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中高级语法大全,2

(2010-06-16 10:54:17)
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语法

杂谈

 

非谓语形式

find/leave sb/sth +状态(介词词组,形容词,现在分词,过去分词,名词)

框内成分都可进一步说明、补充sb/sth,从术语的角度讲是(宾语)补足语

这一规则不要在推广至其他的动词,但可用在句子中,作为复杂、高级的结构。

基本框架结构

框,句子; 句,框,子;句子,框

1adj 形容词

厌倦了睡在地上,年轻人存钱多年,买了一张真正的床

Tired of sleeping on the floor, the young man saved up for years to buy a real bed.

为这个消息大大震撼,我愣住了几分钟,动都没有动

Greatly shocked at the news , I froze for minutes without moving

为这个奸邪的世道所伤,他丢下了一切,成了一个和尚

Terribly hurt by this wicked world, he left everything behind and became a monk

对这个邪恶的世道已经失望,她纵身跳入河内

Greatly disappointed at the wicked world, she drowned herself in the river/jumped into the river.

=in despair and in pain, both women killed themselves.

她经常坐在楼梯上,陷入思考

She often sits on the stairs, lost in thinking

(Be lost in sth/doing sth  Be lost in fantasy 陷入幻想,遐想)

他们盯着大门,陷入遐想they stared at the door, lost in fantasy.

生来就感染了艾滋病,他的一生是战斗的一生,是越来越艰难的一生

He was born infected with HIV. And his whole life is an uphill struggle against AIDS

2ving(以经偏离了find sb doing 中的确进行的概念,需重新定义)

环顾四周,我震惊地意识到我是车上剩下的唯一的乘客

Looking around, I realized with a shock that I was the only passenger left on the bus

=As I looked around, I realized with a shock that I was the only passenger left on the bus.

ving做形容词1,表示的确地进行,做定语体现出名词的动态状况2,表示长期的习惯性的主动。 3,leave/find sb doing中表示的是实实在在的进行。

新型句子结构中的ving要从新定义:

如下面4句话。

1)he is reading in his study 他在书房看书

2)he is in his study reading

3)he is in his study, reading

1)he often sits in his study, reading他坐在书房看书

2)  he often sits in his study reading

3)  he often sits reading in the study他坐在书房看书

be reading,  sit reading à V(a)+V(b) ing

重新定义:次要动作(Vb)与主要动作V(a) 相比较,不超前不落后,同时发生,叫作进行

表述上,如果两个动词都比较简单,则主次动词连用;如果两个动词均复杂,则ving放在主要句子结构之外(句首或者句尾),用“,”标志出

他站在那里怒气冲冲的看着我he stood glaring at me.

她一路小跑过来了 she came running to me

他坐在那里,思考着自己的未来he often sits there, thinking about his future.

位置关系按照中文的行文逻辑走。

be只是动词的一种, -à be+ving狭义进行,v+ving广义进行, 两者统称进行:

表示主要动词与次要动词相比教,不超前,不落后,同时发生。

我与其他同学一起走着,同时我在思考我的语法

I walked along with other students, thinking hard about grammar /deeply lost in thinking 

我去温州的时候,一心想发财

I went to Wenzhou , hoping to make quick money.

我们城市中心有一个湖泊,边上有很多咖啡馆和茶馆。我喜欢坐在其中,听着音乐,喝着龙井茶

There in the city center lies a lovely lake, along which you will find many cafes and tea-houses. I love to sit in one of them, listening to my music and drinking my Longjin tea

鲁宾逊沿着沙滩一边走一边不时地往后看,害怕被被人跟踪

he walked along the beach, looking back from time to time , fearing being flowed by others.

有时一个动作和另一个动作不是同时发生,但照顾到两个动作连贯,一气呵成;这类现象也作同样处理。

他冲了出去,嘭得关上了门,叫着:狗娘养的

He rushed out, slamming the door behind him, yelling: son of bitch.

一脚踹开门,冲了进去,脸色通红

Smashing the door open, he rushed in , with his face red.

果真两个动词有明显的先后关系, 也可借助该结构;借助have done 在时间上的超前性

---(have done)ing, 句子----- Having done sth, 句子。

我做完工作后回家了

After I had finished the work, I went back home. 

Having finished the work, I went home.

After finishing the work, I went back home

After having finished the work, I went back home

已经失败了好多次了,我又鼓起勇气试了一次

Having failed many times, I picked up my courage and tried once more.

送走老板之后,我匆匆忙忙的回家了,一路上很是伤感很失落,很希望能够早日在北京见到她。

Having said good bye to my boss at the railway station, I hurried home, sad and lost, hoping to see her at an early date in Beijing

名词

你是一个受过良好教育的人,应该知道抢劫乞丐是非常可耻的

A man of good education, you should know that it is a big shame to rob a beggar

除了茂密的森林,荒芜的沙漠,巍峨的山脉和深邃的峡谷外,美国还有诸多河流湖泊。

A land of heavy forests and barren deserts, of high-peaked mountains and deep canyons, America also enjoys great rivers and lakes.

尽管只有五岁,他能明辨是非

Though a child of five, he knows right from wrong.

Child as he is, he knows right from wrong.

