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中高级语法大全,1

(2010-06-16 10:52:07)
标签:

语法

杂谈

中高级语法大全

 

倒装一 :顺序不正常 1,谓语动词(联系动词)be出现在主语之前;助动词出现在动词前面,且有疑问2 没有疑问,也不涉及到助动词

1,   How old are you?

------ I am 15

How can I help you? 要我帮忙吗?

---Yes, please show me the sugar cubes in that blue box 请把蓝色盒子里的方糖拿给我看看

What do you want from me? 你想要什么?

----I want you to divorce and marry me 我想要你离婚和我过

2,给你Here you are

我们到了here we are

à 代词,则地点方位放置于居首,主谓不需要颠倒

Here comes the bus 车来了

There goes the bell 铃响了

进来了一个女人 in came a woman

鸟儿飞走了 away flew the birds

-à 名词,则倒着读便是正常顺序

粗略的there do ,真是的倒装(一般现在时和过去时居多)

路边上矗立着一栋大楼there stands a tall building at the road side.

门口曾经停放着一辆车there parked a car in front of the house

以前这里有一棵树 there stood a tree here

群山中间一条小河缓缓流过

There flows slowly/lies/runs/roars a small river between the mountains.

3, 这个孩子跑得真快啊

恩,我孩子跑的也很快

How fast the boy runs!

So does my boy

这个模特非常非常漂亮,一顾倾城,二顾倾国

This super-model is awesomely gorgeous. She is Helen of today. One glance, the city crushes; another glance, the country surrenders

哦,我们历史上的昭君也如此,她答应嫁给敌国君主了,战争的威胁就消退了

Well, so is Zhaojun, a beauty in our history. Once she agreed to marry the enemy king, the threat of war disappeared/faded.

倒装二,某些固定表述结构中,需要进行倒装 “一,1”

1,   否定副词/否定副词词组放置居首 (never, seldom, rarely, scarcely)

Never once in my life have I seen such a weird person. How can she go to the students’ canteen in pajama?

我这一辈子从来没有见到过这么怪异的人,她怎么能够传着睡衣去学生食堂

2,not only---- but also结构中,not only 引导的句子要倒装(变成一般疑问句的形式)。

我不仅看到了他的人,我还和他交流了一些想法 (share ideas with sb)

Not only did I see him, but (also) I exchanged some ideas with him.

我不仅错失了爱情,也毁了事业。(gold-digger)

Not only did I let slip my love, but also I ruined my career.

你会发现停车不仅艰难而且昂贵

You will find parking your car not only difficult but also expensive

(It is difficult to learn English)

You will find it (is) not only hard but also expensive to park your car.

3,  only 引导的成分作状语, 放在居首,要到装

直到他回来后,我才知道他的遭遇

Only after she had returned did I know what had happened to her.

仅仅在大学毕业之后我才知道我什么都没有学到

Only after I had graduated from college did I know that I had not learned anything useful

Only in this way, only by this means 只有通过这样的方式

对于一个年轻人,需要省吃俭用和辛苦工作,只有这样才能够以较快的速度积累财富

A young man needs to save up and work hard. Only by this means can he gather a big fortune in a quicker way.

4, 形容词/副词放置居首的so that 结构需要倒装

他跑的这么快,以至于马都赶不上他

So fast does he run that even a horse can’t catch up with him.

我发现生活在一个以英语为母语的国家是如此的艰难, 于是我决定学英语,不管这个有多么费时费力

I find it so difficult to live in an English-speaking country that I decided to learn English no matter how pains-taking and time-consuming it is.

So difficult did I feel/find it to live in an English-speaking country that I decided to learn English no matter how pains-taking and time-consuming it is.

 

名词性从句:句子做成分----主语,宾语

疑问词 w, h (when, why, where, who, how, whether, what)引导的句子顺序正常可以做成分(取消任何倒装结构)

that +陈述句 也有同样的功效

1, 宾语 (that可以省略)

I want you to explain what has happened to my computer 我要你解释一下我的电脑怎么了

My principle make me who I am 我之所以是我,那是因为我有我的原则

He is not willing to tell me what the agreement is between them 他就是不愿意告诉我他们之间有什么协议

我听说你已经安全到达了美国,真为你感到高兴;同时祝愿你学有所成,荣归祖国。

I heard that you are already in the States, safe and sound. I am happy for that. At the same time, I hope you can really achieve academic heights and return with glory

有些人认为烟花爆竹能够增加喜庆的氛围,能够带来来年的好运。(注意一个动词加两个宾语从句时that不可以省略)

Some people believe that fireworks may add to the happy atmosphere and that they can bring about good fortune for the next year.

