后

With做状语的用法with +n +ving /adj/ ved / to do/介词词组

去掉with变成高级独立主格。注意to do 结构消失。

Ving

可怜的姑娘朝着电话机爬去,伤口还流着血

The poor girl inched toward the phone on knees and hands, her wound bleeding .

他瞪着我,眼中燃烧着愤怒的火光. He stared at me, his eyes glowing with anger.

她盯着我看,一张脸因为激动而神采飞扬。

She looked at me, her face dancing with excitement./alight with excitement)

女孩子朝我跑过来,衣衫飘逸,长发飞舞

the girl came running toward me, her skirt and her hair dancing in the wind.

男孩说着这个故事,嘴唇发抖

The boy told the story in a weak voice, his lips quivering /trembling.

他洗去了前额上的一个血迹,他的左眼不断肿胀,一跳一跳的疼。

He washed a spot of blood from his forehead, his left eye swelling and throbbing.

Ved

她姐姐回到家,浑身衣服湿漉漉的,心也碎了

her sister returned home, her clothes soaked and her heart broken.

他躺在地上,肋骨断了,半死不活”the poor young man lay on the ground, half dead ,his ribs broken。

姑娘躺在床上,心儿破碎,对爱得信念已经动摇

the girl lay in bed, her heart broken and her faith in love shaken.

挑满水缸,打扫完院子,红军走了。The water-vase filled and the yard cleaned, the red army men left.

介词

老师进来了,手里拿着书,头戴帽子

The teacher came in, with a book in his hand and a hat on his head.

the teacher came in, book in hand./hat on head.

流氓斜倚着墙站着,嘴里叼根烟,脸上一个刀疤

The hooligan stood leaning against the wall, cigarette between lips and scar on face.

形容词:性质形容词nice, good, excellent. 状态形容词,如dry, weak, red, pale.等

他绝望的要求着,声音微弱沙哑He asked helplessly, his voice dry and weak.

他冲出办公室,脸色因为生气而通红 he rushed out of the office, his face red with anger.

他看着我,脸上因为激动而熠熠生辉。She looked at me, her face alight with excitement

 

虚拟语气:一类虚--“假的,一类拟--“语气的婉转”

一, 虚:内容虚假+一点语气

if引导条件句内容有可能,如内容不真实或不可能实现时,则if引导的从句就是“虚”。

“如果我是你的话,我就不工作”---〉内容虚假无法实现。

处理“虚”时注意:

1,   与现实脱节,或相反。

2,   根据从句判断时态:从句是虚的根源,主句是在从句虚假基础上的自然反应。

3,   处理方法:“时态退一格”。判断为现在的虚拟,则用过去时态;判断为过去的虚拟,则用过去完成时态

 

现在的“虚”:如果不假,则是一般现在时

1 if引导的类似条件从句型:

时态退一格----从句现在时变成过去时(be变成were, 虚拟中没有was);主句通常是情态动词的过去式。 (注意高度混淆Could能够,会;would就,将)

如果我有一个大款老爹,那么我就不用这么辛苦工作,望房兴叹了。

If I had a rich father, I didn’t have to work so hard and only give out a helpless sigh before the high house price.

如果我是你的话,我就不工作了,我会健身,看书,旅游

If I were you, I would not work. Instead, I would do body-building, reading and travelling.

要是我会走,我会早上跑步,假期登山

If I could walk , I would go jogging in the morning and mountain-climbing in my holidays

要是每天都关心这些小事,我会死掉的,哪里还有时间做重大决策

if I had to care for such petty things , I would break down and have no time to make big decisions。

2,宾语从句型:

通过标志性词语体现-----Wish, if only(但愿), would rather

但愿我能够像鸟一样飞,摆脱地球的重力I wish I could fly like a bird and get rid of the gravity of the earth.

希望李平现在这里, 他能够解决一切机械问题how I wish Liping were here now. He can shoot/deal with all the mechanical problems.

但愿现在阳光普照, 在阴雨和寒冷中游湖真是一大折磨If only the sun were shining now. it is a big torture to walk along the lake in such cold rain. 

我宁愿你现在还在深圳,我就不需要给你的困境感到内疚了

I would rather you were in Shenzhen, so that I didn’t have to feel guilty for your situation.

