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新概念二 43

(2008-10-23 12:06:21)
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新概念

教育

Restore 恢复到原先的状态

这个地方的美丽再也不能恢复了The beauty of the place can’t be restored

这杯热茶让我有了精神The hot tea completely restored me

白兰地酒让他缓过来了The brandy restored him

有不好的一面There is the dark side =there is the down side .

有美好的一面There is the rosy side à rosy dreams 黄粱美梦

 

Air hostess ---Flight attendant

Bar tender 酒吧招待

Attend 参加attend the wedding //funeral ceremonies

Attend to sb照料某人the old man is left alone. Nobody is attending to him

Host 主办the host country 主办国  Host a meeting 主办会议

-à 招待

我希望你能够来杭州,这样我能够招待你

I hope you may come to hangzhou, so that I can host you.

 

Unsmiling不善言笑的,严肃的

ved被动,形容词a newly built house. A deserted park.

1,   过去分词有形容词化趋势,修饰词语是副词。

2,   如被动过去分词短小,放在名词前面即可;过去分词连带成分较多,放到名词之后,避免头重脚轻、The car park deserted many years ago.  The capital destroyed in last year’s air strike.

ving进行,形容词,描绘名词正在进行的动作状态。The falling leaves, the visiting president.

简短,则置于名词之前,反之则放在名词之后The man walking up and down in front of the classroom.

Ving表示长期的//习惯性的主动(短暂的动作不行)

吃草的动物the grass-eating animal

英语培训机构English-training company,

吃人的老虎 A man-eating tiger.

同样,简单的放在名词前面,复杂的放在名词之后。

生活在冷水里的鱼fish living in cold water.

伴随着电视机成长起来的一代人/吃美国快餐长大的一代人

The generation growing up with TV/American fast-food

 

Smiling可表示长期主动状态:笑容可的unsmiling严肃的,不善言笑的。

smiling可表示进行状态:那个笑得灿烂的女孩是谁?who is that smiling girl

A gloomy face/person一张阴郁的脸,一个郁闷沮丧的人-àgloomy weather 阴天

Extrovert 性格外向的人= out-going person 性格开朗的人

Introvert 性格内向的人= he is really dull and always keeps everything to himself. 无聊,且不愿交流。

他什么都不说She is always keeping her intensions to herself.

Resilient (/性格) 能迅速恢复,重新振作的 have a resilient personality个性豁达,乐观的。

正是因为她个性的豁达,他才能够从困难中走出来.her resilient personality helped her through the difficult times. 

The fat can help the young birds through the fierce winter. 脂肪能够帮助幼雏度过寒冬

Young people are physically resilient年轻人在体能上能够迅速恢复

 

Tight 紧的

鞋子夹脚,几天后便宽松了。 t he shoes may feel tight right nowBut in a few days, they will stretch

将紧身衣服收起来,好好的享受这里的美食吧Put away your tight clothing, enjoy the delicious snacks

需百忙中挤出时间出去透气,伸展筋骨.Take time off the busy/tight schedule, go to the open air and stretch themselves.

à stretch 延伸,延展=extend

The hangzhou part of the cannal extends/stretches 10 km through the city.

Hangzhou stretches /extends/measures 10 km from the west to the east.

你什么时候有空when are you available

我忙得要死 I am breaking down

日程安排schedule

总部开会会议日程都相当紧I have a pretty tight schedule for the headquarter meetings.

Itinerary 行程安排

have a tight itinerary for this huangshan trip此次黄山旅游行程紧密。

Tighten 变紧,收紧。

自从那个意外的紧急情况之后,管理就严格起来了。

Ever since that unexpected emergency, controls have gradually tightened up.

Tighten up security. 加强安全戒备---〉加强执法step up law enforcement

Enforce 执行 the laws

Carry out the death penalty 死刑

执行政策 carry out the policy=implement the policy

 

消费者信心不断收到打击,质量控制必须加强,一些标准必须要达到customers’ confidence has been constantly shaken. Quality controls have to tighten up. Some standards must be met

Tighten up one’s belt. 勒紧裤带。

因财务危机缠身,只能勒紧裤带,省吃俭用的过日子. Because I was in a great financial trouble, I had to tighten up my belt and cut down on my expenses/do without a few things.

下岗工人艰难度日the laid-off workers have to eek out on a poor salary.

********************************************************************************************

Scrape a living 勉强度日

Scrape the barrel 勉强度日

Scrape up ---充分的收集资源

Scrape up whatever resources he could find. 能找到什么资源,都拿来。

********************************************************************************************

Loose 不紧的,未收紧的

loose collar 宽松的衣领,

a loose shirt/dress宽松的衬衫,连衣裙

自由的,松开的,不受束缚的

发生了车祸,猪在高速公路上到处走动。

there is a serious accident and pigs are running/roaming loose on the highway

 

Fix 1,集中

fix one’s eyes on sth 凝视着

她躺在床上,眼睛盯着零食She lied in bed with her eyes fixed on the snacks.

fix one’s thoughts on sth仔细思考 

fix one’s attention on 关注

fix one’s thoughts/attention on what he is doing全神贯注地工作

Focus/concentrate on sth集中于某事物

I am very exhausted, I just cant focus today 我今天太累了,精神集中不起来。

请认真思考如下问题please focus your minds on the following problem

我满脑子里都是你,我知道这样不好,但是我情不自禁

I just can’t stop thinking of you. I know it is not good. But I can’t help

2,修理(口语)大部分女孩子修理电器基本靠关闭电源,野蛮打击晃动

Most girls try to fix the appliances by turning off the electricity and beating it or shaking it repeatedly.

