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支付结算系统术语与解释(3)

(2008-03-07 11:03:44)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 电子支付

P

paperless credit transfers: credit transfers that do not involve the exchange of paper documents between banks. Other credit transfers are referred to as being paper-based.

无纸信用转帐:银行间没有票据交换的信用转帐。其他信用转帐称为票据信用转帐。

participant/member: a party who participates in a transfer system. This generic term refers to an institution which is identified by a transfer system (eg by a bank identification number) and is allowed to send payment orders directly to the system or which is directly bound by the rules governing the transfer system.

参与者/会员:参与转帐系统的当事人。这一通称指转帐系统(如按银行识别码)认定的机构,并且允许直接对转帐系统发送支付指令,而且直接受管理转帐系统的章程制约。

payment: the payer's transfer of a monetary claim on a party acceptable to the payee. Typically, claims take the form of banknotes or deposit balances held at a financial institution or at a central bank.

支付:付款人对收款人进行的当事人可接受的货币债权转让。货币债权的主要形式为纸币或在金融机构或央行的存款余额。

payment instrument: any instrument enabling the holder/user to transfer funds.

支付工具:使持有者/用户能够进行资金转帐的工具。

payment message/instruction: an order or message to transfer funds(in the form of a monetary claim on a party)to the order of the beneficiary. The order may relate either to a credit transfer or to a debit transfer. See also credit transfer, debit transfer system, payment.

支付消息/指令:一种对受益人进行资金转帐(以货币债权的形式)的指令或报文信息。支付指令或者与贷记转帐有关,或者与借记转帐有关。

payment system: a payment system consists of a set of instruments, banking procedures and, typically, interbank funds transfer systems that ensure the circulation of money.

支付系统:支付系统由一整套支付工具、银行办法,以及通常为确保货币流通的行间资金转帐系统组成。

payment versus payment: a mechanism in a foreign exchange settlement system which ensures that a final transfer of one currency occurs if and only if a final transfer of the other currency or currencies takes place.

对等支付:外汇交易结算系统中,确保一种货币的最终转帐与另一种货币的最终转帐同步进行同时完成的机制。

personal identification number: a numeric code which the cardholder may need to quote for verification of identity. In electronic transactions, it is seen as the equivalent of a signature.

个人识别码:持卡人需要提供的一种数字代码用以验证其身份。在电子交易中,它相当于签名。

point of sale/POS: this term refers to the use of payment cards at a retail location(point of sale). The payment information is captured either by paper vouchers or by electronic terminals, which in some cases are designed also to transmit the information. Where this is so, the arrangement may be referred to as “electronic funds transfer at the point of sale” (EFTPOS).

销售点:该术语指在零售点使用支付卡。支付信息通过纸凭证或电子终端获得,在一些情况中,电子终端还用以发送信息。这种情况也称为“销售点电子资金转帐(EFTPOS)”。

position netting: the netting of instructions in respect of obligations between two or more parties which neither satisfies nor discharges those original individual obligations. Also referred to as payment netting, in the case of payment instructions, and advisory netting.

状态轧差:双边或多边与债务相关的指令轧差,这种轧差既未清偿也未解除原始的逐笔债务。在支付指令情况中也指支付轧差,以及咨询轧差。

prepaid card: a card on which value is stored, and for which the holder has paid the issuer in advance.

预付卡:存有价值,并且持卡人已事先向发卡商完成支付的卡。

Q

queuing: a risk management arrangement whereby transfer orders are held pending by the originator/deliverer or by the system until sufficient cover is available in the originator’s/deliverer’s clearing account or under the limits set against the payer; in some cases, cover may include unused credit lines or available collateral.

排队:一种风险管理协议,转帐指令由发起者/交付者或系统在队列中挂起,直到发起者/交付者的清算帐户中有足够的补进资金时或在付款人规定的限额之内才进行转帐。在某些情况中,补入的资金可能包括未用的信用额度或者可用的抵押担保金。

R

real-time gross settlementRTGS: the continuous(real-time)settlement of funds or securities transfers individually on an order by order basis(without netting).

实时全额结算:资金或证券转帐逐笔(无轧差)连续(实时)进行的结算。

remote payment: payment carried out through the sending of payment orders or payment instruments(eg by mail). Contrast with face-to-face payment.

远程支付:通过发送支付指令或支付工具(如通过邮寄)进行的支付。与面对面支付相对。

retail funds transfer system: a funds transfer system which handles a large volume of payments of relatively low value in such forms as cheques, credit transfers, direct debits, ATM and EFTPOS transactions.

零售资金转帐系统:一种资金转帐系统,处理大量的金额相对较小的支付,如以支票、信用转帐、直接借记、ATM、EFTPOS交易等形式。

S

settlement: an act that discharges obligations in respect of funds or securities transfers between two or more parties.

the completion of a transaction, wherein the seller transfers securities or financial instruments to the buyer and the buyer transfers money to the seller. A settlement may be final or provisional.

结算:清偿双方或多方之间资金或证券转让债务的活动。

指交易的完成,其中卖方将证券或金融工具转让给买方,买方将资金转让给卖方。结算可能是最终的,也可能是临时的。

settlement lag: in an exchange-for-value process, the time lag between entering into a trade/bargain and its discharge by the final exchange of a financial asset for payment.