2,主语 (that 引导的句子做主语时that不能少,疑问词引导的句子顺序正常直接做主语)

地球绕着太阳转,这一点人人都知道

That the earth goes round the sun is known to all 地球绕着太阳转,这点人人皆知

That he should be sent to hospital immediately is very necessary 他需要被送往医院,这点很必要

What you say is quite different from what you do 你的言行不一

What happened to this little boy that night remains a mystery 那天孩子发生了什么事情还是一个谜

Whether there is water on the Mars is very much doubted/argued 火星上有没有水这个问题备受争议

用it 形式主语来解决头重脚轻的问题 --〉同位语从句(that不能少)

It is known to all that the earth goes round the sun

It is very necessary that he should be sent to the hospital immediately

It remains a mystery what happened to this little boy that night

It is much doubted/argued whether there is water on the Mars

同位语从句中的that 不作任何成分, 宾语从句中的that做成分

News arrived that the fleet was defeated in the war 消息传来舰队在战争中被打败了

Word came that all the prisoners should be hanged 命令下来了,所有的囚犯被绞死

We all love food that is nice to look at and delicious to taste 我们喜欢看起来好看吃起来好吃的食物

 

定语从句

--〉句子作定语

名词+{关系代词(that, which, who) +句子}à完整句子(关系代词在从句中作成份:主语,宾语)

关系代词没有复数

我昨天见到的孩子 the boy who/that I met yesterday

住在我隔壁的人the man who lives next door.

关系代词作宾语可以省略,做主语不能省略

我在夜市上买的衣服the clothes I bought at a night market

我爱的那个姑娘 the girl I love.

现在站在街角的一个女人 the woman who is standing at the street corner

有定语从句修饰的名词依然是名词,一个复杂的名词而已;因此依然可以做成分:一个更为长的句子中的主语或者宾语

住在我隔壁的那个人估计是一个舞女,每天都要凌晨才回来

The girl who lives next door is probably a dancer/stripper. She comes home almost early in the morning every day.

我在夜市上买的衣服很便宜的. 但是款式和质量还是很好的

Those clothes which /that I bought at the night market are a good bargain. However, the quality and style is still desirable 

加“,”的定语从句,表明名词独一无二 ,物体用which, 人用who 

My father, who is now in Nanjing on a business trip, promises to give me a great surprise on my birthday.

我爸爸答应在我生日那天给我一个大惊喜,他现在在南京出差。

The earth , which is home to us humans, is the third largest planet of the solar system 人类的家园地球是太阳系第三大行星

Zhang yimo, who has got a reputation for bold creativity and imagination both at home and abroad, worked hard with his fine team to present this fantastic sport gala opening ceremony 张艺谋因其创造性和想象力而蜚声海内外,与团队努力奋斗,推出了恢宏的体育盛宴开幕式

注意一张单程票:某些没有逗号的定语从句可以变成有逗号的定语从句

The house which /that was built by my father has a history of 20 years 我父亲造的那个屋子有20年的历史了

The house, which was built by my father, has a history of 20 years 这个屋子有二十年的历史了,是我父亲造的

定语从句中的介词可以提前,则that消失,物体用which, 人用who/whom;

这就是我出生和长大的地方 this is the place that/which I was born in and grew up in

à this is the place in which I was born and grew up

这个小家伙利用了我的好心,我就给了他10块钱出于同情

This young man took advantage of my kindness. He is the very one that/who I gave 10 yuan to out of sympathy.

--. This young man took advantage of my kindness. He is the very one to whom I gave 10 yuan out of sympathy.

如果“介词+关系代词 which ”表示时间= when;“表示地点”=where; “表示原因”=why ;

这就是我成长的地方 this is the place that/which I grew up inà this is the place in which I grew up à this is the place where I grew up

我还记得我们相亲的那个冬日 I still remember the winter day that we had our blind date on. –〉I still remember the winter day on which we had our blind date. à I still remember the winter day when we had our blind date.

我还不理解他为什么恨我 I don’t understand the reason that he hates me so much for.--> I don’t understand the reason for which he hates me so much à I don’t understand the reason why he hates me so much

总结:when 在那个时候 where 在那里why 为什么

我们以前经常去一个旧的仓库捉迷藏,在那里我们度过了很多无忧无虑的岁月

We used to play “hide and seek” game in that old warehouse where we spent so many care-free hours

春天我喜欢去一个的山坡烧烤或者野餐。那里满眼鲜花绽放,轻风摇曳。

In spring, I’d like to do barbecue or picnic on a hill where you can see flowers bowing in warm breeze

我还记的那个特别的日子,那天我主动地牵起了你的手

I remember that special day well when I took your hand in mine for the first time.

用关系副词where, when , why 的定语从句和表语从句 异曲同工

这就是我迈出第一步的地方 this is the place where I took my first step into career. = this is where I took my first step into career.