操练

如果现在我手头宽裕,我肯定帮你If I were easy on the pocket, I would surely help you.

但愿我有充足时间,这样我就能寻找一个装修的更好的房子了。

I wish/ if only I had plenty of time, so that I search for a better furnished house.

我宁愿做一个男孩子,这样的话我就不用担心婚姻,我可以等到30岁才结婚

I would rather I were a boy, so that I didn’t have to worry about my marriage every day and I could wait until 30.

 

过去的虚拟: 关键还是时态退一格

从句had done,  主句could/might/should/need/would/ought to(应该) have done(简单理解成本来可以,本来可能,本来应该,本来会//或者这样理解; 真实情况下是can have done 能够已经做了某事,虚假时态退一格变成could have done

1) if引导的虚假条件从句型

如果我早点来我就买到票了

If I had come earlier, I could/would/might have got the tickets.

=Had I come earlier, I could/ would/ might have got the tickets.

如果你昨天下午就到了的话,来就可以和我们一起去那个音乐会了。真是美轮美奂啊。

If you had arrived yesterday afternoon, you could/might have gone to the concert with us. It was so beautiful.

= had you arrived yesterday afternoon, you could have gone to the concert with us.

如果我在这里生活了那么多年,像你一样,我就不会打的了

If I had lived here for years like you, I couldn’t have taken the taxi.

=Had I lived here for years like you, I couldn’t have taken the taxi.

看看我,现在在这个一个乱七八糟的学校。当初真应该好好学习。

Look at me; I am stuck in this terrible school. I should/ought to have studied harder.

2), 标志性词语引导的宾语从句型

if only/wish/would rather/without/but for要不是的话

但愿我曾今抓住了份爱情how I wish/ if only I had seized the love.

我宁愿我当初没有喊你过来。你现在还在深圳

I would rather I hadn’t asked you to come over and that you were still in Shenzhen.

要不是这次经历我是不会知道做一个平凡人有多么痛苦的。

Without/but for this experience, I couldn’t have known how hard life is for the common.

=If I had not had this experience, I would not have known how hard life is for the common.

过去虚拟 had 的两个来源:A过去时态B,完成时态(have done 或者had done)

操练

早知道你要来我就晚饭就多准备点了,现在我们最好订一些比萨饼

If I had known that you would come, I could have prepared more for dinner. Now, we’d better order some pittza

= had I known----

如果我在场的话,他怎么可能这么放肆。

If I had been there, he couldn’t have been so rude.

= had I been there-----

果真我当时已经完成了准备工作, 我就可以留下来享受美妙时光了

If I had finished the urgent task, I could have stayed to share the wonderful time.

= had I finished the urgent task-----

要是当时我已经翻完了的话,我就可以和你去了.但是我那个时候陷在一个复杂的结构里,动都动不了。

If I had finished the translation, I could go with you. But at that time, I was stuck in a very complicated structure and could not move on even a little bit.

= had I finished -------

“虚”的混合时态

如果我当初留在了温州我今天就不会在课堂上教课 (从句对过去进行虚假,主句对现在进行虚假)

If I had stayed in Wenzhou, I would not be teaching here in my class.

我也就不可能遇到你们if I had stayed in Wenzhou, I couldn’t have met you.

“虚”的真假混合型,标志:or, but, otherwise,且真实可换成虚假。

我听到女厕所里传出一声尖叫。可能某人陷入麻烦需要帮忙。我本来可能进入女厕所的,但是我是男的.万一没什么意外,人们只是在开玩笑呢。

I heard a scream from the Lady’s room; probably someone was in trouble and needed help. I could have entered, but I am a man, what if there was nothing and someone was just joking.

 

我当时真的很穷,否则我就帮你了。

I was really broke at that time, or I could have helped you.

= if I had not been broke at that time, I could have helped you.

将来的虚拟:从句were to do should do, 主句时态退一格will-àwould, could, might, should

他刚刚经历一场可怕的车祸,现在还在昏迷中,万一他要是死了,我该怎么办呢。要知道我们刚刚结婚,而且我还怀孕了

He just had a terrible accident. Now he still lies in coma. Everyone is telling me to relax and that everything will be ok. But if he should/ were to die, what could/should/would I do? You know, we just got married and now I am pregnant.