结算延迟:在价值交换处理中,交易/买卖的登录与其通过金融资产的最终交换来完成清偿之间的时间差。

settlement risk: general term used to designate the risk that settlement in a transfer system will not take place as expected. This risk may comprise both credit and liquidity risk.

结算风险:通用术语,用于指明转帐系统结算中无法预期发生的风险。这种风险可能包括信用风险和流动性风险。

SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication: a cooperative organisation created and owned by banks that operates a network which facilitates the exchange of payment and other financial messages between financial institutions (including broker-dealers and securities companies) throughout the world. A SWIFT payment message is an instruction to transfer funds; the exchange of funds(settlement)subsequently takes place over a payment system or through correspondent banking relationships.

SWIFT环球行际金融电信协会,由银行创建并拥有的合作组织,它经营一个网络,为全球的金融机构(包括经纪人交易商和证券公司)交换支付与金融信息。SWIFT支付消息是资金转帐指令;资金的交换(结算)在支付系统中或通过关联银行的协调进行。

systemic risk: the risk that the failure of one participant in a transfer system, or in financial markets generally, to meet its required obligations will cause other participants or financial institutions to be unable to meet their obligations(including settlement obligations in a transfer system)when due. Such a failure may cause significant liquidity or credit problems and, as a result, might threaten the stability of financial markets.

系统风险:资金转帐系统(更广泛地讲金融市场)的参与者,在到期日没有能力清偿债务时,引起其他参与者或金融机构也不能清偿其债务(包括转帐系统中的结算债务)而形成的风险。这种无力支付行为可能引起严重的流动性和信用问题,进而可能威胁到金融市场的稳定性。

T

TARGET: Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross settlement Express Transfer: the TARGET system is defined as a payment system composed of one RTGS system in each of the countries which participate in stage three of EMU and the European Central Bank(ECB)payment mechanism. RTGS systems of non-participating countries may also be connected, provided that they are able to process the euro alongside their national currency. The domestic RTGS systems and the ECB payment mechanism are interconnected according to common procedures (“interlinking”) to allow cross-border transfers throughout the European Union to move from one system to another system.

TARGET泛欧自动化实时全额结算快速转帐,TARGET系统是一个支付系统,由EMU以及ECB支付体系第三阶段的每个参与国的一个RTGS系统所组成。非参与国的RTGS系统如果能够处理欧元也可以接入。本地RTGS系统以及ECB支付体系依据统一的程序进行互联,以支持欧盟范围的跨国系统间转帐。

transfer: operationally, the sending(or movement)of funds or securities or of a right relating to funds or securities from one party to another party by(i)conveyance of physical instruments/money;(ii)accounting entries on the books of a financial intermediary; or(iii)accounting entries processed through a funds and/or securities transfer system. The act of transfer affects the legal rights of the transferor, transferee and possibly third parties in relation to the money balance, security or other financial instrument being transferred.

转帐:业务用语,资金或证券,或者同资金或证券相关的权利,通过(1)实物票据/货币转让;(2)在金融中介的帐簿上记帐;(3)在资金或证券转让系统中的记帐处理,从一方向另一方的转让(或流动)。转帐行为将影响转让人、受让人或者还可能包括与被转让的资金往来余额、证券或其他金融工具有关的第三方的法定权利。

transfer system: a generic term covering interbank funds transfer systems and exchange-for-value systems.

转帐系统:行间资金转帐系统和价值交换系统的总称。

travel and entertainment card: card issued by non-banks indicating that the holder has been granted a line of credit. It enables him to make purchases but does not offer extended credit, the full amount of the debt incurred having to be settled at the end of a specified period. The holder is usually charged an annual fee. Also called charge card.

旅行娱乐卡:由非银行发行,授予持卡人一定信用额度的卡。使持卡人可进行购物但不提供宽限信贷,发生的借记总额必须在规定期限末结算。持卡人通常需要交纳一笔年度费用。也称为赊帐卡。

truncation: a procedure in which the physical movement of paper payment instruments (eg paid cheques or credit transfers) within a bank, between banks or between a bank and its customer is curtailed or eliminated, being replaced, in whole or in part, by electronic records of their content for further processing and transmission.

截留:缩减或取消行内、行间或银行与客户间纸支付工具(如已付支票或信用转帐)的实物流动,由票据内容的电子记录全部或部分取代,以便进一步处理和发送的做法。

U

unwinding: a procedure followed in certain clearing and settlement systems in which transfers of securities or funds are settled on a net basis, at the end of the processing cycle, with all transfers provisional until all participants have discharged their settlement obligations. If a participant fails to settle, some or all of the provisional transfers involving that participant are deleted from the system and the settlement obligations from the remaining transfers are then recalculated. Such a procedure has the effect of transferring liquidity pressures and possibly losses from the failure to settle to other participants, and may, in an extreme case, result in significant and unpredictable systemic risks. Also called settlement unwind.

解退:一些清算与结算系统中采用的做法,在这些系统中证券或资金转帐基于轧差结算,所有转帐都是临时性的,直到处理周期结束时所有参与者都清偿其债务为止。若参与者不能结清,与参与者有关的部分或全部临时性转帐都要从系统中删除,源于其余转帐的结算债务须重新计算。这种做法具有转嫁流动性压力的作用,并且可能由于不能对其他参与者进行结算而导致损失,在极端的情况下还可能导致重大的与不可预见的系统风险。也称为结算解退。

 

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