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地水师 (《废都》翻译手记)

(2013-09-22 17:17:08)
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废都

翻译

地水师

文化

分类: 胡读乱记

地水师 <wbr>(《废都》翻译手记)
   
《废都》的第344页提到《易经》,书中写道:

……燃了一往香,让庄之蝶屏息静气,将一撮蓍草双手合掌地握了一会,就一堆一堆分离着计算出六个爻来,组成一个地水师之坤卦,,遂念念有词地写来画去。庄之蝶看时……

…..孟云房说:“这卦真有些蹊跷。”庄之蝶问:“好还是不好?”孟云房说:“好是好着的。地水师卦以‘一阳绕于五阴,有大将帅帅立象’,因此有相

争之患,被告这方虽你是第二被告,但却需你出面执旗。五爻君位,兄弟亥水居之,又为妻财,故有耗财之虑。这当然了,打官司必是耗财耗神的事。二爻官鬼,应是多灾之意。这是说你这一段

多灾难呢,还是灾仍在继续?让我再看看。为文章之事引起官司,文章为火,阳气过盛。多是还要费力的。坤卦为阴,为小人,为女人,为西南,四柱又劫枭相生,恐西南方向还有忧心的事未息。”

                                                                                     ——《废都》P344

师卦的卦画组合是下面一个三爻的坎卦,上面一个三爻的坤卦,坤为地,坎为水,所以传统称作坎下坤上,地水师。师是古代军队的一级编制,名称沿用到现在。按《周官·大司马》记载,古代军队的编制是藏兵于,每户出一人,五人为一伍,由下士任伍长;五伍为一两(二十五人),由中士任两司马;四两为一(一百人),由上士任卒长;五卒为一旅(五百人),由下大夫任旅;五为一师(二千五百人),由中大夫任师帅;五师为一军(一万二千五百人),由任军帅。

The Shi Hexagram (师卦):one of the 64 hexagram of The Zhou Book of Change, in which each of the hexagram usually symbolizes a period or a particular time as the background for a given event or a phenomenon. The six lines stand for six different stages or levels of change within the period. One hexagram, together with six lines, represents a complete process.)

整个卦讲的是兴师作战、统率军队的问题。此卦认为:兴兵打仗必须是正义的,即师出有名。打仗一定要符合民心和民意,不要侵略他国。军队的首领要选择有勇有谋的人来做,他要体恤士兵,作战勇敢,深受将士的尊敬。另外,军队的纪律要严明,这是打胜仗的必要条件。

维基百科中对《易经》的英文解释为:

The I Ching (Wade-Giles) or "Yì Jīng" (pinyin), also known as the Classic of Changes, Book of Changes or Zhouyi, is one of the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. The book contains a divination system comparable to Western geomancy or the West African Ifá system; in Western cultures and modern East Asia, it is still widely used for this purpose.

Traditionally, the I Ching and its hexagrams were thought to pre-date recorded history, and based on traditional Chinese accounts, its origins trace back to the 3rd to the 2nd millennium BCE. Modern scholarship suggests that the earliest layers of the text may date from the end of the 2nd millennium BCE, but place doubts on the mythological aspects in the traditional accounts. Some consider the I Ching the oldest extant book of divination, dating from 1,000 BCE and before. The oldest manuscript that has been found, albeit incomplete, dates back to the Warring States period (475–221 BCE).

During the Warring States Period, the text was re-interpreted as a system of cosmology and philosophy that subsequently became intrinsic to Chinese culture. It centered on the ideas of the dynamic balance of opposites, the evolution of events as a process, and acceptance of the inevitability of change.

加拿大学者傅惠生在其译文The Zhou Book of Change 中对“师”开篇的英文解释是:The Shi hexagram signifies an army. At this time, right and just purpose and an elder general of great esteem and ability are decisive factors for the victory of battles without loss.

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