将来虚拟用法较少,几乎可以忽略不计;重点学好现在和过去的虚拟

 

虚假的最高级别 标志:as if/as though 似乎

诀窍:虚假的动作与主要的真实参考动作相比较

如果不超前不落后,则定义成“现在的虚拟”

如果早于参考动作,则定义成“过去的虚拟”

如果晚于参考动作,则定义成“将来的虚拟”

定好时态,再时态退一格。

我非常崇拜那个女老板,就好像我爱上她了一样

I admire the lady boss so much as if I loved her.

不要理睬这个愚蠢的领导。他说起话来就好像自己是总统一样,总觉得任何人都应该服从他的命令。

Don’t take seriously what this stupid boss says. He talks as if he were a president. He always thinks his orders should be obeyed.

他虽然现在已经下台了,但是一想到我还是难以给他同情心。他以前管理方式粗暴,他说话时就好像自己是总统一样

Though he has been replaced now, I still can’t show my sympathy. He ruled in a savage way. He talked as if/though he were a president.

他总是爱吹牛,明明从来没有离开过杭州,但是他说起话来好像他曾到过世界不同的地方,

He is always bragging and boasting. He has never left the city of Hangzhou. But he talks as if he had been to many different cities in the world.

他活着的时候最擅长吹牛,从来都没有离开过他的乡村,但是说话时却好像曾今去过全世界很多地方一样. 而且还有人相信他。

When he was alive, he was very good at bragging and cheating. He never left his village. But he talked as if he had been to many different places in the world. And people believed him.

经过流血争斗之后,他去了学校,好像什么都没有发生过一样

After the bloody fight, he went to school as if nothing had happened.

两个月前,我叔叔回到了他的祖国英国,但是很快他就离开了。他的举动好像他从来没有在英国居住过一样

Two months ago, my uncle returned to his homeland: England but very soon, he left. He acted as if he had never lived in this country before.

他们谈起来好像早就认识了一样they talk/talked as if they had known for years.

注意

这肉吃起来好像坏了the meat tastes as if it has gone wrong. (是真的!)

look, seem, taste, smell, sound这些联系动词之后很可能会出现是真实情况

车子没有油了,看来我们得步行了we are running out of oil. It seems as if we have to walk

我们来了半天了,只有校长过来和我们说了一下不好意思,要稍等一下。看起来他们好像忙得要命

We have been here for several hours. Only the president stopped by and said sorry and that we needed to wait a while. It seems as if they are very busy.

这牛奶闻起来好像酸掉了。The milk smells as if it’s gone sour.

 

二,“拟”语气的婉转

所谓语气的婉转是一个总的说法,包含众多语气:应该婉转;决心,命令,必须---强悍,坚定。

一些标志性词语引导从句,从句由should来体现语气,且should可以隐身

1,标志性的动词:

move(提议)

Suggest, propose, advise 建议

demand, ask , require, (要求)

order, command(命令)

insist(坚持),urge(敦促)

在一个中国餐厅吃饭之后,有人建议我们去KTV唱歌

After the dinner in a Chinese restaurant,some suggested that we (should) go to the KTV for fun.

我建议我们换一种角度来看待这个问题

I advise that we (should) look at the problem from a different angle /perspective。

校长命令,所有的男老师喝啤酒

The headmaster moved that all male teachers (should ) drink beer.

国际社会提议政权必须交给伊拉克人民

The international community proposed/urged that power (should) be handed over to the Iraqi people

医生坚持认为病人马上动手术

Doctor insisted that the patient be operated on at once

拿破仑命令士兵在河对岸集合

Napoleon commanded that all the soldiers gather/assemble at the other side of the river.

标志性动词如变成名词,也应“拟”。

我的意见是,我们回去睡觉,明天有漫长的国际航班。

My suggestion is that we go back to sleep. Tomorrow we will have a long international flight.  

在危机的时候,有人要求总统下台

During the crisis, there were demands that the president step down.

有些词不是标志性词语,但也会带上“拟”的语气(表示决心,应该等等的语气)

我们的决定是学校暂时不开学our decision is that the school (should)remain closed.

我的想法是把门砸掉my idea is that the door be smashed down.