Electrical appliances 电器设备

Household appliances 家用电器

3,   确定

我们将房租定在600元一个月,你认为如何

We have fixed the rent at 600 yuan for the next year. What would you say?

确定好结婚的时间fix the time for the wedding.

制定一些必要的条款以防一方撤出

lay down some necessary articles in case one party may pull out.

 

Despair 绝望

在绝望中寻找希望hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope

公主不顾危险去救丈夫,但祭司的相好在最后退缩了

The princess showed/demonstrated great courage in front of/ before/despite the danger, while the priest’s lover shrank at the last minute

demonstrate courage/talent/genius 显示出勇气,才能,天才

价格抬高,最后一方退缩a party shrank at the last minute, because the price was too high.

祭司最后绝望放弃了the priest gave up in despair –〉绝望的眼神his despairing looks

drive sb mad 把某人逼疯——〉把某人逼上绝路 Drive sb to despair

 

The text   food and talk

beat about the bush, 兜圈子,talk turkey 打开天窗说亮话。

Get to the point直奔主题

talk dirty讲脏话 =speak dirty language

talk big吹牛

不要当真,都是吓吓人的don’t take seriously what she says. It’s all scare talk.

他的眼睛盯着那个姑娘His eyes are fixed on the girl

他无法将自己的眼光从姑娘身上移开 he cant take his eyes off the girl.

他盯着那个姑娘(不礼貌的)He stares at the girl

行注目礼He gazes at the girl

 

虚拟语气

内容虚假,为表达语气。

一类虚--“假的,一类拟--“语气的婉转”

if引导条件句内容至少有50%的可能性,如果内容不真实或不可能实现时,则if引导的从句就是虚拟语气。

如果我是你的话,我就不工作---〉内容虚假无法实现。

处理虚拟语气时要注意:

1,   与现实脱节,或相反。

2,   在“假的”情况下,根据从句来判断时态,因为从句是虚拟的根源,而主句只是在从句虚假基础上的自然反应。

3,   处理方法:针对假的“时态退一格”。

 

现在的虚拟:如果不假,则是一般现在时

A 有从句和主句:时态退一格(现在时变成过去时,be变成were, 虚拟中没有was),主句时态退一格,通常是情态动词的过去式。 Could能够,会;would会,就,将

如果我是你的话,我就不工作 If I were you, I would not work.

要是我会走,我天天跑步 If I could walk , I would go jogging all day.

要是每天关心这些小事,我会死掉的if I had to care for such trifles , I would break down

如果有时间,我就帮忙,但是---if I had time, I could help you but—

B,没有明显的主、从句的分别,依靠标志性动词引导从句,内容虚假。

Wish希望, if only 但愿

但愿我能够像鸟一样飞I wish I could fly like a bird.

希望李平现在这里how I wish Liping were here now

但愿有一个有钱老爹,就不需要为生活而工作了

If only I had a biggie father and I didn’t have to work for a living

但愿现在阳光普照if only the sun were shining .

 

 

Do   you   call   that    hat

Rude粗鲁的,粗野的a rude reply粗鲁无礼的回答

Coarse 不高雅的,粗俗的,coarse manners=rude manners

下流的coarse laughter, tastes粗俗的笑声和趣味decent taste 高级趣味

(皮肤等)粗糙的 coarse skin粗糙的皮肤 the coarse figure of a cowboy牛仔的粗狂外形。

Resplendent 华丽灿烂resplendent smile光艳动人的微笑 resplendent skin肌肤剔透光彩

一袭黑衫,光艳动人she looks resplendent in that black dress

一身黄金袍子,光艳夺目She looks resplendent in that golden robe

 

Mirror 反射,映照

The trees were mirrored in the still water of the lake

静静的湖水映射出岸上的树木---〉静静的湖水和岸上的树木相映成趣

Reflect 镜子等映出映像 trees reflected in a lake湖中树的倒影

--〉反映出, Her sad looks reflect her thoughts他面带忧伤显示出心事重重。

The literature of a period reflects its values and tastes.

一个时代的文学反映出这个时代的价值观和审美观念

those modern TV shows reflect the values and tastes of today现代电视选修节目反映出如今的价值观和审美

Betray 无意中显示出,表露出

she said she was sorry, but her eyes betrayed her secret delight他说很难过,但是眼神中流露出她内心的喜悦。

His accent betrayed the fact that he was a foreigner. 他的口音暴露出他是外国人

一处处绿色显示出淡淡的春意The green patches betrayed the arrival of spring

 

Comment on sth作评论

No comments 无可奉告

 

The text   do you call that a hat

Talk through one’s hat 胡说,乱说 .