 (being )A child of 5, he really doesn’t know what is good and what is not

加上being 是为了补充名词词组淡薄的劣势,让它更为丰满。

 

As a student, study should take much of his time.是错的

改正: As a student, he should put much time on study

用see的形式填空

-----from the top of Purple Mountain, Nanjing is just like a picture.

 ------from the top of Purple Mountain, we have a good view of the beautiful city lying below.

分词的否定: ving前直接加上not

我不知道怎么做出这道题目,我去问了老师

not knowing how to work out the problem, I went to the teacher for help.

unable to solve the problem, I went to the teacher for help.

相信努力总有回报,所以我努力的学习

I am willing to labor and toil, believing that hard work pays.

我沿着马路轻快的走着,一边唱着小曲,一边心里盘算着今天挣了多少。

I walked along the street merrily, singing and calculating how much I made today.

过去分词 ved

Built in 1885, it was the oldest car at the race  建于1885年,这是赛场上最老的车

毁于1900年, 去年得以重建,立刻便使得世界其他园林相形见绌。

Burnt down in 1900, the Yuanmingyuan palace was reconstructed last year, leaving all world famous palaces in shade//putting to shame all world famous palaces (put to shame)

在车祸中受了重伤, 夫妻两死在了手术台上,留下一个孩子,只有5岁,无依无靠, 没有未来

 

 

Seriously injured in the accident, the couple died on the operation table, leaving behind a child of 5, helpless and futureless.

教授坐在那里,被一群学生围着,笑得很灿烂

Surrounded by a group of students, the professor sat there, smiling merrily

注意当要用到having done 的时候,通常在原句中有完成时的形式,且这样的句式结构十分强调动作性。

已经问了好几遍了,但她就是不肯说。

She had been asked many times, but she still refused to speak

=Having been asked many times, she still refused to speak.

国际恐怖分子已经警告日本好几回了,日本政府要向海外派兵就要多考虑考虑了

as the Japanese government has been warned many times, it has to think twice before sending troops abroad.

=Having been warned many times, the Japanese government has got to think twice before sending troops abroad.

如下句子因为没有完成时态,所以不需要having done结构

圆明园在1900年被烧毁,去年得以重建,完工之际便让世界各大著名宫殿相形见绌。

Yuanmingyuan palace was burnt down in 1900 but was reconstructed last year, leaving immediately world famous palaces in shade.

= burnt down in 1900, yuanmingyuan palace was reconstructed last year, leaving immediately world famous palaces in shade.

当被问及为什么不肯嫁给他的时候, 她不作回答

When she was asked why she refused to marry him, she made no reply.

= When asked why she refused to marry him, she made no reply

当土匪被盘问多少人参与了抢劫,他保持安静

When the bandit was questioned how many people had a hand in the robbery, he simply kept silent.

= When questioned how many people had a hand in the robbery, the bandit simply kept silent.

环境一旦污染,就需要很长时间恢复

Once the environment is polluted, it needs a longtime to recover.

=when polluted, the environment needs a long time to recover.

The environment, once polluted, needs a long time to recover.

Armed/equipped with the new machine, the search party went into the cave, hoping to find buried treasure.

 

 

with+N+ving/ved (被动语态的)/介词词组/to do/adj(状态性形容词) ---的状态下,作状语;可放在主句之前,或之后

工作结束了,我们出去玩With the job finished, we went out for fun.

这么多人站在边上,贼将脸埋在了臂膀里

With so many people standing by, the thief buried his face in his arms.

一切尽在掌握,我们没有必要担心

With everything under our control, we simply had no need to worry.

救援队5分钟之内赶来,我们很有希望灭掉大火

With the rescue team to arrive in 5 minutes, there is plenty of hope to put out the fire.

他冲了出去,脸色惨白He rushed out, with his face white.

旗舰在建造它的海港里面沉没了,沉下去的时候旗帜还在飘扬

The flagship sank at the harbor of its birth, with all the flags flying in the wind.

将军在我们的呼啸声中从我们面前走过 with all the soldiers shouting slogans, the generals passed.

他走了进来,脸色苍白倦怠 she came in with her face white and exhausted.

元首躺在沙发上,嘴里的血往下滴,他的手枪躺在边上

The fuehrer lay on the sofa, with blood dropping from his mouth and the gun lying aside.

打扫完院子,挑满水缸,中国战士们走了。

With all the yards cleaned and all the water vats filled, the Chinese soldiers left

With all the yards clean and the water vats full, the Chinese soldiers left.

老师进来了,手里拿着一本书。The teacher came in, with a book in his hand.

流氓斜靠着墙,嘴里叼一根烟,脸上还有一个新的刀伤。

The hooligan stood leaning against the wall, with a cigarette between his lips and a newly-made cut on his face.

总结句

他在决斗中受了重伤,躺在地上呻吟着,伤口还淌着血, 手无力的搭在肚子上,眼睛呆呆得往上看着,肋骨都断了,半死不活.

Seriously injured in the fight, he lay half dead on the ground, moaning , with the wound bleeding, hands on his stomach, eyes looking up at nothing and ribs broken.

流氓斜倚着墙站着,嘴里叼着一根烟,脸上一个刀疤

The hooligan stood leaning against the wall, with a cigarette between his lips and a scar on his face.

 

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