这就是我恨他如此深的原因this is the reason why I hate him so much = this is why I hate him so much

这就是我们分手的日子this is the day when we parted = this is when we parted.

注意:在关系副词中不能用how , 但是在表语从句中可以

This is how I escaped from that damned jail 这就是我如何从那个天杀的监狱逃跑的经历

 

名词性从句偷懒版本 :疑问词引导的名词性从句在满足如下情况时可以直接用 疑问词+to do

1, 从句动词和主句谓语动词比较同步发生或者发生较晚

2,从句动词的发出者或者和主句人称一致;或者指向性不明,模糊不清,泛指

3,从句动词不是be 动词 (be going to 除外)

4, what, when, where, how, whether 使用居多

我不知道要不要在这个时候帮他。要知道他一直以来都非常诡诈,邪恶。

I don’t know whether I should help him at this moment. You know he has always been sly and wicked

I don’t know whether to help him at this moment. You know he has always been sly and wicked.

什么时候开始这个项目还困扰着经理

When to start the project still bothers the manager –〉it still bothers the manager when to start the project

我真的不知道该说什么, 那么多人我都不认识。

I really don’t know what to say. I am not familiar with most of those people

无人知道以后该做什么,只有摸着石头过河 no one knows what to do. What we can do is to follow our instincts  (直觉)

例外 我忘记了刚才我说什么了 I have forgotten what I said just now

没有人知道下一步会发生什么no one knows what will happen.

我想知道什么时候我动手术 I want to know when I will be operated on.

 

表语从句: 在中文中,只有宾语从句这一概念,因为动词包括实意动词和be动词,没有区别;在英语中,实意动词+宾语从句,be动词+表语从句。不管如何,两者极其类似,因此宾语从句怎么处理,表语从句也就怎么处理 (that可以省略)

我所关心的问题是我们什么时候能够拿到钱,能够拿到多少钱。这个非常重要,我们没有多少时间了。

What I am concerned with is when we can get the money and how much we can get. This is very important, because we don’t have much time left.

剩下的问题是是否我们能够得到足够多的供给,度过这个可怕的冬天

The next question is whether we can get enough supply and live through this terrible winter.

眼前的情况是全球的经济一塌糊涂,每个国家都力求自保,又有谁能帮助希腊呢。

The situation is that the global economy is in a big trouble and that every country is trying hard to save itself and that no country has the ability to help Greece.

表语从句的缩略版本: be to do/be to be done 去做某事

他的工作就是去召集大家开会,将信息传到到位

His job is to assemble the members and deliver the information to everyone 

我的计划就是在未来8个月的时间内好好的将有些新的科目研究一下, 同时积累一定的钱财,为下一个计划做好准备

My plan in the next 8 months is to do some research on a number of new subjects and gather some a little bit fortune for the next plan.

很多高中生的梦想就是进入知名大学,成为天之骄子

The wish of many high school students is to be admitted into a famous university and to be a heaven-favored child.

下一步要做的就似乎选取出最好的候选人来填充这个岗位

The next step is to sift out /select out the best candidate for this position.

 

强调句结构:

it is/was+要强调的部分+that(人可以用who)+照抄

时态问题由is/was控制。

I (A) saw (E)your mother(B) in the street(C) this morning(D) 四个部分都可强调。

是我今天早上在街上看到你老妈的it was I who saw your mother in the street this morning.

我是今天早上见到你老妈的 it was this morning that I saw your mother in the street

我是在街上见到你老妈的 it was in the street that I saw your mother this morning

我见到的是你的老妈 it was your mother that I saw this morning in the street.

我之所以成为我,那是因为我的原则

It is my principles that make me who I am.

直到昨天我才知道你安全的回来了

I did not know until yesterday that you were back safe and sound

It was not until yesterday that I got to know you were back at home safe and sound.

 

分词用法

一, ving, ved 成对出现,词根一致时作形容词功效

ving 表明该词所修饰的名词能够让他人/他物处于一种状态,是对外的功能

ved表明该词所修饰的名字本身处于一种状态,是及于自身的功能

Exciting, excited à thrilling, thrilled

An exciting dancer 令人激动的舞蹈演员 an excited dancer 非常激动地舞蹈演员

The thrilling weather 令人舒爽的天气 be thrilled by the high-tech effects 为高科技效果所欣喜

Frightened , frightening

A frightened face 一张受到了惊吓的脸 a frightening face 一张吓人的脸

二,Ved, ving 作形动词(动态形容词)

结构比较短,则放在名词之前,结构比较长则放在名词之后

Ving  1,的确的进行 

a crying baby啼哭的孩子  a sleeping tiger睡虎   the flooding water泛滥的洪水

the falling leaves飘落的叶子

the rolling clouds翻滚的云朵the flowing river 流淌的河水

the dashing cars.横冲直撞的车the roaring motorcycles/sport car呼啸而过的摩托车,跑车

There were some people rowing on the river.有些人在河面上划船

=there were some people who were rowing on the river

教室里坐着200人

There are 200 students sitting in the classroom.

