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因果关系总汇-三段论逻辑

(2007-12-16 22:41:14)
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学习公社

 

因果关系总汇

Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories centering on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior because they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through interaction with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in response to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, or as a rejection of middle-class values.

Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families,   ignoring the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes for lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are subject to criticism.

Changes in the social structure may indirectly affect juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that lead to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment in general make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in turn lead more youths into criminal behavior.

三段论逻辑

General---Particular模式

万事开头难

“背景介绍”式

“Introduction of general situation and background.”

1.Last Friday, the Students’ Union of our Department organized a clean-up project to Bayi Lake. The purpose of this project is to enhance the environment awareness of general public. Late in the afternoon, around 4, a group of 35 volunteers went to the park where we pick up the trash left by some tourists. As head of the group, I would like to report to you on the event.

2.The Students’ Union of our Dept is scheduled to hold a benefit fair on Saturday to raise money for children in the poverty-stricken Northwestern part of China. The efforts to be made are to support these children to continue their school education for the coming 5 years.

“抚今”式

1.       Nowadays,

2.       The recent years have witnessed an unfavorable social phenomenon…

3.       Presently,

4.       At present,

5.       Lately,

“追惜”式

1.       Traditionally,

2.       In the past,

3.       Past surveys have shown that…

 “强调”式

1.       There has been a heated discussion about/as to…

2.       There have been heated dispute and debate about…

3.       There has been much talk recently about…on TVs and Radios and in newspapers.

4.       It is universally acknowledged that…

“各抒己见”式

1. When it comes to reading, people’s opinions differ. Some think that reading selectively is a good way for us to enrich our knowledge, but others don’t agree with them, and they think that reading extensively is better.

2. Many people suppose /contend that…..But what they fail to see is……

3. People’s opinions are always different once they talk about job-hunting.

4. There has been much talk recently about……Some……While others……

5. When asked about / When it comes to / Faced with / ….. , many people believe that…

6. When people talk about…

“开门见山”式

1.       As we can see from the table…

2.       From the two charts, we can see…

3.       As is shown / dictated / demonstrated / betrayed in the charts above…

 路标词引领考官

●两点展开

1.       For one thing…For the other…

2.       On the one hand…On the other hand…

●三点展开

1.       第一:     In the first place,

              First thing first,

              First and foremost,

              To start with,

              To begin with,

2.       第二:     In the second place,

              Beyond that,

              Also,

              In addition,

              Additionally,

              Besides,

3.       第三:     Finally,

              Last but not the least,

  结论:       In a word,

               All in all,

               To draw conclusion,

               To sum up,

               To conclude,

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