他说的话不要太当真,他经常胡说,都是吹牛/吓唬人的

Don’t take seriously what he says. He’s always talking through his hat./it’s all big talk/scare talk.

有十足把握不相信别人话语

我不相信他能够得到贷款I will eat my hat if he could get a loan.

偿还银行贷款和利息Pay back the bank loan and the interests

偿还按揭Pay back the mortgage

Grant a loan 发放贷款

Apply for a loan 申请贷款

Apply for a school 申请学校

Application 申请,申请函

 

You needn’t have said that.

现在的猜测must do .

猜测已发生的事情 Must have done

一定被大款包养了:you must have found a sugar daddy.

She is a gold digger 她就是为了钱才找男人

老总忙碌,求职人员不需作无谓等待:You needn’t wait any longer. He is fully occupied ----- 等待还没有开始。

“你不需要等的”you needn’t have waited. ----等待已经发生。

文章是对已经发生的一个动作进行评议,需要加入have done。“你说这个干吗?”

你不需要打的的,你干吗打的You needn’t have taken a taxi=you didn’t have to take a taxi

很近,不需要打的。It’s around the corner. You needn’t take a taxi.

********************************************************************************************

people say that you will fly to Beijing 被动语态

it is said that you will fly to Beijing

you are said to fly to Beijing

***be said to 后面动作表示将来****

people say that Edison invented the radio

Edison is said to have invented the radio.

据说通缉犯杀死了5个人that wanted guy is said to have killed 5.

据说他和寡妇结婚时为了钱he is said to have married the widow for money.

据说他为日本人做过事He is said to have worked for the Japanese.

 

总结:为表达时间的先后效应会用完成时态,因为它具有“已经”这层意思。将have done 视作一个动词,不要将have 视为助动词。

 

must猜测的否定can’t

那个女孩子在哪里呢,这两个男孩子不可能是老师。

Where is the girl, the two boys can’t be the teachers.

灯亮着,他们不可能在电影院。The lights are on, they cant be at the cinema.

can’t have done 否定must have done

He was with me the whole day. He can’t have finished the work.

他和我整天都在一起,不可能已经将工作做完

 

A man can never have too many ties一个男人领带怎么多都不算多。

知识无止境a man can never have too much knowledge---One is never too old to learn.

财富多多益善one can never have too much wealth.

一个男人相好怎么多都不为过A man can never have too many concubines

 

Side by side=shoulder to shoulder肩并肩

Hand in hand 手拉手

他们走在街上,肩并肩They walked along the street, side by side.

 

6w1h开头的疑问词引导的句子,在顺序正常化后可做“成分”=名词,可作主语、宾语

陈述句须加上that,才能做成分。That 在主语从句中不能省略,在宾语从句中可以省略。

“我不知道如何解决这个问题”I don’t know how I can work out the problem.

她不知道她是不是应该帮他she is not sure whether /if she should help him.

什么时候开始这个项目还困扰着总经理。

When they/he should start the project still bothers the general manager

以上句子正确,初级阶段。

升级标准:疑问词引导的句子做成分时,如果从句中的人物和主句中的人物一致,或者从句中的人物泛指,模糊,则可直接用how/where/what/ when/whether to do .

我不知道如何解决这个问题I don’t know how to work out the problem.

她不知是否因该帮助他She is not sure whether to help him.(升级状态下if不能出现,且if在主语中不能出现)

什么时候开始项目困扰着经理when to start the project still bothers the general manager.

注意如下四点规则:

如果从句人物和主句中人物不一样,则不可以省略

我不知他们什么时候出发I don’t know when they will set out

从句里涉及be动词(be going to 是例外),则不可省略

我什么时间有空还是一个未知数when I will be available is still unknown.

我想知道饭菜什么时候上,I wonder when the dish will be served.

“I am wondering when I am going to have a holiday /to have a holiday”

who/why 几乎不引导省略结构.

时态问题:用这种省略结构,从句的时态不能比主句时态早。to do涉及的时态晚于或等于主句时态。

Most top students don’t know how they can communicate with others.

Most top students don’t know how to communicate with others.

我不知道我当时是怎么做出这道题目的I don’t know how I worked out the problem.

 

that +陈述句更加臃肿。

地球绕着太阳,这人人皆知 that the earth goes round the sun is known to all.

“每天花半个小时在健身上是有好处的”。用形式主语it, 满足语法结构需要,真正主语用to do。从而绕开头重脚轻的问题

It does you good/pays to spend half an hour every day doing exercise.

启发: 用形式主语 it 满足结构语法需要,that引导的主语放在最后

it is known to all that the earth goes round the sun.

此时,that不可以省略。That 从句就是it,在地位上相等,叫同位语从句。

我们应该直面SARS,这是对的 it is right that we should live with SARS.

人人都认为我们应该和自然环境和平共

it is accepted by all that man can live in peace with nature.

---it’s said that Edison invented the radio.

他们什么时候见面的还是一个问题。

It remains a problem when the two met each other.

 

 

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