有个人在门口走来走去,看起来很可疑。

There is a man walking up and down in front of the gate. He looks very suspicious.

2主动(长期,习惯性)

英语培训机构an English- training company.

吃人的老虎a man-eating tiger  

吃草动物grass-eating animal =herbivore  肉食动物meat-eating animal =carnivore

生活在冷水里的鱼fish living in cold water=fish that lives in cold water.

生活在树冠中的猴子monkeys living in the canopy of the rain forest..

生活在那个地方的人people living in that part of the world.  

伴随着电视机成长起来的一代 a generation growing up with TV

通向成功的道路the long road ( leading ) to success

注意:刚才和我说话的人是老师。虽主动,但不长久

The man who talked to me just now is my teacher

我公司是生产和营销鞋子的知名企业

Our company is an established one specializing in foot-wear production and trading.

以上语法正确。使用时更喜欢定语从句。

Our company is an established company which specializes in the foot-wear production and trading

总结 ving 可做的成分:

1,   动名词,相当于名词,做主语和宾语(主语居多) 

裁员救不了公司Cutting jobs will not save the company.

哭泣于事无补,只会让情况更加糟糕 crying helps nothing, but makes things worse.

Seeing is believing 眼见为实

2,   公用性形容词

A sleeping bag睡袋 a swimming pool 游泳池 a skating pool 溜冰场

3,动态性形容词

Ved 1, 被动 (及物动词)

犁过的田ploughed field

耕种的土地 cultivated land

退耕还林/湖/草/牧return cultivated land to forests /lakes /grass land /pasture land

被废弃的岛屿The deserted island

废弃的村庄the abandoned village

the broken glass摔破的杯子

the amused child被逗乐的孩子

the interested reader激发了兴趣的读者.

装修寒酸的房子a poorly-furnished house.

搬到装修好一点的房子去move to a better-furnished one.

刚修好的道路a newly built road.

新形成的岛屿a newly formed island

新的割伤the newly cut wound.

2()完成。(这类词很少)

仅有部分不及物动词或动词的不及物用法只能是作前置定语的表示完成

上涨的河水the rising water, 正在升起的月亮the rising moon.

上涨了的河水/月亮the risen water//moon.

正在飘落的叶子,the falling leaves-à 落叶the fallen leaves.

发展中国家a developing country.发达国家developed country.

收入在上涨。The increasing salary已经上涨的工资the increased salary.

正在改变的局势,the changing situation 已经改变的局势the changed situation

及物动词或动词的及物用法可以放到前置或后置的位置上,通常完成和被动一起使用,重点突出被动,完成是顺带的意思

The destroyed city 被毁掉城市 the city destroyed in last year’s air-strike去年空袭中毁掉的城市

 

后置定语--清算

五天前修好的那座桥the bridge built five days ago=the bridge which was built five days ago

已经修好的那座桥the bridge already built = the bridge which has already been built

两年后即将被造好的桥 the bridge which is to be built in two years= the bridge to be built in two years.

Be to do sth 将作某事(计划好的,要求做的)

Be about to do 马上要做某事 (后面不能加任何的时间概念)

后置定语VS定语从句

定语从句中做主语的关系代词和be动词略掉= 后置定语

正在被建造的那座桥 the bridge which is being built= the bridge being built.

being不能划掉,因为being built连起来表示ving

正在门口走来走去的人the man walking up and down in front of the gate

 =the man who is/was walking up and down in front of the gate.

注意,当ving表示习惯一样的主动时不能用这种方法

操练

桌上的那本书the book on the desk= the book which is on the desk.

一个比她小两岁的男人

a man two years younger than herself= a man who is two years younger than herself.

一个两英尺深的洞a hole two feet deep=a hole which is two feet deep 

一个像橘子大小的洞a hole which is the size of an orange= a hole the size of an orange

The cigarette end burnt a hole the size of a coin in my coat

any man alive =any man who is alive这类形容词还有asleep, awake

必须把这项工作交给一个能做好它的人 (be capable of doing the job well)

The job must be given to someone capable of doing it well.

国展中心有一场人才交流会

the job fair being held in the exhibition center.

我已经被邀请去参加即将在来年举行的婚礼

I have already been invited to the wedding to be held early next year.

如下情况不能恢复成定语从句,但借用了to do 表示将来的功效

在接下来的日子里,我们要严防国际恐怖主义。

In the days to come, we shall guard against international terrorism.

In the coming days, In the following days

接下来的几年中in the years to come.

申明:用to do 后置定语并融入将来时态的用法比较少,到现在为止多限于:

sth to be done和in the days to come, in the years to come

 

 

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