我的决定是所有的背叛者吊死My decision is that all the betrayers be hanged.

注意能插进“应该”的地方就能放进should。考题选项中有动词原形或be done ,则基本上就是虚拟语气的“拟”。

2,   形容词表示“拟”,基本结构:it is/was +adj +that 从句。

通常这些形容词要表达出语气,有沉重的感觉

important, vital重大的 ,essential重要的

urgent紧迫的, imperative(紧要的)necessary

这项工作现在就做完这是很重要的。It’s important that the job (should) be finished now.

这次任务决不能失败,这是至关重要的it’s essential that the mission (should) not fail.

他吃药这对她的身体健康很重要It’s vital that she (should)take the medicine.

我们马上找到他,这是很紧急的

It is imperative that we find him immediately.

病人必须马上动手术,这一点很必要

It is necessary that the patient be operated on immediately。

有些形容词不是标志性词语,但也需要语气的婉转, 理解为 “竟然,居然”

他竟然来得这么晚,真是奇怪

It seems very strange that she should be so late.

喝了毒药之后她居然还或者,真是不可思议。

It is unbelievable that she should be alive after taking the poison.

我身上居然会发生这种事情,真是不公平

It’s unfair that such should have happened to me.

这类词语不易总结,通常只要有it is /was +adj +that 从句,基本上要用到should这种语气

我们不应该这样浪费时间,这是对的。It’s right that we should not waste our time like this.

3 It’s high time/it’s about time+从句

从句中不能用否定结构,用过去时态表示现在和将来(有时候可以用could但是不能用would

该反击了it’s (high/about) time that we fought back. ==it’s pay-back time

该起床干活了It is time that we went up and got the work done

是时候该客观重新审视自己了,大学生并非天之骄子。

It’s high time you looked at yourself objectively. College students are not heaven-favored children any longer.

 

 

As ---as 的用法,表程度相当,加形容词或副词原级

人们不如以前那么诚实了

People are not so /as honest as they once were.

He runs as fast as my brother.

She is as beautiful as my sister.

第二个as既可作介词又可作连词;

介词加名词,相对简单;用在比喻意义上

he runs as fast as a horse  他跑得像马一样快

She is beautiful as a peacock.她美丽的像孔雀

as是连词,则加句子

但通常只有主语,没有其他谓语等形式

You love him as much as I 我和你一样爱他

You love him as much as me 你爱他和爱我差不多深

或者有时会有主语和谓语动词

此时,要注意谓语动词的形式:

如第一个as前是实意动词,则第二个as后用do/did的形式;

如第一个as前是be动词,则第二个as后用be的具体形式

he runs as fast as I (do).  She is as beautiful as my sister (is).

那时他的英语说的和我一样好He spoke English as fluently as I (did)

如不恢复出省略的谓语动词,则推断省略的谓语动词和出现的谓语动词同一个时态

如下情况一定要将第二个as看成连词,且其后省略的谓语动词一定不能省略

第一,     时态不一致

中国现在已经不像过去那样穷了China is not as poor as it used to be.

人们不像以前那么诚实了 people are not as honest as they once were.

我说英语和以前一样流利 I speak English as fluently as I once did.

第二,     形容词、副词不能共用  此时原级结构表示程度上的同等

一个是琅苑奇葩,一个是美玉无瑕

he is as handsome as she is beautiful.

他爹那么老实,他娘那么狡猾。

His father is as honest as his mother is cunning.

内华达州那么干旱贫瘠,俄勒冈州却是一片葱绿

Oregon is as green as Nevada is arid.

第三,     动词不能共用

他看起来和电话上听起来差不多,病得很厉害

she looks as ill as she sounded on the phone.

他没有屏幕上看起来那么好看

she is not as pretty as she looks on the screen

第四,     宾语不能共用

他做歌手和演员一样成功

He is as good a singer as he is an actor.

他做老板和做老师一样聪明

He is as smart a teacher as he is a boss.

第五,     一个更为复杂的结构

美国政府的清廉和纳米比亚政府的腐败同样出名

The government of USA is as famous for its cleanness as is the government of Namibia for its corruption

The government of USA is as famous for its cleanness as the government of Namibia is for its corruption

 

 

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